PowerPoint Presentation - Animal Welfare by b2oGBV

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									ANIMAL WELFARE
    Carrie Adams
    Justin Butler
    Kelton Mason
    Rachel Speed
    Philip Vinson
       Animal Welfare Issues are
         Present in all Aspects
•On the Farm and
Feedlot

•In Transit


•During Antemortem
Handling


•During Slaughter
                On the Farm

•   Dehorning of Calves
•   Castration
•   Branding
•   Factory farming
•   Growth hormones
•   Ear notching and tail docking
   Dehorning and Tail docking
• Why dehorn?
  – To prevent the bruising of meat
  – Safer to handle Animals
• Why dock tails?
  – hogs- prevent cannibalism
  – sheep- prevent infections and to enhance
    conformation in show animals
  – become common practice throughout the U.S.
                 Castration
• Do at early Age
• To keep bad genetics
  out
• Improves meat
  palatability
• Improved methods of
  castration that are
  more humane
             Identification
• Branding          • Ear Notching
  – Fire              – Ear notchers
  – Freeze            – Knife


• Ear Tags          • Tattoos
Growth Hormones
        • Feed lot Cattle
           – Feed Efficiency
           – Increase gain
        • Dairy Cattle
           – increases milk
             production
        • Animal activists do
          not believe in this type
          of manipulation
  Factory Farming=large profits
• Corporate hog farms-     – mass use of antibiotics
  – crates                    • close to 50% of all
                                antibiotics produced in
     • confinement              the US are administered
     • no social contact        into animal feeds
  – nurseries
     • stress
     • cannibalism
  – feeding floors
     • concrete
     • crowded
          Antemortem handling
•   withholding from feed and water
•   confined pen space
•   abuse and neglect of “downers”
•   use of hot shots and electrical prods
•   proper handling facilities
•   center track double rail restrainer
    Withholding feed and water
• Activists possibly are • Purpose
  uneducated on purpose     – to facilitate
  of this                     evisceration
   – cruel
   – “more hungry” because   • Animals are only
     of enhancing hormones     taken off feed, NOT
                               water
           Confined pen space
• Holding pens
  – animals “packed”
    tightly into pens
  – can not lay down
     • if they do they get
       trampled
  – cement, no bedding
Abuse of neglect of “downers”
               • Downers- animals that
                 are hurt and unable to
                 move properly in
                 some form or fashion
               • employees mishandle
                 these animals
                  – beat
                  – electrical prod
                  – drag
           Handling facilities
• route to knocking block
  – narrow pathway with curves allows for easier
    movement
• center track double rail restrainer
  – allows for more humane handling
  – mainly used for cattle and sheep
• with these methods hot shots are not needed
  as much
Handling systems in action
             Transportation
• Density

• Temperature

• Truck Requirements
                      Density
• Cattle                   Steers     Horned          Polled
                             800 lb   10.9 sq.ft.    10.4 sq.ft.
   – Horned                 1000 lb   12.8 sq.ft.    12.0 sq.ft.
                            1200 lb   15.3 sq.ft.    14.5 sq.ft.
   – Tipped                 1400 lb   19.0 sq.ft.    18.0 sq.ft.

• Lambs                    Pigs        Winter        Summer
   – Months of wool          200 lb   3.5 sq.ft.     4.0 sq.ft.
                             250 lb   4.3 sq.ft.     5.0 sq.ft.
• All
                           Lambs       Shorn        Full Fleece
   – Strength of Animals      60 lb   2.2 sq.ft.     2.3 sq.ft.
                              80 lb   2.5 sq.ft.     2.6 sq.ft.
                             100 lb   2.8 sq.ft.     3.0 sq.ft.
                             120 lb   3.2 sq.ft.     3.4 sq.ft.
    Distance Effect on Density
• Pigs & Lambs               • Cattle
  – over 2 hours needed to      – Distance should not
    lie down                      effect density
  – 8 hour layover to rest      – Stocked tight enough
    on long trips                 to support them
  – low center of gravity       – Unable to get back up
    does not increase             if they do lie down
    bruising when they lie      – Research has shown
    down                          Tighter or Looser
                                  densities increase
                                  bruising
          Temperature Effects
• Pigs
  – Below 10 degrees F
     • Cover half of air holes
  – Below 60 degrees F
     • Need straw or shaving
  – Above 60 degrees F
     • Wet sand or shavings
  – Above 80 degrees F
     • Spray with water
          Temperature Effects
• Wind Chill
  – Extremely windy in
    back end of truck
  – Water effects cattle’s
    ability to insulate
  – Sheep can be fresh
    shorn
• Relative Humidity
  – Effects animals ability
    to cool themselves
Truck Requirements
         • Leak Proof Floors
           – Stacked on top of each
             other
           – Keep off highway
         • Height
           – Height is very
             important with today's
             taller cattle
          Truck Requirements

• Sanitation
   – Remove all Feces
     Regularly
   – Disease Transmission
   – Cause Skin Blemishes
     on Pigs
           Death on The Truck
• Lambs
   – Smother down
   – heavy fleece
• Pigs
   – overheat
   – chill down
• Cattle
   – bruising when they get
     down
       Slaughter Welfare Issues
• Stunning Methods and
  Procedures
   – Electrical
   – CO2
   – Captive bolt
• Ritualistic Slaughter
• Properly sticking
• Shackling of animals
       Basic Causes of
  Animal Welfare Problems in
          Slaughter
•Stressful Pre-Slaughter Handling
•Distractions that Impede Animal Movement
•Lack of Employee Training
•Poor Equipment Maintenance
•Poor Condition of the Animals Arriving at
the Plant
             Proper Stunning
• Properly Maintain     • Effectively Assessing
  stunner                 Insensibility
                           – No Vocalization
                           – No Eye movement (if eyes
• Proper Placement of        open, blank stare)
                           – Legs may kick, but head
  stunner                    must be limp, if it does
                             contract it must become
                             limp within 20 sec.
                           – Rhythmic breathing must
                             stop, but short gasps are
                             okay
Results of 1996 and 1999 Audits
          1996                       1999
   30% of beef plants         90% of beef plants
 passed Stunning Audit      passed Stunning Audit

   89% of cattle were        96.61% of cattle were
stunned correctly on first stunned correctly on first
        attempt                    attempt
   Insuring Humane Slaughter

• Humane Slaughter Act of 1978
• Audits conducted periodically by USDA and
  major corporations
• The American Meat Institute Guidelines for
  proper slaughter
• Recommended Animal Handling Guideline for
  Meat Packers
• USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection
  Service
  Conceptions and Misconceptions
• Animals are killed by     • Animals with their
  the stunner.                eyes open are not
                              necessarily alive.
• If not properly stunned
  the animal is alive       • Involuntary reflexes
  throughout the              occur postmortem.
  slaughter process.
 Animal Welfare Organizations
• PETA     (People for the
 Ethical Treatment of Animals)
  – Founded in 1980
  – Dedicated to establishing and
    protecting animals rights.
  – 700,000 members
  – “Not ours to eat, eat,
    experiment on, or use for
    entertainment.”
  – Focus on: factory farms,
    laboratories, fur trade, and
    entertainment industry
   “The solution for the meat
      industry is secrecy.”
• HFA (Humane
  Farming Association)
  – Founded in 1985
  – Goals: protect farm
    animals, the public,
    and the environment
  – 150,000 members
  – Abused animal refugee
• “www.meat.org”
          Activist’s campaigns
– Activists bare all for bovines   “Modern intensive livestock
                                   agriculture significantly contributes
  (April 23)
                                   to ecological threats, such as air
                                   and water pollution, soil erosion and
                                   depletion, the destruction of tropical
– Battle of the Charities: PETA
                                   rain forests and other habitats, and
  Billboard challenges March of    global warming, the wasteful use of
  Dimes Animal Tests (April 23)    water, fuel, land, fertilizer, and other
                                   agricultural resources, and the
                                   growth of disease-causing
– Coke’s got milk, PETA has a      antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This
  cow (April 17)                   industry must also share
                                   responsibility for the deaths of 15 to
                                   20 million people per year because
– PETA has beef with Burger        of hunger and its effects, as 70
                                   percent of the grain produced in the
  Bullies (April 3)
                                   United States and over one-third of
                                   the grain produced worldwide is fed
                                   to animals destined for slaughter.”
                                   (www.meat.org)
                References

•   “www.grandin.com” with additional links
•   “www.peta.org”
•   “www.meat.org”
•   “www.factoryfarming.com”
•   “www.hfa.org”
•   “www.animalcruelty.com”
•   “www.merritt-equip.com”

								
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