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					                                   Ohio University
                      Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
                             Office of Research & Grants

                  Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                 Summer, 2012

                          APPLICATION DEADLINE: February 13, 2012
                          ACCEPTANCE NOTIFICATION: March 9, 2012
                          PROGRAM DATES: June 11 - August 10, 2012

Since 1978, OU-HCOM has sponsored a program to provide summer research experiences to medical
students. We invite you to help us celebrate the past 34 years and continue the tradition in the future.

Summary of Program
The core of the program is a research project that you will pursue under faculty direction. Projects can
include contributing to ongoing faculty research in the laboratory or clinic or initiation of your own
project under faculty direction. In addition to your research project, you will be required to attend the
program orientation, seminars on various research topics, and the program closing session; submit project
progress reports; write a research paper; and prepare and present a poster on the project at the OU-
HCOM Research Day during the fall quarter following the fellowship program.

The fellowship pays $3,000 to assist fellows with living expenses over the nine-week program. Fellowship
payments will be paid intermittently throughout the program and will be paid through the Disbursement
Office, located in Chubb Hall.

Upon successful completion of the fellowship program, fellows will receive one hour of academic credit.
There will be no tuition cost to the fellows for participation in the program and the program will be
graded on a pass/fail basis. Upon acceptance into the program, fellows will be required to register for the
fellowship with the permission of the Office of Research & Grants.

Fellowship awards will be made based on the availability of funds.

Eligibility
All students who will successfully complete the Year 1 medical school curriculum by the end of spring
quarter 2012 are invited to apply for the Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship (RSAF) program.
Students must also be in good professional and judicial standing at the time of application through the
completion of the program (OU-HCOM Research Day). This nine-week summer program is designed to
introduce osteopathic students to basic science and clinical research and scholarly activities under the
guidance of an OU-HCOM faculty mentor.

Student Selection
       Faculty mentors will be provided with the applications for students who have expressed an
        interest in working with the mentor and on his/her research project. After review of applications
        and consultation with applicants, mentors are required to rank applicants in order of preference.
       After all mentor rankings have been received, the Office of Research & Grants will then review
        rankings and place students. We will make our best effort to place students according to the
        faculty mentor’s preference, but there is no guarantee. Final placement of students will be made
        at the discretion of the Office of Research & Grants.
Conditions of Appointment
Appointment of a fellow is contingent upon successful completion of the Year 1 medical school
curriculum by the end of spring quarter 2012 and that the student be in good professional and judicial
standing at the time of application through the completion of the program (OU-HCOM Research Day).

Fellows are expected to conduct research according to the highest scientific and ethical standards and in
compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and policies regarding protection of human research
subjects, humane care and use of laboratory animals, and laboratory safety.

Application Process
1.   Read the faculty mentor/research project profiles provided. You must select only from faculty
     mentors/research projects included in this application package.
2.   Contact the faculty mentor(s) with whom you may be interested in working and talk with them about
     your interests. Complete the Project Discussion Form (signed by both you and your proposed faculty
     mentor) and return it as part of your application package. One form must be completed for each
     faculty mentor/research project for which you are applying.
3.   Complete and return the RSAF application package (provided), no later than Monday, February 13,
     2012. Application package includes:
          Document Checklist Form – Applicant must sign this form and insure that all documents are
                  included
          Program Application Form – Applicant must sign this form
          Driver’s License and Ohio University Identification Card – Copy of driver’s license and OU ID
                  card
          Résumé/Curriculum Vitae – Must include: academic history, employment history, research
             experience, list of honors/awards received, and publications
          Letter of Recommendation– One letter of recommendation must be from a faculty member or
             advisor who can evaluate the applicant’s academic performance. (Note: The letter should
             not be from the OU-HCOM faculty member with whom you are applying to work
             through the RSAF program.). Please provide your recommender with the form included in
             this application package. The sealed letter of recommendation is to be included in the
             application package envelope.
          Project Discussion Form – Applicant and Faculty Mentor(s) must sign this form. One form is
             required for each project for which the student applies.

Submission Procedures
Application Deadline: February 13, 2012
All forms must be submitted in one large envelope by the application deadline. Electronic applications
will not be accepted. Please deliver application envelopes to:
                 Jessica Wingett
                 Office of Research & Grants
                 234 Grosvenor Hall

IMPORTANT DATES
Application Deadline                                  February 13, 2012
Acceptance Notification                               March 9, 2012 (approximate)
Program Begins/Orientation Session                    June 11, 2012
Research Seminars                                     June 11-15, 2012
Program Ends/Closing Session                          August 10, 2012

                                 For more information, contact:
                                        Jessica Wingett
                               740-593-2336 or wingettj@ohio.edu
                                      Ohio University
                         Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
                                Office of Research & Grants

                      Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                     Summer, 2012

                                                 CHECKLIST


To the Applicant:
Please complete and sign below. Make sure to have ALL requirements in one sealed envelope.
Incomplete application packages will NOT be reviewed.

         Document Checklist Form – Sign below and include this form in application envelope

         Program Application Form

         Driver’s License and Ohio University Identification Card – Copy of driver’s license and OU ID
          card

         Résumé/Curriculum Vitae – Must include: academic history, employment history, research
          experience, list of honors/awards received, and publications

         Letter of Recommendation – One letter of recommendation must be from a faculty member
          or advisor who can evaluate the applicant’s academic performance. (Note: The letter
          should not be from the OU-HCOM faculty member with whom you are applying to
          work through the RSAF program.). Please provide your recommender with the form
          included in this application package. The sealed letter of recommendation is to be included
          in the application package envelope.

         Project Discussion Form – Applicant and Faculty Mentor(s) must sign this form. One form is
          required for each project for which the student applies.




I verify that I have included all of the above documents in my application package. I understand that if all
of the above documents are not included, my application will not be reviewed.



Name of Applicant: __________________________________________________________________________________________



______________________________________________                     ___________________________________________
Signature of Applicant                                             Date
                                      Ohio University
                         Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
                                Office of Research & Grants

                      Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                     Summer, 2012

                                         PROGRAM APPLICATION

General Information
Applicant’s Name (Last, First, Middle Initial)            Date of Birth (mm/dd/yy)        OU PID #



Daytime Phone                         Evening/Alternate Phone               Email (OAK)



Current Mailing Address (Street and Apt. or PO Box Number, City, State, Zip Code)



Permanent Mailing Address (if different than above)




Program Preferences
Choose faculty mentor/research project in preference order (maximum 2 options)
1.

2.




Colleges or Universities Attended: (start with most recent)
                                                            Date of
Name of School, City, State                      Degree                  Major               Minor
                                                            Degree
1. Describe honors, hobbies, special interests or previous work experience that you would
like considered. (use additional pages as needed)




2. Have you done research or independent study previously?         YES          NO
   If yes, please describe:




3. Publications? (List)
4. Why did you decide to apply for this program? How will it help you?
   Use additional pages as needed
5. Please list name and address of the faculty member who will complete the Faculty
Recommendation Form
Name

Title

Address
City / State /
Zip
Telephone

Email Address


Certification & Eligibility Verification
I certify that the above information is accurate and true to the best of my knowledge. I give permission to
the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine Office of Research & Grants to share this
information for the purpose of recruitment, placement, monitoring, and evaluation. I certify that I meet all
the eligibility criteria stated in the Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship Program Summary.



Name of Applicant:
____________________________________________________________________________________________



_______________________________________________                      ___________________________________________
Signature of Applicant                                               Date
                                      Ohio University
                         Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
                                Office of Research & Grants

                      Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                     Summer, 2012

                                       RECOMMENDATION FORM

To the Applicant:
Please complete the section below and ask your recommender to return this form and the letter of
recommendation in a signed and sealed envelope.

Name of Applicant: _______________________________________________________________________________________

Ohio University PID: ____________________________________

 I waive my right to review this recommendation when completed and understand that it will remain
confidential.

_______________________________________________             _______________________________________________
Signature of Applicant                                      Date


              Faculty Recommendations must be received by February 13, 2012

DEAR FACULTY MEMBER: We would appreciate your candid evaluation of the student listed above
who is applying to the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine Research & Scholarly
Advancement Fellowship program. Your comments will be held confidential. If you wish to write a letter of
recommendation, in addition to filling out this form, please feel free to do so. This form must be
received by February 13, 2012). Please return this form and letter of recommendation (if applicable) to
the student in a sealed envelope. To maintain confidentiality, please sign across the back of the sealed
envelope. Your prompt response is appreciated since incomplete applications will not be evaluated.

THANK YOU IN ADVANCE FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION!


Faculty Member
Title
Institution
Department
Address
City / State / Zip
Phone Number
Fax Number
Email Address
1. Why do you feel this applicant would benefit from a research experience?




2. Approximately how long have you known this applicant?




3. How well acquainted are you with the applicant as             Very Well        Well         Marginally
a person?


4. How well acquainted are you with the quality of               Very Well        Well         Marginally
his/her work?


5. In which course(s) have you had the applicant as a student?




6. From your personal knowledge,           Upper 3%     Upper           Upper       Upper        Lower
how would you rate the applicant                        10%             25%         50%          50%
academically? (Check One)




                                                                                               Upper
7.   Please rate the student by checking the appropriate                        Lower
                                                                   Unknown
     areas below                                                                 50%     25%   10%     3%
General Intelligence

Integrative & learning ability for understanding concepts

Creativity

Interest

Perseverance

Laboratory Techniques

Social Adaptability


8.   Use this space if you would like to qualify any rating given in #7.




_______________________________________________             _______________________________________________
Signature of Recommender (Required)                         Date
                                     Ohio University
                        Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
                               Office of Research & Grants

                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                                    PROJECT DISCUSSION FORM
This form is designed to insure that students and faculty members meet to discuss projects that interest
students prior to application. This meeting will provide students and faculty members with an
opportunity to meet outside of the classroom, discuss the project and the fellow’s role in the project, and
allow for questions. This form must be completed by the student, signed by both the student and faculty
mentor and included in the application package. One form must be completed and included for each
project for which the student applies.


Applicant Name
Faculty Mentor
Project Title
Meeting Date


1. Overall Objective/Goal of the Project




2. Role of Fellow in Project




3. Role of Fellow in Lab/Clinic
4. Other (if applicable)




_______________________________________________   _______________________________________________
Signature of Applicant                            Date

_______________________________________________   _______________________________________________
Signature of Faculty Mentor                       Date
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Jane Balbo, D.O.
Department of Family Medicine
333 Grosvenor Hall
(740) 593-4060
Email: balbo@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Clinical Research

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. IRB will be done but we can teach student how/what we did.
   2. Student may be interviewing patients, especially those whose reading skills are low (to complete
       survey and obtain consent).
   3. Chart review and data abstraction from patient charts at both Campus Care and River Rose
   4. Working with team members on research data interpretation
   5. Research poster development
   6. Beyond summer, there will be many opportunities for the student to continue being involved with
       the project, such as identifying further research questions, writing articles to submit to journals,
       presenting at national conferences.
   7. We expect that our preliminary data may be used to apply for an NIH grant, and the student may
       be involved in that process if he or she is interested.
   8. If the student wishes to develop his/her skills at performing speculum exams to obtain Pap
       smears, there will be opportunities to do so working with Drs. Balbo and Gerome (according to
       patient comfort) at their clinical offices.

Project Title: Produce Intake and Cervical Dysplasia among Women Living in Appalachian Ohio

Project Description:
Studies have demonstrated that people with high dietary intake of fresh produce have lower rates of
cervical dysplasia and cancer. Women in rural Appalachian Ohio have some of the highest rates of cervical
cancer in the state and in the nation. The research of Dr. Holben and others has demonstrated that
residents of rural Appalachian Ohio have poor access to fresh produce and other nutritious food items – a
problem called “food insecurity.” The objective of the project will be to assess the relationship of produce
intake and availability to cervical dysplasia among women living in rural Appalachian Ohio. Having more
information about produce intake and cervical dysplasia of our local populations may allow for further
research evaluating if any interventions to address food insecurity may alter the rates of cervical dysplasia
and cervical cancer. At this time, the patient populations assessed will be patients of River Rose OB-Gyn in
Athens and Hocking Counties, and Ohio University CampusCare in Athens County. The data collected on
these patient groups may also allow for some subgroup analysis, such as of Ohio University students. The
nature of the work the student will do will depend on where we are in our study design and data
gathering, but he or she will be involved with all parts of the process – literature review, administering
surveys, obtaining and abstracting data from patient charts and records, data analysis and interpretation,
creating a research poster, and writing article(s). The student may also wish to identify a sub-project
within our study that piques his or her interest to further evaluate, or identify another research question
that results from our initial data. The student is guaranteed to work with three mentors who are very
enthusiastic about this project.
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Brian Clark, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences
236 Irvine Hall
(740) 593-2354
Email: clarkb2@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science/Clinical Research

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation
   2. Electromyography

Project Title: Human Neuromuscular Physiology and Plasticity

Project Description:
The overarching aim of my research is to determine the neuromuscular mechanisms that mediate acute
adjustments and chronic adaptations in response to changes in physical activity and under pathological
conditions. The goal of this work is to develop effective and implementable interventions that increase
muscle function (e.g., muscle strength, motor control, fatigue-resistance) and physical performance in
older adults, and/or patients with orthopedic and neurologic disabilities for preventative and
rehabilitation medicine. We use a combination of experimental techniques to examine the functional and
physiological properties of human muscle and nerve. Within this scope my laboratory maintains
programmatic efforts in three focused areas:

        1.   Neurologic & muscular mechanisms of reduced muscle function associated with disuse,
             aging, & sex.
        2.   Development of therapeutic and interventional strategies to promote neuromuscular
             function.
        3.   Lumbar paraspinal muscle function and low back pain.

RSAF students will have the opportunity to engage in a variety of projects associated with the above
mentioned topics. A primary emphasis/project will be determined at the time of entering the program
based on the laboratories current project status. To be considered for the RSAF program through the
Clark Lab medical students should have a career interest in one of the following specialties: geriatrics,
neurology, neurosurgery, physical medicine and rehabilitation, sports medicine, or orthopedics (surgical
and non-surgical [including OMM]).
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Leslie Consitt, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences
228 Irvine Hall
(740) 593-2404
Email: consitt@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Cell culture techniques – including the use of skeletal muscle cells
   2. Western blot techniques for the examination of protein activity/content in skeletal muscle cells

Project Title: Cytokine Impairment of Insulin Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle Cells

Project Description:
Insulin resistance is considered a significant public health concern and is believed to contribute to a
number of co-morbidities including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. In the United
States, insulin resistance has reached epidemic proportions causing considerable anxiety regarding the
strain that will be placed on the health care system in the near future. Despite this concern, little is known
regarding the cellular mechanisms that contribute to insulin resistance, particularly in the primary target
tissue of insulin, skeletal muscle.

It is thought that in skeletal muscle, defects in the insulin-mediated glucose transport system (insulin
signaling cascade) play a major role in insulin resistance. The research conducted in my laboratory
identifies and examines the mechanism(s) contributing to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Cytokines
and hormones produced by the human body influence insulin sensitivity in either positive or negative
ways. To have a better understanding of their direct effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, research
is conducted using skeletal muscle cells in cell culture.

The primary focus of the fellowship will be to conduct cell culture studies to determine the effect of
selected cytokines/hormones produced by the human body, on the insulin signaling cascade and insulin
sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. The fellowship will provide the student with the opportunity to perform
a number of research techniques. The student will play a primary role in planning cell culture
experiments, growing human skeletal muscle cells, treating cells with experimental conditions (including
hormones/cytokines), as well as harvesting cells for analysis. The student will also be involved in the
analysis of the experiments including the use of western blot techniques to determine the effect of the
treatment (cytokine/hormone) on protein activity in the insulin signaling cascade and the resulting effect
on insulin sensitivity in muscle.

It is the intent that the basic science studies completed during this fellowship will provide information of
clinical relevance.
                    Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                   Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Karen Coschigano, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences
228 Irvine Hall
(740) 593-2196
Email: coschigk@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Animal (mouse) handling
   2. Real-time RT/PCR
   3. Immunohistochemistry

Project Title: Investigating the Molecular Basis of Diabetic Nephropathy

Project Description:
The focus of my research is to identify genes, proteins and regulatory pathways involved in the
development of diabetic nephropathy, with an emphasis on the roles of growth hormone, signal
transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and inflammation. We and others have observed that
RNA levels of inflammatory markers are increased in the kidneys of mice with increased GH signaling,
indicating a positive correlation between GH signaling, inflammation and kidney damage. While
investigating which GH signaling pathways downstream of the GH receptor might be involved in
nephropathy, we discovered that disruption of the STAT5 pathway also led to increased RNA levels of
inflammatory markers, but in diabetic kidneys, suggesting a favorable role for the STAT5 pathway and
contrary to our expectations. We are particularly interested in the roles of these pathways in the
production of extracellular matrix proteins by mesangial cells and the recruitment of macrophages in
diabetic nephropathy. We expect this research to someday aid in the design of more specific, targeted
markers and therapeutic approaches for the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of human diabetic kidney
disease.

We currently utilize mouse models with intact and disrupted GH or STAT5 signaling pathways and induce
type 1 diabetes by injection with streptozotocin. We examine gene expression in the kidneys of the mice
using microarrays, real-time RT/PCR, cytokine antibody arrays, ELISAs, and immunohistochemistry (the
latter performed in collaboration with Dr. Ramiro Malgor). We also use primary cell culture or cell lines
isolated from different kidney cell types of these mice to assay gene expression in response to high
glucose levels or cytokine induction. Depending on the student’s interest, we will together design a
project that addresses a portion of the overall research goals of the lab.
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Jen-Tzer Gau, M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Geriatric Medicine & Gerontology
355 Grosvenor Hall
(740) 593-2136
Email: gau@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Clinical Research

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Will learn how to collect clinical data and perform basic statistical analysis
   2. Learn how to write research abstract and present the data as a poster
   3. Learn how to read clinical research papers and understand the limitations and strengths of
       different clinical study designs

Project Title: Nutrition and Vitamin D Deficiency in Older Adults

Project Description:
Background:
Vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is common in adults. More epidemiological evidence has suggested
the association between low vitamin D levels and adverse health effects, such as increasing falls and
fracture, muscle weakness, increased risk for acute bronchitis, and certain immunological diseases. Serum
25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 20 ng/mL are considered inadequate; levels above 30 ng/mL
are considered optimal for a good health. The current recommendation for vitamin D supplementation in
older adults is 600-800 IU a day.

Motivation:
The main sources of vitamin D are from sunshine exposure and certain foods. In our previous study, we
have demonstrated that concurrent intake of calcium supplementation increases patients' serum
responses to vitamin D supplementation; i.e., those who take both vitamin D and calcium
supplementation will have a better serum response compared to those taking only vitamin D
supplementation. Furthermore, our preliminary data revealed that those having better serum responses to
vitamin D supplementation also have improved serum albumin levels compared to their baseline levels.

Objectives of the project:
We will review medical records of older adults in Geriatric Clinic for their vitamin D and calcium intakes,
serum vitamin D (both baseline and follow-up) blood levels, nutritional status (as indicated by serum
albumin levels), and their serum calcium levels. We will perform statistical data analysis to investigate
whether calcium intake will help patients' serum responses to vitamin D supplementation over time. We
will also investigate whether nutrition status (as indicated by baseline serum albumin levels as well as the
changes of albumin levels over time) affect patients' response to vitamin D supplementation.

The nature of the work the student will do: This project will provide fellow students hand-on
experiences on data collection and data analysis using statistical software programs. Students will learn
how to write a research abstract, and will learn the skills in presenting the data at OU-HCOM research day
and at a national professional meeting (e.g., American Geriatrics Society Annual Meeting).
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Aili Guo, M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Specialty Medicine
302G Academic & Research Center
(740) 597-9276 or (740) 593-2180
Email: guoa@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Western blotting and/or Immunohistochemistry on mouse tissues
   2. Use of common lab equipment
   3. GTT/A1c/body composition measurement in mice
   4. Animal (mice) handling; intraperitoneal/subcutaneous injections, blood sampling in mice

Project Title: Effects of Short Term Insulin Treatment on β-cell Function in High Fat Diet (HFD)-induced
Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) in a Mouse Model

Project Description:
T2DM is a progressive disease in which β-cell function declines over time regardless of conventional
therapy. Clinical studies suggested that early insulin therapy in T2DM can produce long-term glycemic
control by preserving β-cell function. Many speculations may apply to the underlying mechanism (s) of
such a “legacy” effect, i.e., rapid control of hyperglycemia, elimination of “glucolipotoxicity” on ß-cells,
reduction in the high demand on insulin secretion leading to “β-cells rest”, and direct and/or indirect anti-
inflammatory effect of insulin on the pancreas, etc. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge
that need to be further elucidated. This proposal will focus on the question linking direct/or indirect anti-
inflammatory effect of insulin treatment and β-cell function, using a HFD-induced obesity and T2DM
mouse model that closely mimics the human T2DM. We hypothesize that short term insulin treatment
would inhibit islet-associated inflammation and improve β-cell function in HFD-induced T2DM mice.
Preliminary data: interesting data has been generated from a pilot study. Having been fed a HFD (60% fat)
for 20 weeks and confirmed for DM2, C57BL6/J male mice received daily subcutaneously (s.c.) PBS (Sham)
or Insulin Glargine (Treatment) for 4 weeks. Mice were then fed a LFD (10% fat) lasting 4 weeks, to mimic
the dietary restrictions of T2DM patients. In comparison to Sham therapy, insulin treatment significantly
improved glucose tolerance and HbA1c levels in HFD mice. Enhanced β-cell function was further indicated
by a striking increase in circulating levels of C-Peptide and insulin, lasting 4 weeks after insulin withdrawal;
at which time, their GTT performance was comparable to LFD controls. Also, dramatic reduction in Leptin
levels was observed after changing to LFD which may suggest a resolution of Leptin resistance as a result
of weight loss. Current status of the project: ongoing evaluation of tissue expression of insulin and
cytokines, pancreatic islet apoptosis, and isolated islet insulin secretion, etc., from saved samples is
expected to provide further insight into the improved β-cell function after insulin treatment in the current
T2DM mouse model. Meanwhile, a new cohort experiment to confirm the findings was just started.
Role of summer student (s): new summer student (s) will participate in studies of islet apoptosis (TUNEL
assay) or insulin/cytokine expression/contents (Immunohistochemistry or Western blot) in samples saved
from the pilot experiment; and will also be involved in the new experiment; specifically, helping with blood
glucose/HbA1c assays, and body composition measurement, as well as insulin or sham injections in mice.
The student (s) is expected to learn about the pathophysiology of T2DM, to understand science behind
the project, to perform hands-on experiments on mouse tissues in the lab; and in the end to present data
as poster to the OU-Research Day.
In fact, my former RSAF summer student Katie Kerrigan presented results from her primary project of
“Islet associated apoptosis in high-fat induced diabetic mice and potential reversal with C10 therapy” to
the 2011 OU Research day. Katie is also a co-author of an abstract (preliminary data from the current
project) submitted to the 2012 American Diabetes Association (ADA) meeting.
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Mario Grijalva, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences
333 Irvine Hall
(740) 593-2192
Email: grijalva@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science/Clinical Research

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Field research techniques
   2. Physical examination
   3. Data management and analyses

Project Title: Chagas Disease in Ecuador

Project Description:
International Research Training Course
The International Research Training program evolves from 11 years of experience providing
multidisciplinary training in research methodology to students from the USA, Europe and Latin America.
The course will provide participants with a solid background and skills to conduct interdisciplinary
research in an international setting. This will be achieved through onsite lectures on applied research
methodology, grant preparation, logistics planning and implementation, data management and
publication strategies. Lectures will present information using TDIs NIH funded research as an example
and will be complemented by practical individual group exercises. Except for RSAF recipients, participation
on this course is optional.



Tropical Disease Research Program
Chagas disease in Ecuador
The Tropical Disease Research Program takes place in the context of the efforts by the Tropical Disease
Institute to combat Chagas disease in Ecuador. In 2012, the program will focus its efforts around the
Healthy Living project. This is a comprehensive 10 year effort aimed to study the social, economical and
cultural aspects of life in Chagas endemic areas, in order to design and implement behavioral, economic
and housing interventions that will lead to the long term control of Chagas disease. The work will take
place in three communities located near Cariamanga in Loja province. Extensive surveys have been
conducted in this area, providing a large amount of biological baseline data. The objective for 2012 is to
provide a follow up on clinical diagnosis made in 2011 and to expand Chagas serology baseline in 5 to 10
additional communities (Subject to external fund availability).

During the field research participants will conduct field research and/or primary care outreach activities.
Later, students will work in our facilities in Quito processing information and biological material.

For more information visit:
http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/tdi/InternationalResearch/InternationalResearch.htm
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Kelly McCall, Ph.D.
Department of Specialty Medicine
302B Academic & Research Center
(740) 593-0926
Email: mccallk@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science

Co-Investigator: Frank Schwartz, M.D.

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Handling/working with mice and/or mouse tissues
   2. RNA isolation, real-time PCR
   3. Protein isolation, Western Blotting, ELISA
   4. Tissue Sectioning/embedding, immunohistochemistry, pathology

Project Title: The Efficacy of Phenylmethimazole (C10) to Prevent and/or Reverse T1D in a Coxsackievirus
β-Induced Mouse Model of T1D

Project Description:
Viruses have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of T1D; and recent studies
have implicated Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in this pathogenetic action. TLR recognize “signature
molecules” from the pathogen, i.e. viral dsRNA (TLR3) or dsDNA (TLR9). Although fourteen viruses have
been reported to be associated with T1D in humans and in animal models, B4 coxsackievirus,
cytomegalovirus, and rubella are the only ones implicated in triggering the development of T1D. It is
hypothesized that viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can activate an innate-immune response via TLR3,
up-regulate immunostimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules in β cells, and activate the quiescent
endogenous islet-reactive T cells, which damage β cells and lead to progressive loss of insulin secreting
cells and eventually T1D. It has been suggested that the development and application of novel TLR
signaling inhibitors may block this “pathological” innate immune response and the
autoimmune/inflammatory processes which lead to the development of T1D. We have described a
compound, phenylmethimazole (C10) that has been shown to prevent “pathologic dsRNA” TLR
overexpression and signaling in a functioning endocrine cell, the thyrocyte, and in TLR-mediated
autoimmune conditions. We questioned whether phenylmethimazole (C10) might also have potential
efficacy for the treatment of T1D, by inhibiting TLR signaling and cytokine production, thereby inhibiting
                             -
hypothesize (i) that T-lymphocyte-
inducti
that C10’s effective anti-inflammatory actions, mediated through the inhibition of TLR3 signaling,
consequent decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and decreased MHC Class I expression may
                                                          -onset T1D. In preliminary studies, we observed
that C10 is effective in inhibiting Coxsackie B Virus-4 (CVB-4)-accelerated T1D in the NOD mouse model
of T1D. Therefore, the overall objective of the research being conducted and of which the RSAF student
will be participating in is to test the aforementioned hypotheses and (i) provide a better understanding of
the involvement of TLR3 signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D; (ii) evaluate the efficacy of a potentially
novel new drug for the treatment/prevention of T1D. Students working on this project will be involved in
all aspects of the project from handling of animals to various molecular biology techniques. Molecular
techniques that will be used in this project include, RNA isolation, tissue embedding and sectioning,
immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, protein isolation, Western analysis, cell culture, etc. This project is
an excellent opportunity for future physicians to perform basic science research while simultaneously
helping to elucidate the molecular basis of T1D and aiding in the development of a novel therapeutic
modality.
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Erin Murphy, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences
228 Irvine Hall
(740) 597-3061
Email: murphye@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science/Clinical Research

Co-Investigator: Daryn Straley, D.O.

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Basic bacteriology skills (plating, sterile technique, Gran-staining)
   2. Agglutination test
   3. Genomit DNA analysis
   4. Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR)

Project Title: Carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B among student at Ohio University

Project Description:
Background: In March of 201 0 the Center for Disease Control (CDC) formally confirmed an outbreak of
meningococcal meningitis at Ohio University. Meningococcal meningitis is a potentially deadly form of
meningitis caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Strains of N. meningitidis are subdivided into
twelve serogroups, with most cases of invasive disease caused by serogroups A, B, C, W135, X and Y. Each
year a total of 100-125 cases of meningococcal meningitis occur on college campuses in the United States
and most often are the result of infection with N. meningitidis serogroup C. Between February 2009 and
February 2010 seven Ohio University students suffered meningococcal meningitis, and in each case the
illness was caused by a genetically identical strain of N. meningitidis serogroup B. The frequency of illness
and the identification of N. meningitidis serogroup B as the causative agent make the Ohio University
outbreak unique. Approximately 10% of healthy university students carry N. meningitidis in their throats,
and while not sick themselves can transmit the organism to others. The likelihood that a given serogroup
of N. meningitidis will be transmitted from a healthy carrier to a susceptible individual is directly related to
the rate of carriage of that specific serogroup within a given population. The carriage rate of N.
meningitidis serogroup B among university students is estimated at 2%. Thus, a carriage rate significantly
higher than 2% within a university population would be expected to result in an increased incidence of N.
meningitidis serogroup B infections, particularly among freshmen, as they are new "immunologically
naive" members of the population. This study will test the hypothesis that the carriage rate for N.
meningitidis serogroup B among residential students at Ohio University is greater than 2% and is
independent of all evaluated health and behavioral factors.
Motivation: Knowing the carriage rate of N. meningitidis serogroup B among students at Ohio University
and identifying factors correlated with carriage may guide local health authorities in developing and
implementing targeted programs to protect students from this potentially deadly infection.
Objectives:
1. Determine the carriage rate of N. meningitidis serogroup B among residential students at Ohio
University
2. Identify demographic and/or general health factors that are positively correlated with carriage of N.
meningitidis serogroup B.
Work the student will be doing: This study is set to start in early February; therefore we anticipate that
sample collection will be completed by the start of RSAF. During the summer of 2012 the RSAF student(s)
working on this project will be carrying out molecular analysis of the Neisseria samples collected during
the Winter Quarter. Analysis will include:
     Gram-staining
     To confirm that the isolated bacteria is a Neisseria/ species
     Performing agglutination tests with antibodies specific to Serogroup B antigens
     Isolating genomic DNA and using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect serogroup B specific
       genes
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Jay Shubrook, D.O.
Department of Family Medicine & Diabetes Endocrine Center
75 Hospital Dr., Suite 200
(740) 593-2137
Email: shubrook@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Clinical Research

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Fellow will learn how to integrate research into evidence based treatment protocols
   2. Fellow will actively engage in patient counseling to assist in treatment protocols and preventative
       behaviors
   3. Fellow will develop a database and complete chart reviews
   4. Fellow will learn how to participate in multidisciplinary team research

Project Description:
Students who participate in the RSAF program will have the opportunity to work on one of the following
projects:

INSPIRE Diabetes: This trial is testing the hypothesis that an intensive regimen of insulin therapy at the
diagnosis of type 2 diabetes will be better than routine care in terms of needing additional treatments,
HgA1c without additional adverse effects including hypoglycemia. The Fellow working on this project will
be active in the treatment protocols, entering data into the system and coordination between research
sites.

Hospital Hyperglycemia: Hospital hyperglycemia is serious in terms of morbidity, mortality and
healthcare costs. This project has been actively developing treatment algorithms to improve on the above
outcomes. The Fellow who works on this project will be involved in reviewing treatment algorithms and
collecting data on how the programs are working.

Diabetes Numeracy: There is a lot math involved in the day to day care of diabetes. It is believed that the
math has been an obstacle to patient self-care and physician intervention. This study will explore these
issues and develop an educational program that will address these deficits. The Fellow who chooses this
project will assist in the measurement of diabetes numeracy and will assist in the development of an
intervention to address this deficit.

Smoking in Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes: Smoking is a significant problem in those who are
pregnant and who have diabetes. In this project we will develop novel ways to assist with smoking
cessation in this at risk population. The Fellow who works on this project will assist in the implementation
of the intervention for this population and assist in the measurement of the change in outcomes that
result.

Dietary approach to Diabetes and its risk factors: In this project we will be apply the CHiP program to
an at risk population at Ohio University. The Coronary Heart Improvement program is a dietary approach
to CV disease. This plant strong diet has had limited testing in diabetes. In this study we will evaluate 100
people who have diabetes. Hal will receive routine care while the other half will receive the CHiP
intervention. The Fellow will assist in the collection of data and measurement of outcomes that result from
the intervention.
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Frank Schwartz, M.D.
Department of Specialty Medicine & Diabetes Endocrine Center
331 Academic & Research Center
(304) 295-4717
Email: schwartf@ohio.edu

Co-Investigator: Kelly McCall, Ph.D.

Project Classification:    Basic Science

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Handling/working with mice and/or mouse tissues
   2. RNA isolation, real-time PCR
   3. Protein isolation, Western Blotting, ELISA
   4. Tissue Sectioning/embedding, immunohistochemistry, pathology

Project Title: Effects of C10 on High-Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Project Description:
Viruses have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of T1D; and recent studies
have implicated Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in this pathogenetic action. TLR recognize “signature
molecules” from the pathogen, i.e. viral dsRNA (TLR3) or dsDNA (TLR9). Although fourteen viruses have
been reported to be associated with T1D in humans and in animal models, B4 coxsackievirus,
cytomegalovirus, and rubella are the only ones implicated in triggering the development of T1D. It is
hypothesized that viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can activate an innate-immune response via TLR3,
up-regulate immunostimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules in β cells, and activate the quiescent
endogenous islet-reactive T cells, which damage β cells and lead to progressive loss of insulin secreting
cells and eventually T1D. It has been suggested that the development and application of novel TLR
signaling inhibitors may block this “pathological” innate immune response and the
autoimmune/inflammatory processes which lead to the development of T1D. We have described a
compound, phenylmethimazole (C10) that has been shown to prevent “pathologic dsRNA” TLR
overexpression and signaling in a functioning endocrine cell, the thyrocyte, and in TLR-mediated
autoimmune conditions. We questioned whether phenylmethimazole (C10) might also have potential
efficacy for the treatment of T1D, by inhibiting TLR signaling and cytokine production, thereby inhibiting
                           -
hypothesize (i) that T-lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune destruction of i

that C10’s effective anti-inflammatory actions, mediated through the inhibition of TLR3 signaling,
consequent decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and decreased MHC Class I expression may
                                                          -onset T1D. In preliminary studies, we observed
that C10 is effective in inhibiting Coxsackie B Virus-4 (CVB-4)-accelerated T1D in the NOD mouse model
of T1D. Therefore, the overall objective of the research being conducted and of which the RSAF student
will be participating in is to test the aforementioned hypotheses and (i) provide a better understanding of
the involvement of TLR3 signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D; (ii) evaluate the efficacy of a potentially
novel new drug for the treatment/prevention of T1D. Students working on this project will be involved in
all aspects of the project from handling of animals to various molecular biology techniques. Molecular
techniques that will be used in this project include, RNA isolation, tissue embedding and sectioning,
immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, protein isolation, Western analysis, cell culture, etc. This project is
an excellent opportunity for future physicians to perform basic science research while simultaneously
helping to elucidate the molecular basis of T1D and aiding in the development of a novel therapeutic
modality.
                     Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                    Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Daryn Straley, D.O.
Department of Family Medicine
331 Grosvenor Hall
(740) 593-2212
Email: straley@ohio.edu

Co-Investigator: Erin Murphy, Ph.D.

Project Classification:    Clinical Research

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Basic bench techniques
   2. Thayer-Martin Plating (cultures)
   3. Serum Agglutination & PCR

Project Title: Meningococcus Carriage of OU Freshmen

Project Description:
Neisseria meningitides is a causative agent of bacterial meningitis, a potentially fatal infection. Within the
past 2.5 years, Ohio University has experienced an outbreak of bacterial meningitis with annual infection
rates well above the national average. The Centers for Disease Control determined that all cases of
bacterial meningitis at OU within this period were caused by N. meningitides serogroup B, a strain that is
not covered by the current meningococcal vaccine. It is currently unknown why OU has seen such a high
rate of these infections.

Although it may cause a deadly infection, N. meningitides is carried asymptomatically in the throat of
healthy adults. These people, termed “carriers”, can transmit the infection to other susceptible individuals.
Ultimately, we aim to determine what percentage of the student population at OU carry N. meningitides
serogroup B. A high rate of carriage of the organism could explain the observed high rate of infection.

Finally, we will compare the presence of N. meningitides to demographic and basic health data collected
from each participant to determine if there is a correlation between carriage status and age, sex,
vaccination status, residence, lifestyle, travel, or other variants of personal or health history. Based upon
initial study results, our plan will be to expand to a larger scale and expand our sample size in order to
achieve the most statistically relevant results.
                    Research & Scholarly Advancement Fellowship
                                   Summer, 2012

                          Faculty Mentor and Research Project Profile

Thad Wilson, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences
250 Irvine Hall
(740) 593-2378
Email: wilsont1@ohio.edu

Project Classification:    Basic Science/Clinical Research

Techniques and/or skills that the student will learn:
   1. Health screening
   2. Measurement of cardiovascular (heart rate, blood pressure, etc.) and autonomic parameters
   3. Some OMT
   4. Study will involve both health and patient population (focal hyperhidrosis)

Project Title: Effect of Osteopathic Manipulation on Skin Sympathetic Nerve Activity

Project Description:
Nearly 10% of adults in the U.S. use some type of manipulative treatment, such as osteopathic
manipulation treatment (OMT). OMT engages somatovisceral reflexes to modulate the sympathetic
nervous system to affect physiologic function. However, direct links between the OMT and sympathetic
nervous system and corresponding end-organ responses are not clear. Recently, direct recording of
sympathetic outflow to muscle showed that compression of the fourth ventricle (CV4) caused a ~25%
decrease in basal muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The effect of OMT on skin sympathetic nerve activity
(SSNA) has not been investigated. Thus, this research aims to identify the roles of OMT on changes in
SSNA at baseline conditions and during acute increases in SSNA. The proposed research will investigate
the effect of sub-occipital release OMT on direct recordings of SSNA with three specific goals: (1) to
investigate the effects of OMT on SSNA and SSNA end-organ responses (skin blood flow and sweat gland
function) during basal conditions, (2) to identify the effects of OMT on SSNA and SSNA end-organ
responses under elevated baseline conditions (mimicking sympathetic hyperfunction), and (3) to identify
group differences between patients with focal hyperhidrosis (a dysautonomia with elevated SSNA) and
age-gender matched control subjects. These translational data from these aims will give guidance into
determining the clinical effectiveness of OMT on somatic-skin responses and provide insight into the
mechanisms of OMT on the sympathetic nervous system and the effectiveness of OMT in modulating
somatic-skin responses and in autonomic dysfunction.

				
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