Cardiovascular Disease

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Cardiovascular Disease
   Diseases of the heart and blood vessel system
     Heart disease is #1 killer in the United States
     Stroke #3
     Washington State (CDC)

   Cardiovascular disease also contributes to mortality
    across the globe (World Heart Federation)
   WHO: atlas of heart disease and stroke
Cardiovascular Disease
   Many different terms
   Conditions are frequently
                  What is blood pressure?
                  “Hypertension” = “high blood
                  A measure of the force blood
                   exerts against the walls of
                    Systole - pressure when
                     heart contracts
                    Diastole - pressure when
                     heart relaxes
Why Does Hypertension Matter?
   Hypertension damages
    inner lining of artery
   Artery bleeds
   Injured area clots, can
    accumulate “plaque”
   Animation
   Plaque buildup within an artery or arteries
   A normal artery allows room for blood to flow
   An atherosclerotic artery has plaque buildup as a result of
    damage to the blood vessel
   An artery becomes damaged
     High blood pressure
     Smoking

   Vessel bleeds, forms clot, accumulates plaque
       Calcium, fibrin, cholesterol
Thrombus and Embolus
   When a blood clot or other foreign body in a
    blood vessel (thrombus) prevents blood delivery,
    the human tissue needing the blood delivery can
    be damaged
   When a blood clot or piece of plaque breaks off of
    its origin and travels through the blood vessel
    system (embolus), human tissue can be damaged
   Can occur in arteries and veins
Coronary Artery Disease,
Myocardial Infarction
                   When atherosclerosis
                    occurs in the coronary
                    arteries supplying blood
                    to the heart, the condition
                    is labeled coronary artery
                    disease (CAD)
                   CAD can cause a
                    myocardial infarction
                    (heart attack)
Coronary Artery Disease,
Myocardial Infarction
   Coronary artery occlusion
   Myocardial infarction
   Coronary artery plaque may not completely halt
    blood flow but instead reduce it: ischemia
       Blood flow reduction to body’s tissues
       Angina (chest pain or pressure) may result when
        ischemia occurs in the heart
   When a blockage occurs in the brain, reduced
    blood flow can cause a stroke
   Normal rhythm = sinus rhythm
       SA node, AV node, bundle branches
   Too fast = tachycardia
   Too slow = bradycardia
   Irregular heartbeat
     Variation from normal sinus rhythm
     Supraventricular tachycardia
     Atrial fibrillation
               Instead of single impulse in the SA node, can be >400bpm
     Ventricular tachycardia
     Ventricular fibrillation
Cardiac Arrest
   Different from myocardial infarction
   An electrical event
   Usually due to underlying heart disease
   Heart stops due to ventricular fibrillation
   CPR can help blood flow, but defibrillation
    needed to restart heart

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