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6 Conflict theorists classify the few who own the means of production as by 3kQWm23H

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									MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the
question.

1) Susie is a first year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend
underage drinking parties. She fears the shame and disappointment it may create for her parents if she happened to
be arrested. Such a situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

A)   inner control
B)   formal control
C)   pushes
D)   pulls

2) Based on strain theory, the most common mode of adaptation is ________.

A)   ritualism
B)   retreatism
C)   conformity
D)   innovation

3) The passage of "three strikes and you're out" laws has, in some cases, resulted in mandatory life imprisonment
sentences for relatively minor offenses. Such outcomes illustrate what functional theorists describe as ________.

A) manifest functions
B) unintended consequences
C) recurring and patterned phenomena
D) secondary deviance

4) The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?

A)   structural functionalism
B)   the neo-conflict perspective
C)   the conflict perspective
D)   symbolic interactionism

5) Which set of personal characteristics is most associated with being incarcerated in a prison or jail in the United
States?

A) white, single, age 18 to 40
B) African American, single, age 25 to 40
C) age 18 to 24, African American, single
D) married, white, age 30 to 50

6) Conflict theorists classify the few who own the means of production as ________ and those who sell their labor
to these owners as ________.

A) capitalists; the working class
B) moral entrepreneurs; the working class
C) the upper middle class; the lower middle class
D) capitalists; the petty bourgiosie
7) The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but
not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is ________ theory.

A)   strain
B)   labeling
C)   control
D)   illegitimate opportunity

8) According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness.
This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.

A)   anomie
B)   retreatism
C)   mass hysteria
D)   latent dysfunction

9) Which of the following theories least follows the principles of symbolic interactionism?

A)   labeling theory
B)   strain theory
C)   control theory
D)   differential association theory

10) According to control theory, when are inner controls most effective in deterring deviant behavior?

A) When we fear punishment from authorities such as parents or the court system.
B) In situations where there is a strong police presence.
C) When they are applied to members of the middle or upper classes.
D) In the presence of strong attachments, commitments and involvement with other members of society.

11) In The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne was required to wear a scarlet "A" on her dress. Sociologically, this
served as an example of ________ and ________.

A)   a positive sanction; role conflict
B)   a negative sanction; shaming
C)   shaming; a positive sanction
D)   role conflict; an ascribed status

12) Based on differential association theory, delinquents are more likely to come from ________.

A) urban areas with a population over 25,000
B) families living in poverty
C) families that have a history of being involved in crime
D) regions populated by large numbers of minorities

13) Every human group develops a system of formal and informal social controls to enforce norms and discourage
deviance. They do so because deviance ________.

A) undermines predictability, the foundation of social life
B) results in negative acts that cause harm to individuals
C) is immoral and should be controlled
D) contributes to change, which is damaging to a group
14) Biological explanations for deviance focus on ________, inborn tendencies of individuals to commit deviant
acts.

A)    inadequate socialization
B)    instinctual predispositions
C)    neurological irregularities
D)    genetic predispositions

15)    A group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms are referred to as ________.
A)    social bond
B)    social control
C)    social solidarity
D)    the social imperative

16) In any society, what is the primary role of norms?

A) They establish a ranking for what is desirable or undesirable, right or wrong.
B) They codify and attach legal definition to expected behavior.
C) They make communications possible by attaching consistent meanings to actions.
D) They make social life possible by making behavior predictable.

17) During World War II, many Japanese pilots committed suicide by crashing their planes loaded with explosives
into U.S. warships. This act of suicide was accorded high praise by the Japanese and these pilots where considered
heroic warriors. This bestowing of honor and praise are examples of ________.

A)    negative sanctions
B)    degradation ceremonies
C)    positive sanctions
D)    shaming

18) Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as not being worthy to be members
of a group are called ________.

A)    profiling
B)    degradation ceremonies
C)    sanctions
D)    stereotyping

19) A group's customary social arrangements are referred to as ________.

A)    the social imperative
B)    differential enforcement
C)    functional control
D)    social order

20) In which of the following settings would shaming be least effective?

A) a small religious cult
B) an inner-city neighborhood
C) the family
D) a close knit society, such as the Amish
21) Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamo tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using
hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

A) non-conforming behavior
B) the cultural relativity of deviance
C) the need for absolute standards in defining deviance
D) the need for social sanctions in their culture

22) Unwritten, taken-for-granted rules that underlie our everyday lives are referred to as ________.

A)   techniques of socialization
B)   social props
C)   defense mechanisms
D)   background assumptions

23) Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.

A)   master status
B)   sanction
C)   stigma
D)   role

24) A specific form of norms that are written into a comprehensive code and enforced by the state are ________.

A)   mores
B)   laws
C)   folkways
D)   taboos
1) A

2) C

3) B

4) D

5) C

6) A

7) A

8) A

9) B

10) D

11) B

12) C

13) A

14) D

15) B

16) D

17) C

18) B

19) D

20) B

21) B

22) D

23) C

24) B

								
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