Freedom and Partition in India by VlFb8K9


									Freedom and Partition in India

           Chapter 9
Mohandas Karamchand

Gandhi saw his life as
the search for
ultimate truths and self-
transformation (#1)
Gandhi (#2)

Born: Oct. 2,


Died: Jan.
30, 1948
Gandhi and His Wife

            Gandhi at age
            13 years old
            (1883) (#3)
         Mohandas Gandhi
• Born into a middle class family
• Leader of India’s freedom movement (INC)
• Left for Britain at age 17 to study law (#4)
• Lawyer – trained in Britain, practiced in
  South Africa
• Helped unite the various groups within
  India to fight for a common cause
  First Action for Indian Civil Rights
• In South Africa, fighting for Indian rights (#5 & 6)
   – Train ride and effects: thrown off the train for refusing to move to
     3rd class where non-whites were expected to sit
   – Effects: humiliation lead to his desire for change and how to get

• Civil Disobedience – The active refusal to obey unjust
  laws or the demands of an oppressive government (#6)
   – Non-cooperation with evil is as much a duty as is cooperation
     with good.
• Satyagraha = truth force – convert the wrongdoer (#6)
  and reconciliation

• Non-violence – ex. Rosa Parks, MLK Jr.
Appealing to all Indians – Returned
   to India 1915 at age 45 (#7)
         Gandhi’s Principles
• His beliefs were a blend of Hindu and
  Christian beliefs
• Non-violent resistance to end injustice
• Satyagraha = truth force – convert the
• Inspiration
  – Hindu – nonviolence, respect for all life
  – Christianity – love one’s enemies
• Mahatma: Great Soul
         Gandhi’s Principles
• He wanted the world to see the injustice in
  India without using violence
• Gandhi wanted the British to see the err in
  their wrong doings
• The same principles were used with
  apartheid in South Africa
                        Yo Yo Yo


  Gandhi’s Principles
    Amritsar Massacre 1919
• Causes
 –Oppressive new laws limited
   • Ban on mass meetings
• “The Indians were ‘packed together so
  that one bullet would drive through three
  or four bodies’; the people ‘ran madly this
  way and the other. When fire was
  directed upon the centre, they ran to the
  sides. The fire was then directed to the
  sides. Many threw themselves onto the
  ground, and fire was then directed on the
  ground. This continued for eight or ten
  minutes, and it stopped only when the
  ammunition had reached the point of
  exhaustion…” Winston Churchill
           Amritsar Massacre
• British Brig. Gen. who led the massacre
  was removed from duty but some honored
  him at home for crushing the Indians
Rattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great
pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place.
The boy asked me for water but there was no water in
that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on
the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and
took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised
him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them
innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent
the night crying and watching..."               show clip
 Results of Amritsar Massacre (#9)
• Effects:
  – 379 Indians dead
  – 1,100 Indians injured
  – British General Dyer, removed from duty but some
    honored him at home
     • “Teach Indians a lesson”
     • Ridiculous Rules forced against the Indians
         – All Indians must crawl on their hands and knees on a city
         – Indiscriminate whippings
  – Turning Point for India’s struggle for
    complete independence
  – Nationalist movement took off
  – All Indians united against British
     • Gandhi became one of the masses
                      Yo Yo Yo


  Amritsar Massacre
Indian Self-Reliance (#10)
                        • Gandhi won the support
  (#11) To be seen as     of all groups by stressing
  the leader of all       India’s heritage and Self-
  Indians; connected      reliance
  with the masses;         – Examples
  Bapu: Father                • Gave up Western ways
                              • Spun his own cotton,
                                wore simple white
                              • Western clothes
                                symbolized cultural
                              • Vegetarianism
                              • Wanted to reform caste
                                system (untouchables)
                              • Included Muslims
        Non Violent Protests
• Gandhi supported nonviolent acts of civil
  – Boycotted British made goods
  – Supported workers strikes
  – Did not want lose the moral high ground and
    threatened by acts of violence(#12)
  – The Salt March
  – Quit India Movement
    The Salt March – 1930 (#13)
•   Indians were not allowed to make their own salt
•   They had to purchase heavily taxed, British salt
•   Gandhi led Indians on a march over 200 miles
    to the Arabian Sea
•   Starts with 80 people ends with hundreds of
•   On his march to the sea, Gandhi says “They
    are not in control; we are”. “Explain.
•   They made their own once they reached the
  The Salt March – 1930 (#13)
• Effects: (#13)
  – Gandhi and 50,000 protester were arrested
  – British violence against protesters
  – Britain responded with violence to the
    satyagraha protests
  – Worldwide interest and debate especially in
    Great Britain whether to hold on to India
Amritsar Massacre
                 Yo Yo Yo


    Salt March
             August 1942
Gandhi demands independence for India (#14)
               ‘Do or Die’ Speech
• Starts the Quit India Movement – August 8, 1942
• I am not going to be satisfied with anything short of
  complete freedom. May be, he will propose the abolition
  of salt tax, the drink evil, etc. But I will say, “Nothing less
  than freedom.”
  Here is a mantra, a short one, that I give you. You may
  imprint it on your hearts and let every breath of yours
  give expression to it. The mantra is : ‘Do or Die’. We
  shall either free India or die in the attempt; we shall not
  live to see the perpetuation of our slavery. Every true
  Congressman or woman will join the struggle with an
  inflexible determination not to remain alive to see the
  country in bondage and slavery.
        Gandhi Jailed (#15)
• At age 73
• Jailed for his announcement of the Quit
  India Movement and the “Do or Die”
• Issues b/c of
  leadership arrests
       WWII – Quit India (#15)
• Gandhi leads non-support efforts in India during
  World War II
• 'Do or die' speech that inspired the Quit India
  movement August 8th 1942,
• India would support Britain if they were granted
  immediate independence, Britain refused
• Massive civil disobedience campaign and riots
• Mass arrests on Indians
      WWII – Quit India (#15)
• Importance of the Quit India Movement :
  – British government astonished by observing the
    powerful nationalistic feelings of the Indians added
    with anti-British feeling
  – convinced the British Government that their days
    were numbered in India and they had to free the
    country – anti-British feeling too much
  – The Quit India Movement quickened the process of
• India gains independence August 15, 1947
                        Yo Yo Yo


  Quit India Movement
Gandhi & Hindu/Muslim Conflict
• Brought by the prospect of independence (#16)
• Deep differences led to conflict - historical
• some cooperation at first
• division between INC and Muslim League
• Gandhi hoped the two could live peacefully
  together, with independence
• Muslims fears
  – the Hindu Nationalists would not grant them rights
  – Muslim feared being a minority in a Hindu nation
    =own nation
• the Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali
  Jinnah, demands for a separate Muslim nation
Two Nations; disappointed Gandhi
• August 15, 1947: Indian Independence
  (#17) – Britain no longer had resources to
  – Indian Independence Act (1947)
  – (#20) Non-violent Revolution
• Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of
• Mountbatten was appointed Viceroy of
  India in 1947 and he oversaw the creation
  of the independent states of India and
                         Yo Yo Yo


 Independence of India
(East Pakistan)
               Jawaharlal Nehru
 Ally of Gandhi.
 1st Prime Minister
  of India,
 Led by
  Muhammad Ali Jinnah
 governor-general of a newly
  formed Pakistan.
 Conflicts in Pakistan divides
    W. Pakistan = Pakistan

   E.   Pakistan = Bangladesh
Two Nations; disappointed Gandhi
The subcontinent was divided (partitioned)
  – Muslim: Pakistan - to protect Muslin minority –
    Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  – Hindu: India
• Gandhi refused to celebrate Indian
  independence b/c of the violence,
  Heartbroken (#17)
                         Yo Yo Yo


 Formation of Pakistan
       Hindu-Muslim Conflict
• At partition, Mutual violence during mass
  migration (#17)
• 500,000 died in the fighting between the
  two nations
• Gandhi: guilt b/c he failed to convert
  people to non-violence
• Gandhi’s Hunger strike to end the violence
  – successful
                         Yo Yo Yo


 Hindu/Muslim Conflict
         India after Gandhi
• Gandhi assassinated about 1 year after
  India’s independence (1948)
• shot by a Hindu extremist – Nathuram
  Godse (#19) on 30 January 1948
            I took courage in both my hands
            and I did fire the shots at Gandhiji
            on 30th January 1948, on the
            prayer-grounds of Birla House.
            I do say that my shots were fired at
            the person whose policy and action
            had brought rack and ruin and
            destruction to millions of Hindus.
            There was no legal machinery by
            which such an offender could be
            brought to book and for this reason
            I fired those fatal shots.
Rama – Indian Word: God(#19)
• Some questions on last words

                       Raj Ghat - A National Memorial
                           Yo Yo Yo


 Assassination of Gandhi
India After Gandhi

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