Native Americans in Art Keepers of the Earth Unit

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Native Americans in Art Keepers of the Earth Unit Powered By Docstoc
					                                                 Keepers of the Earth
                                            Depictions of Native Americans
                                                         in Art

                                                       Patsy Disney
                                                 Mason Intermediate School
                                                       Mason, Ohio

                                                            Fall 2010

      ”In today’s world, love, art, and magic are greatly needed.”

                                                 -Fritz Scholder

My plan is to introduce two famous artists known for Native American paintings.
George Catlin (1796-1872) is best known as a painter of Native Americans who traveled
extensively throughout North America in the 1830s, painting hundreds of “Indians”
while keeping record of his journeys. Fritz Scholder (1937-2005) my second choice, is best known for
his abstract expressionism/pop art, and who became a major influence on an
entire generation of artists who paint and sculpt what is known as contemporary American
Indian art today. My end goal in this lesson plan is to introduce visuals to help analyze Native
American lifestyles and open discussions on North American locations, places, regions, and
movement and explore how these two famous artists interpreted and developed, in an artistic
way, the same in their art. Even though I’m not an art teacher, I’ll attempt to introduce and
encourage students to explore their literary artistic licenses and demonstrate that visual art
techniques can be a dynamic tool used to inspire oneself to develop a piece of art to symbolize deeper
meanings and emotions.
              Overview/ Materials/LOC Resources/Standards/ Procedures/Evaluation/Rubric/Handouts/Extension

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Objectives                              What is a Native American?
                                        We have textbook renditions of early Native American life but how does two
                                         famous Native American artists George Catlin and Fritz Scholder view Native
                                        How would other artists illustrate Native Americans?
                                        Students will learn about artistic genres/ interpretations through research,
                                         drawing, and the production of a finished product.
                                        Students will discuss topics such as personal rituals and change and create a
                                         piece of art that expresses their own artistic ideas about topics
                                        Students will use art, writing, and word processing and other multimedia
                                         resources to present to others.

Recommended time frame          2-4 wks
Grade level                       5
Curriculum fit                 Social Studies and Language Arts
Materials                      Social studies journal, art supplies, construction paper, Geography poems, magazines,
                               Classroom social studies textbooks
                               Online resources
                               Graphic organizers
                                maps, poems,
                               Art history visuals -- no matter the form
                               Assorted music CDs
                               Materials could include but are not limited to: pencil, pen, marker, tissue paper, chalk,
                               crayons, pastel, acrylic, oil, or watercolor paint; cardboard, foam core and hot glue, wood,
                               clay, plaster, or paper mache.

                                   Ohio State Learning Standards
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                               Social Studies:
                                        Explain how American Indians settled the continent and
                                         why different nations of Indians interacted with their environment in different
                                        Compare the cultural practices and products of diverse groups in North America
                                            Artistic expressions;
                                        Describe and compare the landforms, climates, population, culture and economic
                                         characteristics of places and regions in North America.
                                        Analyze different perspectives on a topic obtained from a variety of resources
                                        Organize historical information in text or graphic format and analyze the
                                         information in order to draw conclusions.
                                        Compare important details about a topic, using different sources of information,
                                         including books and online resources
                               Language Arts:
                                     Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate
                                         comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and
                                         visual media.
                                     Compare important details about a topic, using different sources of
                                         information, including books, magazines, newspapers and online resources.
                                     Interpret how an author’s choice of words appeals to the senses and
         suggests mood.
        Identify and explain the use of figurative language in literary
         works, including similes and metaphors
        Write responses to novels, stories and poems that organize an
         interpretation around several clear ideas, and justify the interpretation through
         the use of examples and specific textual evidence.
        Produce informal writings (e.g., journals, notes and poems) for
         various purposes.
        Generate a topic assigned or personal interest, and open-ended questions for
         research and develop a plan for gathering information.
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Read textbooks to gather information so students will be able to compare the cultural
practices and products of diverse groups in North America including taking notes on
artistic expressions, religion, language, food, clothing, and shelter. Students should also
be able to review, describe and compare the regional landforms, climates, and economic
characteristics of places in North America.
Vocabulary game review with content:
Summarizing Text, Main Idea and Supporting Details Activity:
Read The Important Book by Margaret Wise Brown to demonstrate the pattern.
As students interpret information from various sources, they can practice identifying and
organizing main ideas and supporting details. Students can organize collected information
in an appropriate format (outlines, tables, graphs, line/bar graphs, charts, or digital
Additional Activity for texts: Write 4 questions about your text to check your partner has
understood the text.
The Art of Freedom by Bob Raczka: a good resource to introduce students to artists and
their interpretation of how a variety of artists see America. What background knowledge
must these artists have in order to create art about their subjects? Do you think they
research their subjects first?
Questions to Ponder:
If you were making a piece of art and you wanted to create a feeling of insecurity, how
would you do that? How could you make it balanced or imbalanced? Symmetrical or
Brainstorm ways students could use art to express their ideas about the
Native American issues such as discrimination, controversy, tragedy, spirituality, strength,
compassion, security, freedom, danger, etc.
What kinds of forms, shapes, lines, and colors would you use?
How would you use line? Form? Shape?

Native Americans/ Question to ask
Throughout our studies of Native Americans have you seen textbook and picture book
examples of artistic interpretations?
Let’s look at two particular artists’ interpretations of
Native Americans by viewing a slide presentation. (You may want to introduce George
Catlin and Fritz Scholder first by opening the 2 artist websites listed below or
read snippets orally to students while viewing the Keepers of the Earth slides.)

Background of the artists:
GEORGE CATLIN: (great site for student interaction)

Handouts for slides: To students: Note if their artistic expression denotes authentic
examples of cultural practices such as religion, language, food, clothing, shelter, etc.
And if not, then why not?
Optional Handouts:
Students will write a paragraph from a picture slide that describes a place including
several details and word pictures that appeal to the senses.

Making Connections Through Poetry
There are lots of ways poets and illustrators communicate emotions: to speak directly, in
words, or elements of art, such as line, color, shape, form, space, and texture.

Researching Art Techniques, and Illustrating Writing Through the ‘Isms’
What kind of experiences do you have when you look at different kinds of lines? Does a
smooth, flowing line communicate something different to you than a sharp, jagged line?
What effect do different shapes have on you? Do you get a different feeling from seeing a
painting with a lot of squares, rectangles, and angles than you get from seeing a painting
with lots of curves and round shapes? How can you create a sense of motion in a still piece
of art?
Fantastic Site for Exploring Art:

Using Your Five Senses: Color Poems
Can the same color evoke different feelings? For example, what are some
of the associations you have with the color red? Are they all positive, all negative, or some
of each?
If you were making a painting or an illustration in a book or on a poster and you wanted
to create a feeling of warmth and security, what colors would you use? If you wanted to
create a feeling of coldness and dread, what colors would you use?

Discuss the meaning of symbolism and have students give examples from everyday life
(something stands for something else; an eagle stands for freedom. peace signs,
white dove, flag, Statue of Liberty, etc.) Find examples of symbolism in textbooks.
Would you say that the words for our team name “Keepers of the Earth” are a symbol?
That it is not a symbol, but that it is symbolic? Could we create a visual symbol for our
team name, “Keepers of the Earth”? Who, in history, are the “Keepers of the Earth?”
Design a symbol for our team shirts using an artist you’re interested in from the list
Create a shape poem about our team name using the symbol you created.


Define metaphor:Painting Pictures with Poetry
Visual metaphors: What is an example of a visual metaphor?
Is “Keepers of the Earth” a visual metaphor? In what way?
Activity: In the lesson plan below, students will select a favorite poem from a class poetry
unit and create a collage or digitally-produced illustration of the poem’s imagery.
Optional Activity: A Vision of Poetry

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Poetic Expression and Art Expression
Suggestions for final art interpretations and projects might include but
are not limited to the following materials: pencil, pen, marker, tissue
paper, chalk, crayons, pastel, acrylic paints, oil paints, watercolor paint,
cardboard, foam core and hot glue, wood, clay, plaster, paper mache.
canvas, music, technology, etc.
No specific rubrics are provided. Too many variables. Most of the lessons
included in this project provide a rubric. The final assignment should be
based more on artistic interpretation than a letter grade. In art, there is
no right or wrong answers. Teacher digression is encouraged. Students
will thoughtfully critique their own and each other’s projects.
Activities Might Include:
___ Student created skit ___ Power point presentation             ____ Poster or collage
____ Poetry book               ___ Make a magazine                ____ Create a newscast
____ Puppet Show               ___ Musical CD                     ____ Art Portfolio

Native American Poetry Anthology: “Tweak” this activity to suit your needs

Poetry Technology
Lipz:reading a poem aloud

21st Century Technology Tools:
Encourage students to use 21st Century Technology to complete their final
project. They might want to use the following sites:
Analyzing music
Creating music to accompany pics using adobe

Display all art projects in the library, in the classroom, or as a link
on Parent Edline.

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Vincent van Gogh’s Cat: Written and illustrated by the Second Grade Students of
                           East Washington Academy in Muncie, Indiana
Animalia:Written by Grahame Base Have students create their own anthology of Native
                           American topics using this picture book format.
Instant poetry formats:
Trail of Tears and Poem
Greatest Hits CD : Create a musical CD with 10 track titles that reflect what students
learned from the unit. Refer to their textbook, journal, and class notes when thinking
about their song titles. They must also design and create their own CD case. Be prepared
to explain your song title choices to the class.
Extra credit: Write the lyrics to one or more of their songs or perform your song on the
project due date.
Acting Out History
     Primary Resources from the Library of Congress
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George Catlin, Catlin Painting the
Portrait of Mah-to-toh-pa—Mandan        JPEG Image      
(detail), 1861/1869, National Gallery                             linpainting-detail.jpg
of Art, Paul Mellon Collection

George Catlin, Iowa Indians Who         JPEG Image      
Visited London and Paris, 1861/1869,                              walondonparis.jpg
National Gallery of Art, Paul Mellon

George Catlin, The White Cloud,
Head Chief of the Iowas, 1844/1845,     JPEG Image      
National Gallery of Art, Paul Mellon                              itecloud400.jpg

Indian in Canoe                         20.39 KB (20,880 bytes)
Fritz Scholder Artwork                                            vers/sch1/photos/sch1-020a.gif
Fritz Scholder
                                        JPEG Image                         ml
American Artist (1937-2005)

Photo of the West                       JPEG Image                         2876/10032903.jpg

Northwest portion of "Map showing       compiled under the direction of    http://content.lib.washingto
Indian Reservations within the limits   the Hon. T. J. Morgan,
of the United States U.S. Census        Commissioner of Indian Affairs."
Office. 11th Census. 1890, V.10                                            3.jpg

By a stream                             GIF Image                
Although no photographs of the
actual massacre at Wounded Knee,
South Dakota, exist, George E.         [LC-USZ62-44458 (black & white
Trager was the first photographer to
                                       film copy negative]
record the burial of the frozen                                         /coll/images/burial.gif
corpses of Lakota Sioux Indians in
January 1891

                                       Photographer, April 11, 1934.
                                       SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSE            habshaer/nm/nm0000/nm0
Historic American Buildings Survey     No. 3, BLOCK No. 1
M. James Slack,                        HABS NM,31-ACOMP,1-12

                                       M. James Slack, Photographer,
Historic American Buildings Survey     April 12, 1934 SOUTH             habshaer/nm/nm0000/nm0
                                       ELEVATION HOUSE NO. 7
                                       BLOCK 1.
                                       HABS NM,31-ACOMP,1-20

                                       Historic American Buildings
Second Floor Interior House            Survey M. James Slack,           habshaer/nm/nm0000/nm0
                                       Photographer, April 12, 1934

An Indian woman in front of her        Rothstein, Arthur, 1915-1985,
tepee. Many Indians on the             photographer.CREATED/PUBLI       ice/pnp/fsa/8b27000/8b271
Mescalero Reservation in New           SHED                             00/8b27127t.gif
Mexico live in such primitive tents.   1936 Apr.
Chilkat dancers pose in ceremonial    Pacific_indians_key.jpg
dress with wood carvings, Alaska,                               mem/collections/pacific/im
1895.                                                           ages/pacific_indians_key.j

Fancy Dancer                                                    es/1/0040/5222/products/ps
Fritz Scholder Artwork                0.7 KB (713 bytes)        1022-

Bannock family with their tepee and   ca. 1902                  bin/thumbnail.exe?CISOR
drying rack near the Snake River,

Cayuse twins in cradleboards,         October 2, 1898           bin/thumbnail.exe?CISOR

Cayuse women in beaded clothing
pose with beaded and woven objects    JPEG                      bin/thumbnail.exe?CISOR
American Notes
                                    HyperText Transfer Protocol
Travels in America                                                   hbtn/th018/0055.gif

Preparing cedar bark--Nakoaktok]    HyperText Transfer Protocol      201/92520136/92520136/g

    Title: On the housetop--Hopi    Creator(s): Curtis, Edward S.,
    Summary: Women seated and       1868-1952, photographer Date     271/200271949/200271949
    standing on pueblo buildings.   Created/Published: c1906         0/gallery.jpg
                                    December 19.
    Hasen harvest [B]--Qahatika.       Digital ID: (b&w film copy neg.)
    Three women walking through        cph 3c06258                           198/92519836/92519836/g
    desert, two with pot on head,   allery.jpg
    Arizona                            258

                                       Digital ID: (b&w film copy neg.)
Indian on horse pulling travois        cph 3b43934
                                       3934                                  140/89714087/89714087/g

                                       Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952,
Basketry of the Mission Indians        photographer Date
                                       Created/Published: c1924.             055/90705516/90705516/g

                                       HyperText Transfer Protocol
Kwakiutl Indians in boat, British                                            allery.jpg

                                           Curtis, Edward S., 1868-
Village criers on horseback, Bird On       1952, photographer Date
the Ground and Forked Iron, Crow           Created/Published: c1908.         012/93501210/93501210/g
Indians, Montana                                                             allery.jpg

                                       JPEG Image
Plains Dancer                                                                g/achievers/sch1/photos/sc
Fritz Scholder Artwork
                                        Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952,
[Entering the Bad Lands. Three          photographer Date
Sioux Indians on horseback]             Created/Published: c1905.           068/93506834/93506834/g
                                        Medium: 1 photographic print.       allery.jpg

                                        Created/Published: [Charleston,
                                        S.C. : T.F. Gray and James, 1837]
An Indian town, residence of a chief
                                        Medium: 1 print : lithograph,       8/gallery.jpg
    .                                   hand-colored.

George Catlin, Three Celebrated Ball
Players—Choctaw, Sioux, and
Ojibbeway                                   JPEG Image

A tableau dramatizing the brutal                                            s/static/data/media/200/200
tactics employed by Zachary Taylor as   Published: N.Y. : Published by
commander of U.S. forces against the    James Baillie, 1848.                2/gallery.jpg
Seminole Indians during the Second
Seminole War (1835-42).

The Running Fox on a Fine Horse—
                                        JPEG Image                          atlin/runningfox.jpg
Saukie, 1861/1869,

Indian with flag, 1979                                                      http://www.achievement.or
Fritz Scholder Artwork                  28.35 KB (29,030 bytes)             g/achievers/sch1/photos/sc
A congress of American Indians [..
Buffalo Bill's Wild West and            Date Created/Published: Buffalo,
congress of rough riders of the world   New York: Courier Litho. Co.,      4/gallery.jpg

Buffalo Lancing in the Snow Drifts—         JPEG Image
Sioux (detail), 1861/1869,

Red Number 7                                                               http://www.achievement.or
Fritz Scholder Artwork                  31.54 KB (32,293 bytes)

                                            JPEG Image
What design would you like painted                                         atlin/hand.gif
on your face?

Buffalo Dancer                          Archive 31Oct2001 Disk#2           eum/media/full/820038407
Fritz Scholder
                     JPEG Image
Fritz Scholder                    .jpg
Self Portrait

                     JPEG Image
Kachina Dancers                   30011.jpg

Indian Target           
                  JPEG Image
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Replace this text with an assessment rubric for your learning experience. There are some excellent web sites such as that simplify rubric development.
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            Five Themes of Geography: Vocabulary/Ways to Look at a Region

Absolute: a location can be absolute (specific) as defined with latitude and longitude lines; coordinates
         Where were you born?
         Where do you live? Write down your street address
         Where is the most beautiful place you’ve ever been to? Where is this place located?
Relative: in the same general location as another location
                Example: next to the school, next door, down the road from…., North of….. SW of …

Antarctica South Pole
School includes wall, windows, gym, cafeteria, classrooms, people, clothing, books, maps, hallways, and
everything else in the school, including the languages spoken there
What human-environment relationships are occurring?
Physical features     human features        rivers        cities       language      tradition
landforms     waterways people              climate       languages    communication         transportation
ecosystems natural resources         environmental pollution

Larger than a place or location
Defined by certain unifying, similar characteristics such as climate or industry
Geographers also study characteristics on how regions around the world may change over time
Physical/ natural
Deserts       mountains     grasslands rain forests climate
Religion      language      industry vegetation        cultural Commercial residential  business

The way people, products, information and ideas move from one place to another
Local: how did you get to school today?
Global: how did humans get to North America
Deals with how and why people travel from one place to another.
Why does movement occur? Careers, to be close to family, to escape war, religious persecution
How do people, goods, and ideas move to and from this place?
Geographers study how products and resources are transported from one region or place to another;
manufactured products, crops, oil
How people move for a better life/better land/

Human Interaction: Positive and Negative
How do people depend on the environment?
How does this place affect the people living here? Population? Settlement patterns?
How do people adapt to the environment?
How do the people who live here affect this place? How do people modify the environment?
Lasting effects these interactions may have on a place. Damming a river, polluting the air, building highways
or railroads, watering lawns and gardens, planting trees? Creating landfills?
                             THE ELEMENTS OF ART
There are typically six elements of art that can be found in most art
works. Artists use these elements as a "visual alphabet" to produce all
kinds of art forms. The way in which elements are organized is
referred to as the Principles of Design.
Line is the most basic element of art. A line is a continuous mark made
on a surface that can vary in appearance (length, width, texture, and
Color is produced when light strikes an object and reflects back to
your eyes. This element of art has three properties:
Hue: the property of colors by which they can be perceived as ranging
through red, yellow, and blue, as determined by the wavelength of
light (red, yellow, blue)
Intensity: the purity and strength of a color (bright red or dull red)
Value: the lightness or darkness of a color (light blue or dark blue)
Shape is two-dimensional (circle, square, triangle, rectangle) and
encloses space. It can be geometric, man-made, or free form.
Form is three-dimensional, encloses space, and takes up space. It too
can be geometric, man-made or free form.
Space is defined and determined by shapes and forms. Positive space
is where shapes and forms exist; negative space is the empty space
around shapes and forms.
Texture refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object: smooth,
rough, soft, etc.. Textures may be actual (felt with touch, or tactile) or
implied (suggested by the way an artist has created the work of art.
For example, an artist can make a piece of paper can look like it has a
rough texture even if the paper is smooth).

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