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      IMMPACT’s Basic Guide to GPS Data Management in Epi Info 6.4 is split into 7 sections and
     will take approximately 1-2 hours in total to complete. It is recommended that the guide is printed out
                             for ease of use (it does not have to be printed in color).



                             IMMPACT’s Basic Guide to
                   GPS Data Management in Epi Info 6.4
Introduction
            Epi Info is a computer software package developed by the Center of Disease Control (CDC)
            and World Health Organization (WHO) to help students and researchers with projects
            requiring the organized management of health-related data. With Epi Info we can make data-
            entry questionnaires, enter data, check and validate entry, search and analyze data.

            Epi Info version 6.04 was released in 1994 and was updated in 2002. This free software is
            available for downloading from the CDC website www.cdc.gov/epiinfo. The programs are
            DOS based and are linked by a menu system.

Section 1: Installing Epi Info
            To install Epi Info, start your computer in the usual way.

            1. Insert IMMPACT’s Basic Guide to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into your
                CDROM drive

            2. Click the Epi Info Download Folder in the Downloads section of IMMPACT’s Basic
                Guide to GIS

                     The File Download dialog box will open

            3. Click Open

                     The ‘WinZip Self-Extractor’ dialog box will open

            4. Click Unzip

                     A message will appear saying ’98 file(s) unzipped successfully’

            5. Click OK

            6. Click Close on the WinZip Self-Extractor dialog box

                     A folder called epiinfo1 has automatically been created for you in your c:\ drive

            7. Close IMMPACT’s Basic Guide to Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

            8. Open your c:\epiinfo1 folder


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9. Double-click INSTALL.EXE (towards the end of the list of files)

        An EPI6 INSTALL window will appear (picture 1.1)

                              Picture 1.1




The program will ask for the following information:

Which drive is the SOURCE drive--the one where the original files are to be found?

The letter C will be shown.

        1. Press ENTER

Which drive is the DESTINATION drive for installing or copying--the one to receive the files?

        If you are installing the system to a hard drive on your computer, the correct letter is
        the letter for the hard drive, usually C or D.

        2. Type C or D

Does this drive have floppy (or other removable) disks (Y/N)?

        3. Type N (for no)

        You should answer "Y" only if the destination disk is removable, that is if you are
        copying files to diskettes.

For a normal Epi Info installation

        4. Press <Enter>.

        If you press <Enter> at this point, the installation directories will be \EPI6 and
        \NETSS on whatever drive you specified.




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Would you like to INSTALL the system for use, or COPY it for further distribution (enter "I" or
"C")?

         5. Type I

         You should answer "I" unless you are making diskettes for further distribution. If you
         answer "C", the files will contain compressed files that cannot be run until they are
         installed.

Select Video Drivers

         6. Press F8, then F4

Select Print Drivers

         7. Press F8, then F4

Select Group to Install

         8. Press F4

Install Epi Info

         9. Press F4

Creation or Editing of AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS Files: during installation on a hard
disk, INSTALL may ask if these files should be changed automatically.

         10. Type "Y" to signal your agreement.

When installation has completed, a Welcome to Epi Info dialog box will appear (picture 1.2).

                                       Picture 1.2




                   11. Press <ENTER> to leave the installation program



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Section 2: Making a shortcut to Epi Info on your desktop

         1. Close or minimize all document windows to see                    Picture 2.1
            the desktop

         2. Right click the mouse

         3. Select New from the list of options

         4. Select Shortcut from the New drop-down list
            (picture 2.1)

         5. Click Browse on the Create shortcut dialog box
            and navigate to your Epi6 folder on your hard
            drive (this was created automatically during
            installation)

         6. Find and click EPI6.EXE to highlight it

         7. Click OK

         8. Click Next                                                           Picture 2.2

         9. Type the name EPI6 under Type a name for this shortcut

         10. Click Next on the Select a title for the program dialog box

         11. Click Finish

         You will now see the EPI6 shortcut on your desktop (picture 2.2).




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Section 3: Running Epi Info

         1. Activate Epi Info

                 1.1 Double-click on the EPI6 icon on your desktop
                 OR
                 1.2 Click on the Windows Start button
                 1.3 Choose Programs
                 1.4 Choose Epi Info Version 6
                 1.5 Click the EPI 6 menu.


         This will open the Epi Info main menu page (Picture 3.1)



                                           Picture 3.1




         2. Enlarge the Epi6 main menu to fit the computer screen

                 2.1 Press and hold the Alt key on your keyboard
                 2.2 Press ENTER on your keyboard


                 The main menu will now resize to fit the screen




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                                                                     Picture 3.2
3. Epi Info Program Modules


Once started, separate program modules are
accessed through Epi Info's main Programs Menu.
Key programs on this menu include: EPED,
ENTERX, ENTER data, ANALYSIS of data,
CHECK, IMPORT files, EXPORT files, MERGE
files,   STATCALC,       CSAMPLE,       EPITABLE,
EPINUT , VALIDATE and QUIT (picture 3.2).




EPED
A word processor for writing questionnaires, checking files, analysis programs or general
use. A special facility called EPIAID in EPED runs programs that assist in text preparation
and in the design of epidemiologic investigations.
ENTER
Produces a data file automatically from a questionnaire created in EPED or another word
processor. Manages entry of data from a questionnaire into a record file. Allows revision of
record format even after records have been entered.


ANALYSIS
Produces lists, frequencies, cross tabulations and a variety of other statistical operations
from Epi Info or dBASE files using program commands. Appropriate epidemiologic
statistics, such as odds ratios, relative risk, exact confidence limits, and p values
accompany the tables. Stratified analyses with the Mantel-Haenszel technique, one-way
ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests, linear regression, and analysis of matched case-control
studies are also offered. Records may be selected or sorted using defined variables, "if"
statements, and mathematical and logical operations. Graphing, complex report formatting
and generation of new data sets for testing are operations included in ANALYSIS. Data
items spread over several files can be linked and analyzed as a single unit.


CHECK
Sets up ranges, legal values, automatic coding, and skip patterns for the ENTER program.
Mathematical and logical operations between fields, complex jump patterns, access to
several files in the same entry process, and use of custom programs provided by the user
are also supported by CHECK.




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CSAMPLE
Performs analyses of data from surveys of complex design, taking into account cluster
sampling, stratification, and weights.


STATCALC
Calculates statistics from table values entered from the keyboard. STATCALC performs
calculations for single and stratified 2-by-2 tables, sample size, and single and stratified
trend analysis.


EPITABLE
An epidemiologic calculator, containing many useful statistics.


EPINUT
A program for nutritional anthropometry providing for batch calculation of anthropometric
indices.



EXPORT
Exports data files from Epi Info into 12 other formats used by a variety of database and
statistics programs.


IMPORT
Brings in files from other programs so that they can be used in Epi Info.




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         MERGE
         Merges files produced from questionnaires with the same or different formats. This allows
         combining data files entered on different computers, and updating of previous records using
         data from new entries.
         VALIDATE
         Compares two Epi Info files entered by different operators and reports any differences.


         Help files
         The entire manual for Epi Info, Version 6, is provided in electronic form with the programs
         and is accessible from the main menu. Much of the material in the reference section of this
         manual is also available by pressing <F1> from within Epi Info programs. The full manual is
         more than 300 pages and can be printed for reference.




Section 4: Using Epi Info for GPS data*
         Before starting this exercise make a new folder called “DATA” in your Epi6 folder on
         your C or D drive. Your DATA folder is where you will store your Epi Info projects. Within
         the data folder make another folder called “GPS”. The GPS project you are about to
         create will be stored in this folder. Individual folders need to be made for each project as one
         project can contain many files, for example, files for entering data, cleaning data and
         exported data that has been changed into another format to be mapped.


         In Epi Info you can set up a default file name which means you do not have to type out the
         whole file name every time you save your work.


         1. Setting up a default file name

                 1.1 Activate Epi Info (see section 3)
                 1.2 Click Setup on the top right of the Epi Info main page
                 1.3 Select Path for data files
                 1.4 Under Directory name type c:\epi6\data
                 1.5 Press <ENTER>




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When you are asked to type a filename, Epi Info will automatically put the file into your
c:\epi6\ folder. All you are required to type is data\gps followed by the filename. If you want
to put the file in another location, you must type out the whole file name and pathway.


2. Making a questionnaire in Epi Info


When you have data from a questionnaire that you want entered into the computer, you must
develop a data entry questionnaire based on the paper questionnaire or form (picture 4.1).
                               Picture 4.1




*GPS data are provided at the end of this manual to use in following sections.
There are several things you should know about how a questionnaire is written in Epi Info:


2.1 Variable names in Epi Info:


Unlike most data entry programs, Epi Info creates variable names automatically from the
original questionnaire. When it encounters an underline or other special character, it looks
for text on the same line which can be the basis for a variable name. The first 10 letters
become the name. This name is used in the ANALYSIS program to refer to the data entered
in this field.


For example, if the line is:


             DISTRICT ___________________


The variable name will be DISTRICT.


If it is:


Name ______________________ Age ___ Sex _




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Three variables, NAME, AGE, and SEX, will be produced.


If the line is FACILITY TYPE ___________________ the automatic name given will be
FACILITYTY (the first 10 letters of the text). This may not be easily understood or
remembered. In such cases parts of the words can be surrounded by curly brackets { } to
define a variable name preferred to the one automatically generated.


Field names surrounded by curly brackets { } will be used in preference to those normally
generated, so that you can control the process. Thus, {FACILITY} TYPE will result in the
field name FACILITY. More than one set of curly brackets can be used to form a field
name if they are on the same line, as in {FAC}ILITY {TYPE}, giving the field name
FACTYPE.




2.2 Variable types in Epi Info:
                       Variables
      Symbol                                              Descriptions
                          Type
      ______          String or text   Text or "underline" variables, indicated by
                                       continuous underline characters. The length of the
                                       variable or letters used for entry is indicated by the
                                       number of underline characters used.

          #           Numeric          Numeric variables. Only numbers accepted for
       ##.#                            entry. The number of digits is indicated by the
                                       number of "#"'s. If a decimal point is given, the
                                       field will be in "fixed decimal" format, allowing
                                       exactly the indicated number of digits to the right
                                       of the decimal point. For monetary amounts from
                                       000.00 to 999.99, for example, ###.## would be
                                       the appropriate field
       <A>            Upper-case       Upper-case fields. These are similar to general-
     <A       >       String           purpose or "underline" fields, but entries will be
                                       converted to upper case.
       <Y>            Yes/No           A "Yes/No" field. Only Y, N, and <Enter> are
                                       accepted
   <mm/dd/yy>         Date             U.S. and European Date fields. Dates will be




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     <mm/dd>                           checked when entered to be sure they are valid.
   <dd/mm/yy>                          When entering data, you type only the numbers in
     <dd/mm>                           the date; the program provides the separating
  <dd/mm/yyyy>                         slash marks.       In creating a questionnaire,
                                       however, be sure to type the field format exactly
                                       as they appear on the left.
     <IDNUM>                           This is a special-purpose field that creates unique
                                       sequential identification numbers. The first record
                                       in the file will be number 1, and each succeeding
                                       record will have an IDNUM one higher than the
                                       previous record.




2.3 File names in Epi Info:
Each file name its own suffix depending on the type of file:
 File Name                              Suffix
 Questionnaire File                     .QES
 Check File                             .CHK
 Record File                            .REC
 Analysis Program File                  .PGM
 Analysis Results File                  .TXT
When performing different operations on the same data, the file name should always be the
same with only the file extension changing.


For example, in this manual you make a questionnaire file:


        C:\EPI6\DATA\GPS\GPSFAC.QES


        and a record file:


        C:\EPI6\DATA\GPS\GPSFAC.REC




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Section 5: Using EPED

        1. Developing a questionnaire for entry of GPS data


        EPED is used to make a questionnaire and define variable names. The following exercise will
        explain how to make a data entry questionnaire based on the GPS data collection paper
        form.


                1.1    Choose Programs from the top of the Epi Info main menu
                1.2    Move the highlighted bar to EPED
                1.3    Press ENTER.
                       The EPED dialog box will appear (Picture 5.1)
                                             Picture 5.1




                1.4    Below is a questionnaire for entering GPS Health Facility data. Make the
                       same questionnaire by typing out what is shown in picture 5.2.


                                                Picture 5.2




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2.    Saving the questionnaire or form as a .QES file


When you have created the questionnaire or form, including variable type and names, the
next step is to save your EPED file as a questionnaire file:


         2.1 Press F2, choose Save file to
         2.2 Press <ENTER>
         The save dialog box will appear


Since we intend to enter data on health facilities collected from GPS, we can use the name
“GPSFAC.QES” for our GPS questionnaire.


2.3 To save the questionnaire in your c:\epi6\data folder, type DATA\GPS\GPSFAC.QES in
      the File Name to Save box (picture 5.3)

                                           Picture 5.3




2.4   Press <ENTER>


File names can be no longer than 8 letters. Epi Info will not recognize file names containing
punctuation marks or spaces between the letters.


The GPSFAC.QES file is now stored in your c:\epi6\data\gps folder.
Once you have saved the file, exit EPED by pressing F10.




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3.     Opening and Editing a Questionnaire: Changing Variable Type
       and Names


EPED is also used for editing any documents you have made in EPED, including
questionnaires.


3.1    Choose Programs from the menu across the top bar
3.2    Move the highlighted bar to EPED and press <ENTER>
       The EPED dialog window will appear
3.3    Press F2
       The Open dialog window will appear (see picture 5.4)


                                   Picture 5.4




3.4    Choose Open file this window, press <ENTER>
3.5    Delete any characters in the file name box so that the line in which you type the file
       name is empty
3.6    Type the name of the file that you want to edit e.g. DATA\GPS\GPSFAC.QES
3.7    Press <ENTER>
3.8    Edit the file as required
3.9    Save the file by pressing <F9>
3.10   To exit EPED press <F10>




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Section 6:      Using ENTER data

         1. Making a data (.REC) file


         Before you can enter data, you must make an empty data file using the questionnaire you
         have made. ENTER data constructs a new data file by reading the questionnaire (.QES)
         file and using the information to set up a new data (.REC) file.



         1.1 On the main Epi Info menu, select ENTER data under the Programs drop down list.
         1.2 Press <Enter>.


             The Enter data dialog will appear (picture 6.1) asking for the name of the data file, and
             displaying menu choices. Epi Info database files have names ending in ".REC," because
             they contain data RECords.

                                     Picture 6.1




         1.3 Enter the name of the questionnaire file without the “.QES” at the end of the filename
             (i.e. DATA\GPS\GPSFAC)
         1.4 Press <ENTER>
         1.5 Type 2 to choose menu option 2.
         1.6 Press <ENTER>
              A New Questionnaire File dialog box will appear (picture 6.2).
         1.7 In the New Questionnaire Dialog box type the name of the file:
             DATA\GPS\GPSFAC.QES (you can also press F9 for a list of .QES files and choose the
             appropriate one).
         1.8 Press <ENTER>
         1.9 Type Y and press <ENTER>




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                           Picture 6.2




       The program will make a data file (.REC file) from the questionnaire and display it
       on the screen, ready to receive data.


1.10 To Exit the .REC file press <F10>


       You now have a .REC file saved and are ready to enter data.


2. Entering data


2.1 On the main Epi Info menu, select ENTER data under the Programs drop down list
2.2 Press <Enter>
2.3 Enter the name of the data file: DATA\GPS\GPSFAC.REC
2.4 Press <ENTER>
2.5 Choose option 1
2.6 Press <ENTER>
2.7 Type Y and press <ENTER>


       You are will now see the data sheet ready for data entry (picture 6.3).

                                   Picture 6.3




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2.8 Fill in the blanks on your questionnaire with the appropriate information collected
    from the GPS (see information below) OR use the data provided at the end of this
    manual.


When you enter data:
    Fields will accept only the type of data shown above the prompt line.
    When a field is full, the cursor moves automatically to the next field.
    If there are errors on entry (e.g. typing a letter in a number field) Epi Info will not allow
     you to proceed; errors may also be signaled by a “beep” and can be corrected
     immediately.
    Each blank is called a “field”. Each copy of the questionnaire you complete is called a
     “record”. The records are stored in a file with the name ending in .REC, called either
     the data file or the .REC file.


The following commands can be used during data entry:
Backspace – deletes the character to the left of the cursor
Right/left arrow – moves the cursor one character to the right or the left
Up/down arrow – moves to the previous or next entry field
<Page up>/<Page Down> - moves the screen up or down a page
<Home> - moves to the first entry field in the questionnaire
<End> - moves to the last entry field in the questionnaire
<Del>ete – deletes a character at the cursor location
<F10> - closes files and exits the program
<ENTER> - moved the cursor to the next field


3. Saving Data Entry
After the information has been entered in the last field of a questionnaire, the question "Write
data to disk (Y/N)?" appears at the bottom left of the screen (picture 6.4). Replying "Y" saves
the record and brings up the next available empty record.

                                           Picture 6.4




“Write
data to                                                                                 Record
disk?”                                                                                  Number




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The current record number is always shown in the lower right corner of the screen (e.g.
picture 6.4’s record number is 1).


If you reply no (“N”) to Write data to disk?, the cursor jumps to the first field in the
questionnaire and you can edit the record. To exit from the program press <F10>. If you
have not saved the current record you will be asked if you want to Write data to disk? Type
“Y” to save the record and return to the Epi Info menu page.



4. Viewing and Editing Records


When more than one record has been added, you can move between the records:


4.1 To move to the previous record, press F7.
4.2 To move to the next record, press F8
4.3 If you want to enter a new record, hold down the <Ctrl> (Control) key and press
   "N" for "New."


   (You may need to press <Esc> first if a message appears as you encounter either end
   of the file.)


4.4 Edit any of the entries by placing the cursor in the field and changing the contents (press
<ENTER> to move the cursor to the next field).
4.5 Press <ENTER> when leaving a field that has been edited.
4.6 When all the changes have been made, press the <END> key and “Y” to save the edited
     copy.


   If you move to another record with <F7> or <F8> without saving the edits you have made,
   they will be discarded and the edited report will return to its previous form in the file.




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Section 7: Export Epi Info data into other data formats


         EXPORT produces files in other data formats.


         The following steps will tell you how to change the .REC file you have created into a
         dBASE4 file. This file format is recognized by ArcView mapping software. By changing the
         .REC file into a dBASE4 file, the information in the file can by added to an ArcView project
         and the longitude and latitude of the health facilities that has been entered into Epi Info can
         be displayed on the appropriate map.


         1. On the main Epi Info menu, select EXPORT Files from the Programs drop down list.


            The EXPORT Files dialog box will appear (picture 6.5)


                                        Picture 6.5




            If you have mouse, you can move the cursor and select items using the left mouse
            button. If you do not have a mouse, move the cursor from field to field using the <TAB>
            key (use <SHIFT-TAB> to go backwards) and press <ENTER> to select the appropriate
            choices.


         2. Delete any characters in the Input file name dialog box
         3. Type the name of the .REC file to be changed: DATA\GPS\GPSFAC.REC
         4. Press <ENTER>
         5. Use the mouse or the up and down arrows to select dBASE4 as the Output Format.
         6. Press <ENTER>
            Epi Info will automatically provide you with a name for the new file. The name will be the
            same as your .REC file but with a different extension (.DBF).




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7. Press <ENTER>
                                                         Picture 6.6
8. OK will be highlighted. Press
   <ENTER>
   A dialog box will appear telling you
   the records were exported from
   the .rec file to a .dbf file (picture
   6.6)
9. Press <ENTER> or click OK to
   return to the EXPORT page.
10. Press <F10> to return to the main menu.
11. Press <F10> to exit Epi Info


Congratulations, you now completed IMMPACT’s Basic Guide to Data Management
in Epi Info 6.4. You now have a file containing the information you collected using
the GPS that can be read by a mapping program and displayed on a map.


For more information on making maps and mapping software go to IMMPACTs Basic
Guide to GIS. Also see IMMPACT Basic Guide to ArcView which provides you with
information on how to use your GPS data in the mapping software ArcView along
with practice data and exercises.




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                           Data for entry into Epi Info*
Region name:            Comoe                Region name:           Kadiogo
Region code:            06                   Region code:           11
Facility Name:          Hospital1            Facility Name:         Hospital6
Facility Code:          060102               Facility Code:         110131
Facility Type:          01                   Facility Type:         01
Waypoint number:       008                   Waypoint number:       075
Elevation:             304                   Elevation:              283
Latitude:              10.64528              Latitude:               12.35670
Longitude:             -4.75889              Longitude:               -1.51110
Region name:            Houet                Region name:           Sanmatenga
Region code:            10                   Region code:           23
Facility Name:           Hospital2           Facility Name:         Hospital7
Facility Code:          100108               Facility Code:         230127
Facility Type:          01                   Facility Type:          01
Waypoint number:       019                   Waypoint number:       089
Elevation:              294                  Elevation:              308
Latitude:               11.17190             Latitude:              13.09667
Longitude:              -4.29360             Longitude:              -1.08750
Region name:            Mouhoun              Region name:           Seno
Region code:            15                   Region code:            24
Facility Name:          Hospital3            Facility Name:         Hospital8
Facility Code:          150121               Facility Code:         240132
Facility Type:          01                   Facility Type:          01
Waypoint number:       039                   Waypoint number:       101
Elevation:             329                   Elevation:              281
Latitude:              12.42417              Latitude:               14.04940
Longitude:             -3.46083              Longitude:              -0.02610
Region name:           Sanguie               Region name:           Gourma
Region code:           22                    Region code:            09
Facility Name:         Hospital4             Facility Name:         Hospital9
Facility Code:         220118                Facility Code:         090124
Facility Type:         01                    Facility Type:          01
Waypoint number:       056                   Waypoint number:       112
Elevation:            264                    Elevation:              292
Latitude:             12.27667               Latitude:              12.06306
Longitude:            -2.40583               Longitude:              0.34560
Region name:          Yatenga
Region code:          29
Facility Name:        Hospital5
Facility Code:        290121
Facility Type:        01
Waypoint number:      059
Elevation:            312
Latitude:             13.58470
Longitude:            -2.41780


*Some of these data are false and should not be used for real analysis.


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