Community Design and Health Related Impacts
1. Active Living By Design creates community-led change by working with local and
national partners to build a culture of active living and healthy eating. Established by
the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ALBD is part of the North Carolina Institute
for Public Health at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health in Chapel Hill,
2. Growing Demand for Communities that Promote Health, February 2009, Active
Living Research, Building Evidence to Prevent Childhood Obesity and Support
Active Communities. www.activelivingresearch.org.
3. Atlanta Beltline: Health Impact Assessment, Catherine Ross, Ph.D., Director of the
Center for Quality Growth and Regional Development.
4. Creating a Healthy Environment: the Impact of the Built Environment on Public
Health, Richard J. Jackson, MD, MPH; Chris Kochtitzky, MSP, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention.
5. The Built Environment and Children's Health, 2003, Susan Kay Cummins, MD,
MPH, FAAP, and Richard Joseph Jackson, MD, MPH, National Center for
Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
6. Urban Sprawl and Public Health, Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH. In Public Health
Reports, May-June 2002.
7. The Public Health Effects of Sprawl: A Compelling Case for Addressing Public
Health in Transportation and Land Use Policy, Congressional Briefing Summary,
Environmental and Energy Study Institute.
8. Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Morbidity,
Reid Ewing, Tom Schmid, Richard Killingsworth, Amy Zlot, Stephen Raudenbush,
The Science of Health Promtion, September/October 2003, Vol. 18, No. 1.
9. Measuring the Health Effects of Sprawl: A National Analysis of Physical Activity,
Obesity, and Chronic Disease, Barbara A. McCann, Reid Ewing, Smart Growth
America, Surface Transportation Policy Project, September 2003.
10. How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health, A Literature
Review of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Built Form, 2003, ACES:
Active Community Environments Initiative Working Paper #1.
11. Walking to Public Transit: Steps to Help Meet Physical Activity
Recommendations,2005, Lilah Besser, MSPH, Andrew L. Dannenburg, MD, MPH.
12. Bridging the Gap: Florida Division of Environmental Health, Daniel Parker, MSP
Division Operations and Management Consultant.
13. As Suburbs Grow, So do Waistlines, NY Times.
14. City, Suburban Designs Could Be Bad For Your Health, By Martha T. Moore, USA
TODAY, Why don't Americans walk anywhere?, USA Today. 2003.
15. Connections between Health and Place: Review of the Evidence Base for Health
Impacts Of Planning Projects. HIA Toolkit for Community Planning Review Draft
10/24/07. Human Impact Partners. Rajiv Bhatia and Kim Gilhuly for Human Impact
Partners with support from the Transportation and Land Use Coalition (TALC).
16. Can Urban Design Make You Fat? Researchers Studying Link Between Obesity And
The Urban Environment. Science Daily (Feb. 28, 2006), Web
17. Souleymane Fall, Dev Niyogi, Alexander Gluhovsky, Roger A. Pielke Sr, Eugenia
Kalnay, Gilbert Rochon. Impacts of land use land cover on temperature trends over
the continental United States: assessment using the North American Regional
Reanalysis. International Journal of Climatology, 2009; n/a DOI: 10.1002/joc.1996.
18. Yang, Dong Sik, Pennisi, Svoboda V., Son, Ki-Cheol, Kays, Stanley J. Screening
Indoor Plants for Volatile Organic Pollutant Removal Efficiency. HortScience,
Published online 1 August 2009; in print 44: 1377-1381 (2009),
19. LEED-ND and Healthy Neighborhoods - An Expert Panel Review – Healthy
Community Design, National Center for Environmental Health Division of
Emergency and Environmental Health Services. 2009.
20. American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (2009, November 11).
Heating, Air-Conditioning And Carpets May Be Hazardous To Your Health.
ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 12, 2009.
21. Understanding the Relationship Between Public Health and the Built Environment.
Green Building Council.
22. LEED for Neighborhood Development home page, www.usgbc.org/leed/nd.
23. LEED for Neighborhood Development Rating System,
24. Active Living By Design, Environmental Protection Agency—
25. Expert Review on the Strength of the Data in Support of Proposed Community Design
Standards— www.farrside.com/firm/Research.php .
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention— www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces.
2. Climate Change, Land Use & Transportation
1. The Transportation and Climate Change Clearinghouse, US Department of
2. BLUEPRINT AMERICA, Road to the Future, Video: Preview -Wednesday, May
20, 2009 on PBS. The latest program in the PBS multi-platform initiative on
America’s aging infrastructure, examines the growth and development of the
American city, and how the country will continue to grow and develop in the
3. Mobility Management Strategies: Land Use Planning - This is the EPA website
that has a couple of papers specifically targeted to improving air quality through
land use strategies. Some of the case studies although targeted to air quality have
climate change benefits.
4. Transportation and Global Climate Change: a Review and Analysis of the
Literature – Federal Highway Administration. Chapter 5, provides a very
thorough review of the literature and strategies to reduce GHG emissions
5. Tool Kit for Integrating Land Use and Transportation Decision-Making – Federal
Highway Administration. This website has good information and case studies on
integrating transportation and land use decision making.
6. Cool Counties: Policies and Programs - National Association of Counties, 2007.
The “Cool Counties” Initiative consists of two parts: A pledge on our part to take
action and a plan to carry that out. The Cool Counties Policies and Programs
Template provides a menu of policies and actions that local governments can use
to help achieve the goals identified in the Cool Counties Declaration.
7. Agenda for a Sustainable America by John Dernbach . Published, 01/15/2009 by
the Environmental Law Institute Environmental Law Institute. ISBN:
8. California’s Climate Action Team. Climate Action Team’s Proposed Early
Actions to Mitigate Climate Change in California—Draft for Public Review.
Sacramento: California Department of Environmental Quality, April 30, 2007.
9. CO2 Reductions Attributable to Smart Growth in California, 2003. Ewing, Reid
Ph.D. Research Professor National Center for Smart Growth, University of
Maryland & Arthur C. Nelson, Ph.D. FAICP, Presidential Professor of City
Metropolitan Planning, Director of Metropolitan Research, University of Utah.
10. Effects of Gasoline Prices on Driving Behavior and Vehicle Markets,
Congressional Budget Office, January 2008.
11. Leadership in a New Era, Nelson, A.C., Journal of the American Planning
Association, Vol. 72, no. 4, 2006, pp. 393-409.
12. Policy Guide on Planning and Climate Change, American Planning Association,
13. Public Transportation's Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Reduction, American
Public Transportation Association. By Todd Davis and Monica Hale, September
14. Shrinking the Carbon Footprint of Metropolitan America, Metropolitan Policy
Program, Brookings. By Marilyn A. Brown, Frank Southworth and Andrea
15. The Broader Connection Between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation
and Greenhouse Gas Reduction, American Public Transportation Association,
February 2008. Requested by: American Public Transportation Association,
Submitted by: ICF International, Authors: Linda Bailey, Patricia L. Mokhtarian,
Ph.D. and Andrew Little.
16. The Role of Local Land Use and Transportation Planning in Reducing
Greenhouse Gas, Secretary Tom Pelham, Esq., AICP, Florida Department of
17. Policy Guide on Planning and Climate Change, American Planning Association,
April 27, 2008. http://www.planning.org/policy/guides/pdf/climatechange.pdf.
18. The Role of Land Use in Meeting California's Energy and Climate Change Goals,
Draft Staff Paper, California Energy Commission. June 2007, CEC-600-2007-
19. Sustainable Urban Redevelopment and Climate Change: The Dual Benefits of
Energy-Efficient Buildings in Energy-Efficient Locations, U.S. Congressional
Briefing, July 2008.
20. The Sustainable Future, On Common Ground, Summer 2008 Issue. National
Association of Realtors - Smart Growth: Building Better Communities.
21. The Governor's Action Team on Energy and Climate Change Final Report,
Florida, 2007. http://www.flclimatechange.us/documents.cfm.
22. Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change,
Reid Ewing, Keith Bartholomew, Steve Winkelman, Jerry Walters, and Don
Chen. (Urban Land Institute), October 2007. This new book documents how key
changes in land development patterns could help reduce vehicle greenhouse gas
23. Is Support forTraditionally Designed Communities Growing? Evidence From
Two National Surveys, Handy, S. J.F. Sallis, D. Weber, E. Maibach, and M.
Hollander, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 74, no. 3, 2008,
24. Impact of Urban Form on U.S. Residential Energy Use, Housing Policy Debate
Ewing, R. and F. Rong, Vol. 19, 2008, pp. 1-30.
25. FDOT Pocket Guide, Florida Transportation Trends and Conditions, 2008
In addition, there are several "Smart Growth" related websites, which may offer
additional guidance, including:
1. Smart Growth America - http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/
2. Smart Growth Online - http://www.smartgrowth.org/Default.asp?res=1280
3. Smart Growth/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - http://www.epa.gov/dced/