Science 8 Unit 1: Water Systems on Earth’s Surface – Review Terms: Atmosphere lithosphere hydrosphere hydrologist Oceanographer salinity density freezing point Global warming ice age run-off erosion Weathering Coriolis force ocean current upwelling Wave swells breakers tsunami Deposition headland bay tide Tidal range spring tides neap tides heat capacity Weather climate phytoplankton zooplankton Wetland estuary bioindicator species bioluminescence 1. What is the distribution of water on earth? 2. Label a diagram of the water cycle and describe how water moves through it. 3. Explain the differences between fresh water and ocean water. 4. What are the 3 sources of fresh water? 5. How has global warming affected glaciers and what is the result on the environment? 6. Describe the 4 processes that lead to the formation of ocean basins. 7. Label a diagram of the components of an ocean basin. 8. Describe how sonar, satellites, submersibles, deep-sea cameras and scuba diving are used to study the oceans. 9. List the Canadian institutions that are involved in ocean research. 10. How have technologies used to study the ocean floor improved over time? 11. Describe the two types of ocean currents. 12. Explain the 3 causes of surface currents. 13. Explain how convection currents due to temperature differences cause deep water currents. 14. Explain how upwelling produces nutrient rich ocean water using the Grand Banks as an example. 15. Explain how differences in salinity affect density and how together they cause deep water currents. 16. How do waves form? 17. Draw a wave diagram and label the 4 parts. 18. What happens to a wave as it approaches the shoreline? 19. What are the 4 factors that influence how waves interact with shorelines? 20. How is wave energy distributed along headlands and bays? 21. Use diagrams to explain how tides are generated by the gravitational force of the moon and sun. 22. Briefly describe the structures designed to prevent damage due to waves and tides. 23. Explain how deposition and erosion result in various shoreline formations. (Computer assignment) 24. Use your knowledge of heat capacity to explain how oceans moderate climate. 25. Draw a diagram to explain how convection currents affect weather. 26. Explain what happens during El Nino and La Nina. 27. How do El Nino and La Nina influence climate on a global basis? 28. What 2 currents are close to NL and how do they affect our climate and weather? 29. How are ocean environments different from freshwater environments and give some examples of the types of organisms you would expect to find living there.
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