Producing with Optimums Twig Marston, Kansas State University

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					Producing with Optimums

     Twig Marston, PhD
  Extension Beef Specialist
  Kansas State University
   Dichotomies in Beef Industry
 Forage-based vs. Concentrate-based
 Individuality, Independence vs. Alliances
 Commodity-based vs. Value-based
  Marketing
 Disciplined Breeding vs. Mongrelization
 Matching Cows to Production Environment
  vs. Matching Calves to the Marketing
  Environment
    +

-       =
                 Optimum
 The best or most favorable point, degree,
  amount, etc., as of temperature, light, and
  moisture for the growth or reproduction of an
  organism.
 The greatest degree or best result obtained
  or obtainable under specific conditions.
 Most favorable or desirable; best: optimum
  conditions.
Defining the Best (Optimum) Cows


 Low overall costs
 Low feed costs
 Average to above
  average weaning
  weight per cow
  exposed
 High gross income
           Harlen Hughes
     Recipe for the Optimum Cow
   Survives Her Environment
   Transfers Genetics from Bull to Bull
   Supports Her Offspring
   Does Her Own Work
   Produces Salvage Value
            Necessity Traits
 Structure / Soundness
  – Feet and Legs
  – Udder and Teat
  – Hair Shedding
 Domesticated and Long Lived
 Reproductive
  – Age at Puberty
  – Number of Services/Conception
  – Short PPI
 Developing the “Optimum Animal”

 Changing Gene Frequency
  – EPD as indicator traits
  – Independent Culling Levels
  – ERT to simplify the EPD maze
  – Selection indexes / $Values
 DNA Gene - Marker Selection
         Facts about Cows
 As cow weight increases feed intake
  increases
 As cow milk potential increases
  maintenance energy requirements increases
 Selection for direct growth requires more
  feed inputs
  Relationship between Cow
  Production & Carcass Traits

               Weight   Height        BCS
HCWt            0.81     0.69         0.23
Retail Prod.   -0.05     0.03         -0.12
LMA             0.34     0.32         0.24
Marbling       -0.15    -0.17         -0.03
WBSF            0.15     0.22         0.08

                        Nephawe et al., 2004 MARC
      Economic Value of Milk EPD
15
10
 5
 0
 -5 -20   -10       0        10      20      30          40   50
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30

                Low Feed $    Mod Feed $   High Feed $
       Calving Interval by Milk & Growth
                   Genetics
             390.1


                      385.2
                                                 384.3
Days




                                                           378.3




          High Milk-High Growth              Low Milk-Low Growth

                         1st-2nd Calf   2nd-3rd Calf
                                  Cowtek Inc.; 400,000 females; 7 breeds; 2000
A positive correlation exists between
Marbling and Milk EPDs. Marston, 2004
       Longevity of X-Bred Cows
                            MacNeil et al., 1994


Size of                    Milk                Remained in herd
Sire breed              Production               after 6 years
Medium                   Medium                      66%
Medium                     High                      54%
Large                    Medium                      47%
Large                      High                      38%
 Semi-arid Northern Plains environment
           Bend the Growth Curve
1400

1200
                      B
1000
                              A
800

600

400

200

  0
       0     1    2       3       4   5   6
A selection index that results in
maximum genetic gain for a given
selection intensity can be computed
iteratively for any profit function with
continuous differentials within the multi-
dimensional response ellipse.
                Pasternak & Weller, 1993, Anim. Prod. 55:43-50.
            Angus $Values
 Well Researched and Carefully Defined
 Bio-Economic
 Production System Orientated
  – Cow Energy Value ($EN)
  – Weaned Calf Value ($W)
  – Feedlot Value ($F)
  – Grid Value ($G)
  – Beef Value ($B)
Using the $Indexes
 Total Herd Concept
  – β1$EN + β2$W + β3$B = Perfect Beast
 Particular Production Area
  – An area of emphasis or customer need
  – Example $W = sell wean calves & maintain
    cowherd
 Component Solutions
  – Single trait or few trait selection
  –  Ribeye Area to Yield Grade to %CAB
            Finding the Balance


                     Weaning        Hot Carcass        Retail
       Survival
                     Weight           Weight          Product

Pregnancy        Milk                         Carcass
                               Growth
   Rate       Production                       Traits


  10                            2                 2
                                                        Milton, 1995
Cows That Step Up to the
      Challenge
      Three Paradigms of Beef
             Producers
 Cattle Producer
  – Labor user, task-driven, no effective use of information
 Red Meat Producer
  – Record keeper, cost efficient, focused on red meat
 Food Producer
  – Complex, targeting product characteristics which are
    multi-dimensional and directly related to known tastes
    and preferences of consumers
   The Future of the Paradigms
 Cattle Producer – will be around because of the
  love and romance of the business, will stay in
  business if not over leveraged.
 Red Meat Producer – will survive with the
  commodity side of the business.
 Food Producer – will be rewarded by those that
  know the value of quality. Driven by the cost and
  quality controlled production of food made from
  beef.
            Quality Thoughts
 We can now make more mistakes faster than ever
  before.
 Those who refuse to use data will make greater
  and more frequent mistakes.
 Those who refuse to make data will be
  compensated with a smaller piece of the pie.
 Those who control the data control the destiny of
  the industry.
“There is little use in going fast if the
     direction is wrong.” B.P. Kinghorn

				
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posted:8/7/2012
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