Development of Mega-urban Regions by wuyunyi


									                    Development of Mega-urban Regions
                          The Example of Pearl River Delta

Superordinate Objectives:

   •   Analysis of the processes related to the development of highly complex, mega urban
       settlement areas in the Perl River delta by the example of the resource 'water'.
   •   Description of the influence of local parameters on formal settlement structures.
   •   Deflection of knowledge for future decisions regarding to urban extensions and
       respectively to the change of existing settlement parts.


   •   Definition of characteristic, more or less homogeneous urban areas > 'urban cells'.
   •   Identification of the ecological, economic and social specific values of the 'urban cell'
       types and the appropriate reciprocity.
   •   Examination of these specific values based on representative case examples
   •   Description of discrepancies/diversifications of the 'urban cell'-types due to local
   •   Assignment of the discrepancy tendencies and the total characteristics respectively to
       typical 'urban cell'-types on planned interferences/measures in the settlement
       development (extension, restructuring, removal)

Extended Abstract:

In complex aggregations like mega urban areas are, the different scale of consideration seems
to be an enormous challenge. The analysis of the total area or of the normally large
administration units does not give a differentiated point of view. The investigations on the
lowest level (e.g. individual buildings) lead to a no longer controllable and interpretable
complexity. In order to understand and structure the complex system of mega urban areas, it is
necessary to subdivide the large urban agglomeration units into smaller units. Therefore
recurring microstructures – for example individual building types and their adjacent areas –
will be combined into agglomerations with homogeneous characteristics. With regard to the
settlements in China resulting from centralistic planning – also in the Pearl River delta -
urbane units can be identified very well. These units exhibit both in its building and free space
structure and in its social and economic composition a relatively high homogeneity.

With these 'urban cells' it seems to be possible to structure the complex system of megacities
and to reduce the complexity to important characteristic or meaningful elements. The different
'urban cell' types with their ecological, economic and social characteristics and in particular
their changes can describe as 'basis structure' for the overall system 'megacity Pearl River
delta'. For the definition and classification of such ’urban cells’ the region of he Pearl River
delta offer themselves structures e.g. in the province Guangdong, which are originated from
the traditional and current settlement development and based on natural units below the level
of the entire settlement complex. Examples for this structures may be strongly closed building
structures or blocks. Traditional examples in China are houses with courtyard or the
particularly in the communist era developed 'Danwei'. The defined settlement structures are
typical for housing units, types of work or industry and place of sociocultural activities. These
units can be aggregated to spatial categories or 'urban cells' with similar ecological
characteristic values, economic functions and social structures.

These spatial units provide a basis for the structural analysis of the actual situation and the
reciprocal effects resulting from it. In decentralized systems such spatial patterns are rather
unplanned. They result from economic and social necessities and often subject disturbances
and eventualities. In centralistic systems spatial patterns are clearer and subject often to
functional rules and structures. The interaction of these units as well as their importance to the
total system, their influence on the dynamic urban development and streams of resources are
matters of particular interest. It permits to define units, which are well suitable for the
illustration of processes with a suitable and manageable resolution, without a strong
The purpose and the approach of the research project become evident from the following

Fig. 1 Selection of representative sections of the mega urban area 'Pearl River Delta'

Fig. 2 Definition of the typology and demarcation of the ’urban cells’, Analyse the interaction between different
‘urban cell’-types in view of the medium ‘water’, Analyse the different ‘urban cell’-types in view on urban
spatial, ecological and sociocultural aspects (Layer), Display the interaction between these dimensions in view
on the medium ‘water’

Fig. 3 Representation of the effects of local processes on the ‘ideal type' of ’urban cells’
Work schedule

Institute of Landscape Ecology and Landscape Planning

'Urban cells' and their social, ecological and economic characteristics - which serve
methodically as a basic element for the analysis of Pearl River Delta – find their spacial
forming in analogical building and open space structures. Spacial structures and underlying
use patterns are elementary parameters for the definition and classification of 'urban cells'.
The contribution of city and landscape planning – represented by the institute of landscape
ecology and landscape planning – will be in particular:

•      the integrative consideration of building and open space structures (city morphology)
       as spacial expression and 'stage' of corresponding ecological, socio-cultural and
       economic processes
•      the analysis of accordant attributes relating to buildings and open space and their form
       and utilisation
•      the description and differentiation of informal influences on formal designed
•      the identification of spacial and structural links between different 'urban cells' and their
•      the placement of different types of 'urban cells' in the spatial context of mega-urban
       settlement structures in the Pearlriver-Delta.

Work steps 'city morphology'

    1. Interdisciplinary synchronisation: kick-off meeting / workshop in the Pearlriver
       Delta: in this meeting fine-tuning of the research approach and work contents will be
       made between german and chinese cooperation partners
    2. Analysis of Pearl River Delta as a whole: Initially Pearlriver Delta will be analyzed
       on the basis of satellite images and with the aid of GIS-systems. Thereby a first
       differentiation and characterisation of spacial research fields can be made. In this
       regard areas with different densities of settlement e.g. city centres, peripheral zones or
       rural areas are of particular interest. The consideration of superordinate settlement
       types – ranging from very dense city centres to open rural structures - is essential for
       the description of dynamics of the mega-urban region 'Pearlriver-Delta'.
    3. Differentiation of city morphology: On the basis of this first pre-differentiation each
       level of settlement density (as mentioned above) will be ubiquitous analysed. The
       following parameters will be thereby considered:
           • Site structure and density: spatial composition, height
           • Open space structure: equivalent
           • Type of use: trade, industry, residential area, agriculture, traffic etc.
    4. Interdisciplinary synchronisation: These informations from the 'city morphology'
       layer will be synchronised with the results of the other fields of research in reference
       to a superordinate categorisation. The outcome of this is a definition of a 'urban cell'
       typology. The classification and selection of 'urban cell' types to be analysed in detail
       results to a great extent from the verification of their representativeness and thereby
       from their significance for the mega-urban system as a whole.
      5. Determination of formal presettings: The state intended by official planning
         authorities, administrations and decision-makers ('ideal type') is being determined for
         the different types of 'urban cells'
      6. Implementation of case studies: In cooperation with all involved disciplines several
         case studies will be selected (the number depends on the variability of the particular
         'urban cell' type) and analysed in regard to the different 'layers'. In this step the
         analysis for the field of city morphology will be undertaken more in detail for the
         following indicators:
             • building structure: mid-rise dwellings, courthouses, perimeter blocks, free
             composition etc.
             • density of development: height, concentration, utilisation
             • state of buildings: age, quality etc.
             • use: resident (standard), trade, industry, services etc.
             • open space structure: surface area, sealing of soil, vegetation (character and
             • social character of open space: public, private, interstages
             • use of open space: parks, squares, allotment, agriculture, traffic, building
             setbacks, storage space, sports area etc.
      7. Interdisciplinary synchronisation: The data from the different sections form an
         overall picture of particular 'urban cells', their typology and their socio-economic,
         ecological and city-morphological dimensions. This coordination will be
         supplemented by a description of interactions and interdependencies of different
         'urban cells' and their surrounding urban regions respectively.
      8. Comparison of formal presettings and informal realities: This step includes the
         evaluation and comparison of all data from the formal defined settlement system on
         the one hand and the divergence from the 'ideal type' caused by informal processes on
         the other hand. The description of these differentiations will be effected for all
         analysed 'layers'.
      9. Conclusions: From the results of the comparison mentioned above and the correlative
         divergence tendencies conclusions will be drawn for future developments (expansion,
         conversion etc.) of the mega-urban region of Pearlriver Delta. This includes also
         suggestions for relevant control systems and governance.

The operating process of the project will be continuously monitored in regard to the
methology and the intermediary results. Due to this regular feedback examinations and
adjustments of the approaches and particular steps can be made.

Time management
          2006                              2007                           2008                           2009                           2010                       2011

     Analysis of    Differentiation 'city                        Determination of     Implementation of                        Comparison of formal presettings
     whole region   morphology'                                  formal presettings   case studies                             and informal realities
r                                                                                                         Interdisciplinary:                                      Interdisciplinary:
ks                                                                                                        Multi-layer based                                       conclusions /
h                                           Interdisciplinary:
                                                                                                          overall picture of                                      suggestions
o                                           Typology of
                                                                                                          urban cells
p                                           'urban cells'

                                                         Monitoring, feedback and adjustments
Relevant research projects and workshops

Institute of Landscape Ecology and Landscape Planning

   Sino-German Workshop on Sustainable Urban Development and Technology, Foshan,
   08.06.2005, Guangdong, China: "The Design of Urban Landscape – An Integrated
   Approach for Town Planning Projects"
   'Natural Heritage and Ecotourism', Zhangjiajie City, 06. – 12.11.2004, Hunan, China:
   "Between Impact and Integration: Tourism-Related Infrastructure and Landscape
   Aesthetics in Protected Areas"
   Agra (Uttar Pradesh, India) Taj Ecocity
   Directed by: German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Central Pollution Control Board
   (CPCB), India; Duration: since 02/2002
   Cape Town - Tygerberg (Südafrika): Ecological Township Development Plan
   Directed by: City of Cape Town; Duration: since 11/2000
   Ecological urban renewal of Damascus and overall urban development (Syria)
   In cooperation with: Lehrstuhl für Städtebau und Landesplanung / DAAD; University of
   Damascus; Duration: 3/1998 – 3/2001

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