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					                                       APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS



Anatomy and Physiology




                        Health Science and Technology Education


    Table of Contents
Health Science                                           APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


             Anatomy and Physiology
                      Lessons            Topic
 TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                         Overview Go
                      1–2                Anatomy and Physiology Go
                      3–5                Integumentary System Go
                      6–8                Skeletal System Go
                      9 – 11             Muscular System Go
                      12 – 14            Nervous System Go
                      15 – 20            Sensory System Go
                      21 – 23            Cardiovascular System Go
                      24 – 26            Lymphatic System Go
                      27 – 29            Respiratory System Go
                      30 – 32            Digestive System Go
                      33 – 35            Urinary System Go
                      36 – 38            Endocrine System Go
                      39 – 42            Reproductive System Go
                      43 – 44            Disease and Immunity Go

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Health Science                               APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Questions


          1. What are some of the long-term complications of
             diabetes?

          2. How does diabetes illustrate the interdependence of the
             body systems?

          3. What advice would you give a diabetic?




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    Key Question


          1. How is the body organized?

          2. How are the parts of the body interdependent?




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    Lesson 1 – Anatomy and Physiology


         Anatomy

         Physiology

         Body structures are organized
          into levels




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    Lesson 1 – Cells


                                      Cells

                                      Functions of life




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    Lesson 1 – Parts of Cells


         Cell membrane

         Cytoplasm

         Nucleus




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    Lesson 1 – Organelles


                                      Organelles

                                      In addition to the nucleus,
                                       important organelles include:
                                        ▫    Mitochondria
                                        ▫    Ribosomes
                                        ▫    Endoplasmic reticulum
                                        ▫    Centrioles
                                        ▫    Golgi apparatus
                                        ▫    Lysosomes




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    Lesson 1 – Metabolism


        Metabolism

        Anabolism

        Catabolism




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    Lesson 1 – Cell Reproduction: Mitosis


                                      Mitosis

                                      Supports the growth and
                                       maintenance of cells

                                      Cells go through the
                                       process at different rates.




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    Lesson 1 – Cell Reproduction: Mitosis (Continued)


    Steps in mitosis




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    Lesson 1 – Cell Reproduction: Meiosis


                                      Meiosis

                                      23 chromosomes

                                      Zygote




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    Lesson 1 – Tissue


          Tissue

          Four major groups of
           tissue:
                 ▫     Epithelial
                 ▫     Connective
                 ▫     Muscle
                 ▫     Nervous




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Health Science                         APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 1 – Organs and Systems


                                      Organ
                                      System




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    Lesson 1 – Organs and Systems (Continued)


      The major body systems include:
          ▫      Integumentary system
          ▫      Skeletal system
          ▫      Muscular system
          ▫      Nervous system
          ▫      Sensory system
          ▫      Cardiovascular system
          ▫      Lymphatic system
          ▫      Respiratory system
          ▫      Digestive system
          ▫      Urinary system
          ▫      Endocrine system
          ▫      Reproductive system



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    Lesson 3 – Integumentary System


        Integumentary system
        It performs these
         functions:
            ▫ Protects body
            ▫ Maintains body temperature
            ▫ Eliminates waste
            ▫ Helps respond to touch
              sensations
            ▫ Absorbs substances
            ▫ Helps produce vitamin D



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    Lesson 3 – Layers of Skin


                                      Epidermis

                                      Dermis

                                      Hypodermis




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    Lesson 3 – Pigmentation


           Skin color is inherited

           Melanin

           Carotene




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    Lesson 3 – Glands of the Skin


                                      Sudoriferous glands


                                      Sebaceous glands




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    Lesson 3 – Hair and Nails


           Hair helps protect the body
                 ▫ Root
                 ▫ Shaft

           Nails protect the fingers and
            toes from injury




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    Lesson 4 – Abnormal Pigmentation


                                      Albinos

                                      Abnormal colors of the
                                       skin can indicate disease:
                                        ▫   Erythema
                                        ▫   Jaundice
                                        ▫   Cyanosis
                                        ▫   Chronic poisoning




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    Lesson 4 – Skin Eruptions


           Macule
           Papule
           Vesicle
           Pustule
           Crust
           Wheal
           Ulcer




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   Lesson 4 – Diseases and Disorders of the Integumentary System



                                      Acne Vulgaris
                                      Contact Dermatitis
                                      Eczema
                                      Psoriasis




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    Lesson 6 – Skeletal System


                                      Skeletal system

                                      The skeletal system:
                                        ▫ Provides shape and
                                          support to the body
                                        ▫ Protects vital organs
                                        ▫ Acts as a set of levers,
                                          and together with
                                          muscles helps a person
                                          move
                                        ▫ Produces blood cells
                                        ▫ Stores calcium


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    Lesson 6 – Types of Bones


                Long bones
                Short bones
                Flat bones
                Irregular bones




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    Lesson 6 – Parts of Long Bones


                                      Diaphysis

                                      Epiphysis

                                      Articular cartilage

                                      Periosteum

                                      Medullary canal

                                      Endosteum




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    Lesson 6 – Bone Marrow


           Red marrow


           Yellow marrow




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    Lesson 6 – Sections of the Skeletal System


                                      Axial skeleton
                                      Appendicular skeleton




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    Lesson 6 – Axial Skeleton: Skull

      The skull consists of the cranium
       and facial bones.

      Cranium
          ▫      1 frontal
          ▫      2 parietal
          ▫      2 temporal
          ▫      1 occipital
          ▫      1 ethmoid
          ▫      1 sphenoid

      Sutures.




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    Lesson 6 – Axial Skeleton: Skull (Continued)


                                      Facial bones
                                        ▫   5 nasal
                                        ▫   2 maxilla
                                        ▫   2 lacrimal
                                        ▫   2 zygomatic
                                        ▫   2 palatine
                                        ▫   1 mandible

                                      Sinuses




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    Lesson 6 – Axial Skeleton: Spinal Column


        Vertebrae


        Discs




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    Lesson 6 – Axial Skeleton: Thorax


                                      Thorax

                                      Ribs

                                      Sternum
                                        ▫ Manubrium
                                        ▫ Gladiolus
                                        ▫ Xiphoid process




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    Lesson 6 – Appendicular Skeleton: Shoulder Girdle



        Shoulder girdle
            – 2 clavicles
            – 2 scapulas.




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    Lesson 6 – Appendicular Skeleton: Arms and Hands



                                      Arm bones:
                                        ▫ Humerus
                                        ▫ Ulna
                                        ▫ Radius

                                      Hand bones:
                                        ▫ 8 carpals
                                        ▫ 5 metacarpals
                                        ▫ 14 phalanges




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    Lesson 6 – Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle



        Pelvic girdle is made of 2 hip
         bones, which connect at the
         symphysis pubis.

        Each hip bone is composed of
         3 sections:
            ▫ Illium
            ▫ Ischium
            ▫ Pubis




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    Lesson 6 – Appendicular Skeleton: Legs and Feet



                                      Leg bones:
                                        ▫   Femur
                                        ▫   Patella
                                        ▫   Tibia
                                        ▫   Fibula

                                      Foot bones:
                                        ▫ 7 tarsals
                                        ▫ 5 metatarsals
                                        ▫ 14 phalanges




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    Lesson 6 – Joints



    Joints

    Ligaments

    Joints are classified by movement:
        ▫ Diarthrosis– movable
        ▫ Amphiarthrosis– partially movable
        ▫ Synarthrosis– not movable




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    Lesson 7 – Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System



                                      Arthritis

                                      Sprain

                                      Dislocation

                                      Fracture




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    Lesson 9 – Muscular System


                                      The muscular system
                                       contains over 600 muscles.
                                      The muscular system
                                       performs these functions:
                                        ▫ Helps with body movement
                                        ▫ Supports body posture
                                        ▫ Produces heat and energy
                                        ▫ Protects internal organs
                                        ▫ Helps move blood, food,
                                          and waste products
                                          through the body
                                        ▫ Opens and closes body
                                          openings



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    Lesson 9 – Muscle Traits


           All muscles have four
            common traits:
                 ▫   Excitability or Irritability
                 ▫   Contractibility
                 ▫   Extensibility
                 ▫   Elasticity

           Muscle tone




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    Lesson 9 – Types of Muscles


                                      Cardiac


                                      Visceral


                                      Skeletal




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    Lesson 9 – Types of Muscles (Continued)


                                      Involuntary Muscles



                                      Voluntary Muscles




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    Lesson 9 – Attachment of Skeletal Muscles


     Tendons

     Origin

     Insertion

     Fascia




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    Lesson 9 – Types of Body Movements


                                        Flexion
                                        Extension
                                        Abduction
                                        Adduction
                                        Rotation




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    Lesson 10 – Loss of Muscle Tone



      Loss of muscle tone can
       result from serious illness.
      Lack of muscle use can
       result in:
          ▫ Atrophy
          ▫ Contracture




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  Lesson 10 – Diseases and Disorders of the Muscular System



                                      Muscle Strain

                                      Fibromaylgia

                                      Muscular Dystrophy




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    Lesson 12 – Nervous System


          The nervous system is
           the communication network
           for the body.
          The main function of the
           nervous system is to
           coordinate all of the body’s
           activities.




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    Lesson 12 – Neurons

                                      Neuron, or nerve cell.

                                      Dendrites
                                      Axons
                                      Myelin sheath.
                                      Synapse




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    Lesson 12 – Types of Neurons


          Afferent

          Efferent

          Associative




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    Lesson 12 – Divisions of the Nervous System


                                      Central nervous system

                                      Peripheral nervous system
                                        – autonomic nervous
                                          system




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    Lesson 12 – Central Nervous System: Brain

      Cerebrum
      Diencephalon
        ▫ Thalamus
        ▫ Hypothalamus

      Cerebellum




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    Lesson 12 – Central Nervous System: Brain (Continued)


                                      Brain stem
                                       ▫ Midbrain
                                       ▫ Pons
                                       ▫ Medulla oblongata




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    Lesson 12 – Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord




           Controls many reflex actions

           Pathway for messages to
            and from the brain and the
            nerves that go to the
            muscles and glands.




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    Lesson 12 – Central Nervous System: Protection


                                      Brain is protected by the skull
                                      Spinal cord is protected by the
                                       vertebrae

                                      Meninges cover and protect the
                                       brain and spinal cord:
                                         ▫ Dura mater
                                         ▫ Arachnoid
                                         ▫ Pia mater

                                      Cerebrospinal fluid




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    Lesson 12 – Peripheral Nervous System



           Cranial nerves
             – 12 pairs and branches

           Spinal nerves
                 – 31 pairs and branches




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    Lesson 12 – Autonomic Nervous System

                                      Autonomic nervous system
                                       controls the involuntary, or
                                       automatic, activities of the
                                       body

                                      Sympathetic system

                                      Parasympathetic system




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    Lesson 13 – Diseases and Disorders of the Nervous System


       Myasthenia Gravis

       Cerebrovascular Accidents

       Multiple Sclerosis




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    Lesson 15 – Sensory System


      Sensory system
          –   vision
          –   hearing
          –   smell
          –   taste
          –   touch

      Receives stimuli and sends
       impulses to the brain to be
       interpreted.

      Recognizes changes in the
       environment


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    Lesson 16 – Vision and the Eye


                                      Eye carries information to the
                                       brain where it is translated into
                                       vision, or sight.

                                      Vision is considered to be the
                                       most important sense.




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    Lesson 16 – Layers of the Eye


       Sclera – outer eye

       Choroid coat – middle
        eye

       Retina – inner eye




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    Lesson 16 – Other Parts of the Eye



                                      Iris
                                      Pupil
                                      Lens
                                      Aqueous humor
                                      Vitreous humor




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    Lesson 16 – Pathway of Light through the Eye


      In order:
          ▫      Cornea
          ▫      Aqueous humor
          ▫      Pupil
          ▫      Lens
          ▫      Vitreous humor




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    Lesson 16 – Protection of the Eye


                                      Partly enclosed in a bony
                                       socket in the skull.

                                      Lacrimal glands
                                      Eyelids and eyelashes help
                                       keep out foreign materials.

                                      Conjunctiva




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    Lesson 17 – Hearing and the Ear


           Controls hearing and sense
            of balance

           Ear carries sound waves to
            the brain

           Three main sections:
                 – Outer ear
                 – Middle ear
                 – Inner ear




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    Lesson 17 – Outer Ear


                                      Pinna

                                      Auditory canal

                                      Tympanic membrane




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    Lesson 17 – Middle Ear


        Small chamber in the temporal
         bone

        Ossicles

        Eustachian tube




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    Lesson 17 – Inner Ear


                                      Chochlea


                                      Semicircular canals




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    Lesson 18 – Sense of Smell


           The nose is the organ that
            controls smell.

           Olfactory receptors

           Cilia

           The sense of smell is closely
            related to the sense of taste.




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    Lesson 18 – Slide Title


                                      Taste buds

                                      The receptors in the taste buds
                                       send a signal to the brain to
                                       detect the flavor of the food.
                                      The four basic tastes:
                                        ▫   Sweet
                                        ▫   Salty
                                        ▫   Sour
                                        ▫   Bitter




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    Lesson 18 – General Senses



         General senses:
             –    Touch
             –    Temperature
             –    Pressure
             –    Pain

         General sense receptors are
          located throughout the body in
          the skin and connective tissue.
         Each receptor perceives only
          one type of feeling.



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    Lesson 19 – Diseases and Disorders of the Sensory System



                                        Conjunctivitis
                                        Cataract
                                        Hearing Loss
                                        Otitis Media
                                        Common Cold




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    Lesson 21 – Cardiovascular System


                                      Includes the heart, blood
                                       vessels, and blood.

                                      The cardiovascular system
                                       performs these functions:
                                        ▫ Supplies nutrients and oxygen
                                          to the body
                                        ▫ Removes metabolic waste and
                                          carbon dioxide from cells
                                        ▫ Distributes hormones and
                                          antibodies throughout the body
                                        ▫ Helps control body temperature
                                          and electrolyte balance



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    Lesson 21 – The Heart and Its Layers


      The heart is a two-sided,
       hollow organ about the size
       of a fist.
      Three layers of tissue:
          ▫ Pericardium
          ▫ Myocardium
          ▫ Endocardium




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    Lesson 21 – Chambers of the Heart


                                      Septum

                                      Each side is divided into two
                                       parts to create four chambers
                                       in total.
                                        ▫ Atria
                                        ▫ Ventricles

                                      Blood enters through atria,
                                       leaves through ventricles




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    Lesson 21 – Heart Valves


      Atrioventricular
          ▫ Tricuspid valve
          ▫ Bicuspid valve

      Semilunar
          ▫ Pulmonary valve
          ▫ Aortic valve




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    Lesson 21 – Circulation of Blood

                                      Pulmonary circulation
                                      Systemic circulation




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    Lesson 21 – Heartbeat


       Electrical impulses starting
        in the heart cause the
        muscles to contract and
        the heart to beat.
       The right and left sides of
        heart work together in a
        cycle to produce a
        heartbeat.




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    Lesson 21 – Blood Vessels


                                      Arteries


                                      Veins


                                      Capillaries




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    Lesson 21 – Blood


           Blood is vital to life.
           About 4-5 liters of blood
            circulates through the
            average body.

           Two parts of blood:
                 ▫ Formed elements
                 ▫ Plasma




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    Lesson 21 – Blood Cells


                                      Red blood cells


                                      White blood cells


                                      Platelets




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    Lesson 21 – Plasma


           Plasma
                 – 90% water
                 – 10% proteins

           Serum




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    Lesson 21 – Blood Types


                                      Four blood types:
                                        ▫   Type A
                                        ▫   Type B
                                        ▫   Type AB
                                        ▫   Type O

                                      Rh factor




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    Lesson 21 – Blood Transfusion



        Incompatible types might have
         an adverse reaction.
            ▫ Type O- is the universal donor.
            ▫ Type AB+ is the universal
              recipient.




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   Lesson 22 – Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System




                                        Congestive heart failure

                                        Hypertension

                                        Anemia

                                        Leukemia




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    Lesson 24 – Lymphatic System


                                      The lymphatic system works
                                       along with the cardiovascular
                                       system to remove waste
                                       material.
                                      The lymphatic system performs
                                       these functions:
                                        ▫ Transports excess fluid from
                                          tissues back into the
                                          cardiovascular system
                                        ▫ Filters out harmful bacteria and
                                          other foreign substances
                                        ▫ Destroys and removes old red
                                          blood cells.



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    Lesson 24 – Lymph


       Lymph
           – contains white blood cells
           – does not contain red blood
             cells, platelets, or protein
             molecules

       Also called interstitial fluid or
        intercellular fluid.




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    Lesson 24 – Lymphatic Vessels


                                      Form a branchlike pattern
                                       through the body

                                      Lacteals

                                      All lymphatic vessels empty one
                                       of two ducts:
                                        ▫ Right lymphatic duct
                                        ▫ Thoracic duct




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    Lesson 24 – Movement of Lymph



           Contractions of muscles
            keep lymph flowing
           Lymph moves toward the
            heart.

           Valves prevent backward
            flow




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    Lesson 24 – Lymph Nodes


                                      Lymph nodes:
                                        – filter out impurities and
                                          harmful matter

                                        – produce lymphocytes and
                                          antibodies.




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    Lesson 24 – Other Lymphatic Tissue


      The tonsils exist in three pairs:
          ▫ Palatine tonsils
          ▫ Pharyngeal tonsils
          ▫ Lingual tonsils

      Spleen

      Thymus




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 Lesson 25 – Diseases and Disorders of the Lymphatic System



                                      Allergies

                                      Autoimmune Disease

                                      Hodgkin’s Disease




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    Lesson 27 – Respiratory System


                                      The respiratory system
                                       includes the lungs and air
                                       passages.

                                      The system performs these
                                       functions:
                                        ▫ Exchanges gases between
                                          the blood and the lungs
                                        ▫ Helps regulate body
                                          temperature by cooling or
                                          warming the blood
                                        ▫ Produces voice sounds



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    Lesson 27 – Muscles for Breathing



           Intercostal muscles

           Diaphragm




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    Lesson 27 – The Breathing Process


                                      Ventilation
                                        ▫ Inspiration
                                        ▫ Expiration

                                      A person can control the rate
                                       at times to breathe faster or
                                       slower.




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    Lesson 27 – Nasal Cavity


       Cilia

       If the nasal cavity is blocked, air
        can enter and exit through the
        mouth instead.

       Sinuses




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    Lesson 27 – Pharynx


                                      Pharynx, or throat
                                        ▫ nasopharynx
                                        ▫ oropharynx
                                        ▫ laryngopharynx




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    Lesson 27 – Larynx and Trachea

    Larynx

    Epiglottis

    Trachea




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    Lesson 27 – Bronchial Tubes and Alveoli


                                      Bronchi

                                      Bronchioles
                                      Alveoli




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    Lesson 27 – Lungs

      Mediastinum

      Lobes
          – right lung has 3 lobes
          – left lung has 2 lobes

      Pleura




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Health Science                            APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 27 – Stages of Respiration


                                      Respiration
                                      Two major stages of
                                       respiration:
                                        ▫ external respiration
                                        ▫ internal respiration




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Health Science                        APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


Lesson 28 – Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory System


       Lung Cancer

       Atelectasis

       Chronic Obstructive
        Pulmonary Disease

       Asthma

       Pneumonia




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Health Science                                 APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 30 – Digestive System

     The digestive system consists of
      the organs that make up the
      alimentary canal.
     The digestive system performs
      these functions:
         ▫ Physically breaks down food into
           smaller pieces
         ▫ Chemically breaks down food into
           fat, carbohydrates, and protein
         ▫ Absorbs nutrients into the blood
           for use in the body
         ▫ Helps maintain the proper amount
           of water, electrolytes, and other
           nutrients in the body
         ▫ Eliminates waste products


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    Lesson 30 – Mouth


                                      Food enters the alimentary canal,
                                       and the digestive system

                                      Mastication

                                      Bolus




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Health Science                           APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 30 – Pharynx


       Pharynx

       The pharynx can carry both air
        and food.

       Epiglottis




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Health Science                             APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 30 – Esophagus


                                      Esophagus

                                      Peristalsis




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Health Science                       APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 30 – Stomach

    Saclike, muscular organ that
     receives the bolus from the
     esophagus

    Cardiac sphincter

    Chyme

    Pyloric sphincter




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Health Science                              APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 30 – Small Intestine


                                      Most of the digestive products
                                       pass into the bloodstream in
                                       the small intestine.

                                      Digestion is completed in the
                                       small intestine

                                      Next the chyme passes into
                                       the large intestine.




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Health Science                             APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 30 – Large Intestine and Anus


        Most of the water from ingested
         food is absorbed back into the
         bloodstream in the large
         intestine.
        Escherichia coli (E-coli).

        Rectum
        Anus
        Defecation.




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Health Science                           APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 30 – Accessory Organs of the Digestive System



                                      Three accessory organs
                                       carry digestive juices to the
                                       digestive tract:
                                         ▫ pancreas
                                         ▫ liver
                                         ▫ gallbladder




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Health Science                        APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


 Lesson 31 – Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System


     Ulcer

     Constipation

     Inflammatory Bowel Disease

     Eating Disorders




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Health Science                                APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 33 – Urinary System


      The urinary system consists of
       two kidneys, two ureters, one
       bladder, and one urethra.

      It performs these functions:
          ▫ Filters blood to remove wastes
            from it
          ▫ Excretes wastes from the body
          ▫ Helps maintain the body’s acid-
            base balance




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Health Science                                   APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 33 – Kidneys


                                      Two bean-shaped organs on either
                                       side of the vertebral column.

                                      Two layers:
                                        ▫ cortex
                                        ▫ medulla

                                      Hilum




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Health Science                        APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 33 – Nephrons

       Tiny structures in the
        kidneys
       Each nephron is made of:
           ▫     Glomerulus
           ▫     Bowman’s capsule
           ▫     Convoluted tubules
           ▫     Collecting tubules




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Health Science                           APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 33 – Ureters and Bladder


                                      Ureter
                                        – attached to each of the two
                                          kidneys.
                                        – muscular tube
                                        – uses peristalsis to move the
                                          urine to the bladder

                                      Bladder
                                        – hollow, muscular sac
                                        – receives and stores urine




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    Lesson 33 – Urethra


          Carries the urine from the
           bladder out of the body.

          Urinary meatus.

          Different in males and
           females.




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    Lesson 34 – Conditions Affecting Urination

                                        Anuria
                                        Oliguria
                                        Polyuria
                                        Glycosuria
                                        Hematuria
                                        Pyuria
                                        Nocturia
                                        Dysuria
                                        Retention
                                        Incontinence




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    Lesson 34 – Diseases and Disorders of the Urinary System



           Renal Calculus

           Cystitis

           Nephritis




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Health Science                                   APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 36 – Endocrine System

      The endocrine system consists
       of glands that secrete substances
       called hormones into the
       bloodstream
      Hormones
          ▫ “Chemical messengers”
          ▫ Carried throughout the body by
            the bloodstream
          ▫ Each hormone coordinates and
            directs specific activities of the
            body.




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    Lesson 36 – Pituitary Gland


                                      The pituitary gland is a tiny
                                       gland known as the “master
                                       gland” because the hormones
                                       it produces regulate other
                                       glands.

                                      The pituitary gland is divided
                                       into two sections:
                                        ▫ Anterior lobe
                                        ▫ Posterior lobe




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    Lesson 36 – Thyroid Gland


           Produces hormones that
            regulate body metabolism
            and reduce the amount of
            calcium in the blood
           Two lobes
           Isthmus

           Role of iodine




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Health Science                            APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 36 – Parathyroid Glands


                                      Four small glands attached to
                                       the back side of the thyroid
                                       gland.

                                      Produce hormone that
                                       maintains the balance of
                                       calcium and phosphorus in
                                       the blood




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Health Science                              APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 36 – Adrenal Glands



        Pair of glands, with one located
         above each kidney
        Produce hormones

        Two sections:
          ▫ Adrenal cortex
          ▫ Adrenal medulla




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    Lesson 36 – Pancreas


                                      Fish-shaped organ located
                                       behind the stomach

                                      Produces two hormones:
                                         ▫ Insulin
                                         ▫ Glucagon

                                      Pancreatic juices are secreted
                                       into the small intestine to aid in
                                       digestion.




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    Lesson 36 – Other Endocrine Glands

           Pineal body

           Thymus

           Ovaries

           Testes




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 Lesson 37 – Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System



                                      Diabetes Mellitus

                                      Hyperthyroidism

                                      Hypothyroidism




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Health Science                               APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 39 – Reproductive System: Male


                                      Produces new life

                                      Same types of organs for males
                                       and females

                                      Gonads, or sex glands

                                      Male organs located mainly
                                       outside of body




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    Lesson 39 – Testes


         The male gonads

         Located in scrotum

         Produce sperm

         Produce testosterone




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Health Science                                 APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 39 – Seminal Ducts and Vesicles


                                        Epididymis
                                        Vas deferens
                                        Seminal vesicles
                                        Ejaculatory ducts
                                        Prostate gland
                                        Urethra




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Health Science                                 APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 39 – Prostate Gland and Cowper’s Glands


        Prostate gland
            – fluid protects sperm and helps
              them move

        Cowper’s glands
            – fluid helps sperm survive
            – lubricates urethra to help
              semen move




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Health Science                              APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 39 – Penis



                                      External male reproductive
                                       organ

                                      Caries urine and semen

                                      Deposits semen into the female
                                       vagina




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Health Science                       APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 40 – Reproductive System: Female

      Produces new life

      Gonads, or sex glands

      Female organs are located
       mainly within the body




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Health Science                                  APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 40 – Ovaries


                                      Female gonads

                                      Produce ova, which are stored in
                                       follicles

                                      Produce hormones estrogen and
                                       progesterone

                                      Ovulation




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Health Science                              APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 40 – Fallopian Tubes


    Located above the ovaries

    Ovum is swept into one of the two
     fallopian tubes by fimbriae

    The fallopian tubes are also
     attached to the uterus. Cilia guide
     ovum to uterus.

    Fertilization usually takes place in
     the fallopian tubes.




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Health Science                                 APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 40 – Uterus

                                      After fertilization, uterus
                                       provides for development and
                                       growth of fetus
                                      Three parts:
                                        ▫ Fundus
                                        ▫ Corpus
                                        ▫ Cervix

                                      Three layers of uterine wall:
                                        ▫ Endometrium
                                        ▫ Myometrium
                                        ▫ Perimetrium


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    Lesson 40 – Vagina




      Muscular tube that connects
       cervix to outside of body
      Passageway for menstrual flow
       and childbirth
      Female organ for intercourse




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Health Science                               APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 40 – Vulva


                                      Vulva includes:
                                         ▫ Mons pubis
                                         ▫ Labia majora
                                         ▫ Labia minora

                                      Other external structures include:
                                         ▫ Clitoris
                                         ▫ Bartholin’s glands
                                         ▫ Perineum




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    Lesson 40 – Breasts


         Accessory organs to the
          female reproductive system
         Contain fatty tissue and a
          system of ducts that produce
          milk and transport it to the
          nipples.




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Health Science                             APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Lesson 41 – Diseases and Disorders of the Reproductive System




                                      Infertility

                                      Sexually Transmitted
                                       Diseases




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Health Science                                 APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 43 – Homeostasis



                                      Keeping a state of balance in the
                                       body

                                      Must preserve a balance of
                                       fluids, temperature, oxygen,
                                       electrolytes, and nutrients for
                                       survival.




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    Lesson 43 – Interdependence of Body Systems



   Systems must work together in
    order to support human life

   Problem in one system may have
    effects on other systems




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    Lesson 43 – Abnormal Cell Conditions


                                        Atrophy
                                        Hyperplasia
                                        Metaplasia
                                        Dsyplasia
                                        Neoplasia




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    Lesson 43 – Tumors



      Formed when cells divide
       in an unusual way and an
       abnormal and uncontrolled
       growth occurs

      Two types of tumors:
          ▫ benign tumor
          ▫ malignant tumor




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Health Science                               APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 43 – Cancer


                                      Common sites of cancer include:
                                        ▫   Mouth
                                        ▫   Lungs
                                        ▫   Breast
                                        ▫   Colon
                                        ▫   Uterus
                                        ▫   Bone marrow

                                      Warning signs and treatment
                                       vary with the area affected.
                                       Treatment involves surgery,
                                       radiation, and chemotherapy.



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Health Science                                APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 43 – Immunity


         Body’s ability to resist invaders
          and diseases they cause

         Two general types:
             ▫ Natural immunity
             ▫ Acquired immunity




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Health Science                              APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Lesson 43 – Natural Immunity

                                      Some diseases that affect other
                                       animals normally do not affect
                                       human beings.

                                      Body systems work together to
                                       provide defenses against
                                       invaders
                                        ▫ physically
                                        ▫ chemically




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    Lesson 43 – Acquired Immunity


           Natural acquired immunity
           Artificial acquired immunity
           Passive acquired immunity
           Active acquired immunity




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Health Science                                         APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Reflect – Unit Questions


                  1.      Which body systems have similar or related functions?
                          Compare and contrast how those systems perform
                          those functions.
                  2.      In what ways does the body defend itself? How does it
                          try to prevent disease, and how does it react to
                          disease?
                  3.      Why is it important to carefully evaluate possible
                          treatments for a disease or disorder before deciding on
                          a course of action?
                  4.      How is knowledge of anatomy and physiology beneficial
                          to health care workers?



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Health Science                         APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Reflect – Key Questions



          1. How is the body organized?

          2. How are the parts of the body interdependent?




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Health Science                             APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS


    Reinforce Project



          Informative Brochure
           You will create an brochure that informs others about
             a specific disease or disorder.




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