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  • pg 1
									    Overview on the relations
between the Kingdom of Morocco
   and the Russian Federation

       Moscow, 2009
       Historical background
               XVIII century: first contacts

               October 1777: Royal Edict
               (Dahir) of the Sultan Sidi
               Mohammed Ben Abdallah:
               free access for the Russian
               ships and vessels

Suggestion of the Sultan to establish the
commercial relations.
His main foreign policy approach: General Peace
to secure good environment for merchants
               1778-1783: exchange of
               letters between the Sultan
               and Catherine II

             principle of national treatment

1880: Russia joins the Madrid Convention
that was considered by the Sultan as the
act of recognition of Moroccan sovereignty
On the 20th of October, 1897: the General
Consulate of the Russian Empire is established
in Tangier.
The head: the Minister Resident – Vassily
Romanovitch Bakherakht.

The main objective of the Russian Strategy in
the region: “constant defence of the Gibraltar
Strait and the support as possible of the
inviolability and the integrity of the Moroccan
Sultan’s Empire”
On the 11th of July, 1899 –
the Ambassador Vassily
Bakherakht presents his
Credential Letters to the
Sultan Moulay Abdelaziz

                     The establishment of the
                     diplomatic relations at the
                     Ambassador’s level.

July 1901 – Moroccan diplomatic mission to
Saint-Petersbourg headed by Abdelkarim Ben
In the beginning of the XXth century Morocco
represents the contested sphere of interest for
main European countries.


 Great Britain

The Russian Empire, at the contrary, proclaimed
always the support of the Moroccan territorial
integrity and independence.
 Since 1912 – Morocco
 is under the French and
 Spanish protectorate.

 Russia maintains the
 diplomatic relations with
 Morocco only through
 Paris and Madrid.

First World War and Russian Revolution contributed to
the diplomatic interruption between Russia and Morocco
1956 – the USSR is the first country to
recognize the independence of Morocco.

The 1st of October 1958 – establishment of
the bilateral diplomatic relations between
the Kingdom of Morocco and the Soviet
             Soviet period
Leonid Brejnev visits Morocco in 1961. In its
foreign politics Morocco is in general oriented
towards the Asian and African countries (usually

significant development of Morocco – USSR
bilateral relations despite the prohibition of the
Moroccan communist party and the acceptance
by Morocco of the American armement
His Majesty Hassan II visits the USSR in October
1966. He condemns the foreign intervention in
After the Israel – Arab war in 1967 Morocco praised
the soviet support towards the Arab countries.

              The USSR top statesmen:
              Nikolay Podgorny

              and Alexey Kossyguine
              undertake official visits to
Juridical base of the bilateral relations -
several agreements signed in the 60s:
technical and economic cooperation,
cultural cooperation, foreign trade, air
transport, fishery and others.

Creation of the Intergovernmental Soviet –
Moroccan Commission for economic,
technical and cultural cooperation
          Cooperation USSR - Morocco
- Foreign trade
    The part of the USSR in the foreign trade of Morocco
    progressed till the 80th. Then some regression
    marked that sphere: global economic crisis and the
    passage on the convertible currencies in 1982

    Lack of diversification in commercial exchange:

            Minerals (phosphates) and vegetal products

MOROCCO                                                       USSR

                 Energy (oil, gas), tractors and equipments
              Cooperation USSR - Morocco

                                                   Al Mansour Dahbi
Jerada Power Plant                                Hydro-electric station
      In 1971
                               Energy,                  In 1972

                              mining and
                               geology          Development of the
  Moulay Youssef                                Meskala phosphate
Hydro-electric station                               deposit
      In 1974

           Study and valuation of
               the bituminous          Al Wahda (or Al Majara)
             schist minefield in        Hydro-electric station
            Timahdit and Tarfaya
        Cooperation USSR - Morocco

• Technical cooperation
 Expert exchange in many spheres: oil prospecting,
 geologic and mining exploration (first of all in the region
 of Ouarzazate)
• Cooperation in cultural and educational
  In 1991 about 1500 Moroccan specialists are licentiates
    of Soviet High Schools and Universities
            Morocco – Russian
Transfer of all the Morocco-USSR agreements on the
relations Morocco-Russian Federation. Consolidation of
the bilateral relations.
New agreements were concluded:
1997 – Agreement on Bilateral and Multilateral Political
sectorial agreements
Creation of the Joint Russian-Moroccan Intergovernmental
Commission on economic, technical and scientific cooperation
double taxation agreement
Memorandum on agriculture and food industry
October 2002 –
visit of His Majesty
Mohammed VI to

                       Declaration on
               Declaration on
            Strategic Partnership

• sovereign equality
• commitment to the international law
• peaceful settlement of disputes
• universal respect for and observance of
  human rights and fundamental freedoms
• dialogue between cultures and civilizations
               Declaration on
            Strategic Partnership
  Main Elements
• Political dialogue

• Economical, commercial, financial

• Cultural, scientific, technical cooperation
                  Evolution of the
                 bilateral relations
- Exchange of visits
After the Royal Visit to Russia
in 2002 President Vladimir
Putin undertakes the official
visit to the Kingdom of
Morocco in 2006.

Multiplication    of   ministerial
              Evolution of the
             bilateral relations
- Regular political consultations on the regional
  and international subjects of common interest
- Joint   Intergovernmental      Commission     for
  economic, technical and cultural cooperation
- Extension of the legal base for cooperation
  22 signed agreements, 14 draft agreements
  15.10.2002 – agreement between Chambers of
  Commerce and Industry followed by the agreement of
  2006 for creation of the Moroccan-Russian Business
                  Evolution of the
                 bilateral relations
- Interparliamentary cooperation

2003 – visit to Morocco of President of Douma
  Guennady N. Seleznev
2004 – visit to Morocco of the delegation of the
  Council of the Federation
2005 – visit to Russia of the delegation of the
  Chamber of Counselors of Morocco headed
  by the President of the Chamber Mustafa
              Evolution of the
             bilateral relations
- Decentralized cooperation
  visit to Moscow of large delegation of the region Rabat-
  Salé-Zemmour-Zaer (cooperation on the field of
  commerce, investments, tourism, education and culture)

  As for the bilateral cooperation: the Joint Commission
  examines all the matters of common interest:
  traditional fields (foreign trade and sea fishing)
  new spheres (IT, space, infrastructure, energy and
  mining, nuclear energy, industrial cooperation, public
  health, tourism, justice etc)
           Foreign trade
Morocco – the main partner of Russia in Africa:
volume – 2 bln USD
Moroccan import from Russia: oil (60%), iron,
copper,   chemical  products,  wood,    paper,

                     Moroccan export to Russia:
                     citrus, vegetables, fish meal,
                     fabrics, cork, zinc.
               Foreign trade
Morocco foreign trade is characterized by the
deficit with Russia. It’s necessary to explore
others sectors of the Russian market, to expand
the general preferences system (due to the
commercial agreement of 1994) on other
products, for example: textile, footwear, leather,
food products.
In 2005 Morocco cancelled the visa for Russian
In 2006, during the visit of M. Putin, the agreement
  for tourism cooperation was signed.
Morocco participates at annual tourism and travel
  exhibitions in Moscow.
In 2008 about 17000 Russians tourists spent their
  vacations in Morocco (very modest results in
  comparison with Turkey, Egypt, Tunisia).
        Financial cooperation

The USSR granted to Morocco a credit of 100 mln USD
(for construction of Al Wahda hydro-electric plant). The
agreement fixed the reimbursement through Moroccan
When the plant was completed, there were still 35 mln
euro to spend. Morocco presented a demand for
authorization to invest this amount in purchase of
barrage facilities (Wigrane, Timkit, Adarouch, Moulay
Bouchta). In 2006, during the 2nd session of the Mixed
Commission Morocco proposed to allocate the part of
these funds for social projects.
-   Extension of regular political consultations into the
cultural and economical fields.
- Despite occasional difficulties in treatment of some
economical dossiers Morocco and Russia express the
political willingness to develop the strategic partnership.
- The Russian market is a very important market for the
large array of Moroccan products.
- As for investment, the agreement for the
Encouragement and Mutual Protection of Investments is
in the pipeline.
- As for tourism, corollary measures should be undertaken
concerning the publicity, marketing and intense contacts in
relations with Russian tourism operator.
- There is an important potential for diversification of the
bilateral commercial relations.
- Morocco can use Russian know-how and experience in
the following spheres: bituminous shists, phosphates,
liquefied gas, electro plants, oil prospection, GPS survey
- Opening of the direct flight Moscow – Casablanca
- Cultural cooperation (an application program for the
  agreement on cultural and educational cooperation
  signed in 2006).

-   The Moroccan and Russian authorities shall develop the
    educational program (in schools and universities) to
    spread Arab and Russian languages in their countries,
    that would contribute to a better mutual knowledge of
    both countries and the rapprochement of their peoples.

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