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									Advanced Placement Chemistry




            Curriculum




      Vineland Public Schools
           Vineland, NJ
               2004
                  Vineland Board of Education

                       Frank Giordano, President
                   Jacqueline Gavigan, Vice President
                             Mayra Arroyo
                            Allan Bernardini
                            Nicholas Girone
                            Suzanne Morello
                             Richard Smith
                           Christopher Snyder
                         Jennifer Webb-McRae


                           Administration

         Dr. Clarence C. Hoover, III, Superintendent of Schools
      Dr. Keith Figgs, Assistant Superintendent for Administration
Mrs. Marie Adair, Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction
      Mr. Kevin Franchetta, Assistant Superintendent for Business


                       Supervisor of Science
                           Mr. Wade Anastor


                          Committee Person

                             Vicki C. Volpe




                                   2
                 Overview of Advanced Placement Chemistry

Description

       The purpose of this course is two-fold. First, students are provided with an n-
depth development of their current chemistry knowledge base and are introduced to the
new and advanced topics of organic chemistry, electrochemistry, and coordinate covalent
compounds. Secondly, students are provided with a true college level chemistry course
which will enable them to score successfully on the Advanced Placement Chemistry
exam.

       The course is designed for students who will be seeking a career in chemistry,
engineering, medicine, pharmacy, or related technical fields. The pre-requisites are
honors physics and honors chemistry. The textbook used is taken from the College
Board’s list of recommended texts.

        AP Chemistry emphasizes problem solving techniques, experimental
investigations (with special consideration to the College Board’s list of required AP
Chemistry labs,) the development and use of a laboratory notebook, and original
laboratory research.

       Advanced methods of experimentation will include the use of the analytical
balance, pH meter, spectrophotometer, and distillation apparatus.


Goals

   1. The students will be exposed to a variety of learning environments that are
      conducive to our multi-cultural society.

   2. Computer, calculators, spectrophotometers, and related chemical instrumentation
      will be integrated throughout the course.


   3. Students will be able to recognize, describe, and predict patterns and relationships
      from presented data.



                                             3
4. Students will be able to collect, organize, and interpret data in ways that enable
   them to make meaningful interpretations in applied laboratory experiments.


5. Students will enhance their ability to pose a hypothesis, gather data, analyze
   results, and draw conclusions.




6. Students will conduct extended research by analyzing various aspects of a
   proposed topic through a variety of related experiments.

7. Students will comply with all rules governing lab safety- including the wearing of
   goggled and aprons, the use of fire extinguishers, showers and fume hoods, and
   the disposal of hazardous materials.


8. Students will gain an understanding of the role of organic chemistry in the world
   of chemical research, development, and production.

9. Students will gain an understanding of the electrochemistry and its role in voltaic
   cells and reduction/oxidation reactions.


10. Students will gain an understanding of the structure and nomenclature of
    coordinate covalent compounds.

11. Students will be exposed to independent research investigating topics of their
    choice with experimental procedures of their own design.




                                         4
NEW JERSEY CORE CURRICULUM CONTENT SCIENCE STANDARDS

5.1 All students will develop problem-solving, decision-making and inquiry skills
reflected by formulating usable questions, hypotheses, planning experiments, conducting
systematic observations, interpreting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and
communicating results.

5.2 All students will develop an understanding of how people of various cultures have
contributed to the advancement of science and technology, and how major discoveries
and events have advanced science and technology.

5.3 All students will integrate mathematics as a tool for problem-solving in science, and
as a means of expressing and/or modeling scientific theories.

5.4 All students will understand the interrelationships between science and technology
and develop a conceptual understanding of the nature and process of technology.

5.5 All students will gain an understanding of the structure, characteristics, and basic
needs of organisms and will investigate the diversity of life.

5.6 All students will gain an understanding of the structure and behavior of matter.

5.7 All students will gain an understanding of natural laws as they apply to motion,
forces, and energy transformations.

5.8 All students will gain an understanding of the structure, dynamics, and geophysical
systems of the earth.

5.9 All students will gain an understanding of the origin, evolution, and structure of the
universe.

5.10 All students will develop an understanding of the environment as a system of
interdependent components affected by human activity and natural phenomena.




                                              5
                                      Proficiency
Satisfactory student achievement in each of the proficiencies listed in this curriculum
shall be determined by student attainment of the 70% district-passing-standard. Such
proficiency shall be measured by a multiplicity of evaluation techniques and activities
that include, but are not restricted to the following:

       1. Teacher-made tests/quizzes

       2. Class participation

       3. Homework assignments (skill worksheets and article analysis)

       4. Research papers/reports

       5. Projects and models

       6. Original, creative writing assignments

       7. Technical, scientific writing assignments

       8. Oral reports and presentations

       9. Laboratory experiments

       10. Lab notebooks and chemistry journals

       11. Cooperative group projects/activities

       12. Interpretation/creation of charts, graphs, and tables




                                             6
Course Content, Objectives, and Related Standards


 * Safety
                        A. Review of equipment, use, function, and location
                        B. Review of safety rules and techniques
                        C. Objectives: students should be able to…
                               i. maintain an up-to-date lab notebook in
                                  which students record and document all
                                  lab activities. (5.1-12-C-1, WRS-3,5)
                               ii. observe all required guidelines regarding
                                  apparel, safety equipment and chemicals.
                                  (5.1-12.C-1, WRS-3,5)

 1. Chemical Formulas
                        A. Types of Formulas
                        B. Percent Composition
                        C. Empirical Formulas
                        D. Molecular Formulas
                        E. Names of Compounds
                        F. Activities
                              i. Empirical formula lab: Mg and O
                             ii. Percent Water in a Hydrate lab
                        G. Objectives: students should be able to…
                              i. Write an empirical formula and molecular
                                 formula given percent composition. (5.3-
                                 12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                             ii. Determine percent composition given the
                                 molecular formula (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-
                                 1)
                            iii. Name all inorganic compounds including
                                 binary, tertiary, and hydrates using IUPAC
                                 rules (5.6-12-A-4)
                            iv. Determine the empirical formula of an
                                 oxide of magnesium via experimentation
                                 (5.1-12-B-1, 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)


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                         v. Determine the number of waters of
                            hydration in a given hydrate via
                            experimentation (5.1-12-B-1, 5,1-12-C-1,
                            WRS-2,3,5)

2.   Matter and Measurements
                  A. Measurements
                  B. Hierarchy of Matter
                  C. Identification of Pure Substances
                  D. Separation of Pure Substances
                  E. Activities
                         i. Thin layer chromatography of aspirin and
                            related analgesics
                        ii. Distillation of limonene and TLC
                            confirmation
                       iii. Demonstration of column chromatography
                  F. Objectives: students should be able to…
                         i. Distinguish between chemical and
                            physical properties (5.6-8-A-4)
                        ii. Describe the structure of matter in
                            qualitative and quantitative terms (5.6-8-
                            A-4)
                       iii. Separate limonene from orange peels via
                            steam distillation (5.1-12-B-1, 5.1-12-B-2,
                            5.1-12-C-1, WRS 2,3,5)
                       iv. Confirm the identification of an unknown
                            analgesic via TLC (5.1-12-B-1, 5.1-12-B-
                            2, 5.1-12-C-1, WRS 2,3,5)

3.   Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
                  A. Atomic Theory
                  B. Components of the atom
                  C. Molecules and Ions
                  D. Avogadro’s Number
                  E. The mole concept
                  F. Isotope calculations
                  G. Activities
                         i. Report on the development of modern
                            atomic theory from earliest times to
                            modern day.
                        ii. Use the CRC to confirm gram atomic
                            masses via calculation
                       iii. Laser disk slides on early atomic theorists
                  H. Objectives: students should be able to
                         i. Investigate the multi-cultural diversity of
                            scientists who have made major



                          8
                               contributions to the foundations of
                               chemistry (5.2-12-A-1, 5.2-12-B-1, 5.2-
                               12-B-2, 5.2-12-B-3, 5.4-12-A-1)
                         ii.   Illustrate the electronic structure of atoms
                               using electron configuration and orbital
                               notation (5.6-12-A-3, 5.6-12-A-8)
                        iii.   Identify subatomic particles by location,
                               charge, or mass (5.6-12-A-1, 5.6-12-A-2)
                        iv.    Recognize the role of probability in the
                               Shrodinger (5.3-12-D-1)
                         v.    Calculate between the units of grams,
                               liters, particles and moles. (5.3-12-A-1,
                               5.3-12-C-1)
                        vi.    Calculate the periodic table mass of an
                               element given its percent abundance and
                               isotopic mass. (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)


4.   Sources of the Elements
                    A. Elements from the atmosphere
                    B. Nonmetals from the Earth
                    C. Light Metals
                    D. Heavy metals
                    E. Activities
                         i. Cooperative Learning “jig saw” on the
                             elements from the atmosphere and
                             sources of metals and non-metals.
                        ii. Demonstrate samples of actual elements
                    F. Objectives
                         i. Define ore, alloy, and metallurgy (5.6-6-
                             A-1)
                        ii. Recognize the combined and uncombined
                             occurrence of metals in nature (5.6-6-A-1)

5.   Chemical Reactions and Equations
                  A. Writing and Balancing Equations
                  B. Mole Relations in Balanced Equations
                  C. Mass relations in reactions
                  D. Molarity
                  E. Reaction Types
                  F. Activities
                         i. Aspirin Synthesis and recrystallization
                        ii. Microchemistry lab on reaction types
                       iii. Precipitation reaction of Calcium chloride
                            and sodium carbonate to create and
                            excess-deficiency graph



                           9
                       iv. Synthesis of an ionic compound from
                            metals
                        v. Laser disk of chemical reactions
                       vi. Students will maintain a “reactions”
                            notebook
                   G. Objectives: students will be able to…
                         i. Use technical writing style and appropriate
                            basic chemical terminology to write a
                            formal lab report (5.1-8-B-1,2,3; WRS-4)
                        ii. Logically gather, order, and interpret data
                            through the use of originally designed
                            experiments (5.6-12-A-6, WRS-2,3,5)
                       iii. Identify the mechanisms of precipitation,
                            redox, and neutralization reactions (5.6-
                            12-A-6, WRS-2,3,5)
                       iv. Predict the products of any synthesis,
                            decomposition, single replacement, double
                            replacement, or neutralization reaction
                            (5.6-12-A-4, 5.6-12-B-1,2)
                        v. Predict the net ionic equation for any
                            precipitate reaction given the reactants
                            (5.6-12-A-4, 5.6-12-B-1,2)
                       vi. Apply the mole concept to calculate
                            quantitative relationships (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-
                            12-C-1, 5.6-8-B-4)
                      vii. Calculate molarity (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-
                            1)
6.   Solutes in Water
                   A. Electrolytes versus non-electrolytes
                   B. Principles of water solubility
                   C. Precipitation reactions
                   D. Colligative Properties of Solutions
                   E. Activities
                         i. Conductivity demonstration of electrolytes
                            and non-electrolytes
                        ii. Demonstration of supersaturated sodium
                            acetate
                       iii. Boiling point elevation lab with para-
                            dichlorobenzene
                       iv. Freezing point depression lab with NaCl
                        v. Demonstration of seltzer water super-
                            freeze
                   F. Objectives: students should be able to…
                         i. Distinguish between an electrolyte and a
                            non-electrolyte based upon chemical
                            formula (5.6-12-B-4)



                          10
                         ii. Memorize the solubility rules (5.6-12-B-1)
                        iii. Calculate freezing point, boiling point,
                             osmotic pressure, and vapor pressure for a
                             given solution (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                        iv. Calculate the molecular weight based upon
                             freezing point depression or boiling point
                             elevation (5.3-12-A-1, 5.6-12-C-1)
                         v. Distinguish between solution, suspension,
                             and colloid based upon laboratory
                             investigation (5.6-8-A-3, WRS 2,3,5)
                        vi. Experimentally determine the
                             concentration of an ion using the
                             Spectrophotometer (5.4-12-A-1, WRS-
                             2,3,5)

7.   Acids and Bases
                   A.Water dissociation
                   B.pH
                   C.strong and weak acids
                   D.strong and weak bases
                   E.Acid-base neutralization reactions
                   F.Titrations
                   G.Arrhenius, Bronsted, Lewis definitions
                   H.Buffers
                   I.Activities
                         i. How to use and calibrate a pH meters
                        ii. Microscale lab on indicators and pH
                      iii. Titration of a weak acid: vinegar
                       iv. Titration of a weak base: antacid
                        v. Standardization of NaOH using KHP
                       vi. Determination of the molecular weight of
                            an unknown acid
                      vii. Lab: pH graph of a strong acid/weak base
                     viii. Identification of household acids/bases
                  J. Objectives: students should be able to…
                         i. Apply acid/base theory in the context of
                            Arrhenius, Bronsted, Lewis (5.2-12-B-1)
                        ii. Perform acid/base calculations with pH,
                            Ka (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                      iii. Describe the components of a buffer
                            solution and calculate pH (5.3-12-A-1,
                            5.3-12-C-1)
                       iv. Titrate a strong acid/strong base, strong
                            acid/weak base, weak acid/strong base to
                            an endpoint and calculate the unknown’s




                         11
                                 concentration. (5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1,
                                 WRS-2,3,5)
                           v.    Experimentally standardize a base (5.1-12-
                                 B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)
                          vi.    Experimentally determine the Ka of an
                                 unknown weak, monoprotic acid (5.1-12-
                                 B1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS- 2,3,5)
                         vii.    Experimentally determine the molecular
                                 weight of an unknown weak, monoprotic
                                 acid (5.1-12-B1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-
                                 2,3,5)
                         viii.   Experimentally measure buffer capacity
                                 (5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)
                          ix.    Determine the effectiveness of a buffer by
                                 calculation (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)


8.   Ionic Equilibria
                    A.Ksp
                    B.Applications of Ka and Kb
                    C.Relationships between equilibrium constants
                    D.Activities
                         i. Determination of the Ksp of calcium
                            hydroxide
                        ii. Determination of Ka for oxalic acid
                       iii. Project: Analogy that compares
                            equilibrium and LeChalelier’s Principle to
                            real life
                   E. Objectives: students should be able to…
                         i. Calculate Ksp given solubility (5.3-12-A-
                            1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                        ii. Calculate solubility given Ksp (5.3-12-A-
                            1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                       iii. Determine if a precipitate will form given
                            ion concentrations (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-
                            1)
                       iv. Compare a real-life situation to
                            equilibrium theory (5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-
                            C-1)
                        v. Calculate the solubility of calcium
                            hydroxide (5.1- 12-B1,2; 5.1-12-C-1,
                            WRS-2,3,5)

9.   Introduction to Organic Chemistry
                    A. Hydrocarbons
                    B. Compounds containing Cl, O, N



                            12
                    C. Isomerism in Organic compounds
                    D. Polymers
                    E. Activities
                           i. Preparation of organic family flash cards
                          ii. Synthesis of esters
                        iii. Organic family-product label activity
                         iv. Laser disk slides: origin of organic matter
                          v. Polymer synthesis and polymer crafts lab
                         vi. Oral reports on polymers
                        vii. Polymers super-hero short story
                    F. Objectives: students should be able to…
                           i. Write the IUPAC names for aliphatic
                              organic compounds (5.6-12-A-4)
                          ii. Illustrate how chemical systems control
                              the natural and man-made world (5,2-12-
                              B-2)
                        iii. Identify an aliphatic or aromatic family
                              based upon functional group (5.6-12-A-6)
                         iv. Draw structural, positional, and optical
                              isomers for a given formula (5.4-12-A-1)
                          v. Discuss the influence of polymer
                              chemistry on today’s world (5.2-12-A-1,
                              5.1-2-B-2,3; 5.4-12-B-1, 5.4-12-C-1,
                              WRS-1)
                         vi. Chemically synthesize six esters (5/1-12-
                              A-3, 5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-
                              2,3,5)
                        vii. Present an oral report on a selected
                              polymer (WRS-4)
                       viii. Write a super-hero story based upon the
                              properties of a selected polymer (WRS-4)

10.   Physical Behavior of Gases
                    A. General propertied of gases
                    B. Atmospheric pressure and the barometer
                    C. Ideal Gas Law
                    D. Volumes of gases involved in reactions
                    E. Boyle, Charles’, Avogadro’s, Gay-Lussac’s
                        laws
                    F. Dalton’s Law
                    G. Real Gases
                    H. Kinetic Molecular Theory
                    I. Root Mean Square Velocity and Graham’s Law
                    J. Activities
                          i. Determination of the molecular weigh of a
                             volatile liquid lab



                          13
                        ii. Determination of the Molecular Weight of
                            Butane lab
                   K. Objectives: students should be able to…
                         i. Analyze the limitations of theoretical and
                            real gas systems (5.6-8-A-2)
                        ii. Calculate a missing variable in the ideal
                            gas law (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                       iii. Calculate with Dalton’s, Henry’s, Boyle’s,
                            Charles’, Avogadro’s, Gay-Lussac’s, and
                            Graham’s laws (5.2-12-A-1, 5.2-12-B-1,2;
                            5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                       iv. Identify the rate of a given gas at STP
                            (5.2-12-A-1, 5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.3-12-A-1,
                            5.3-12-C-1)
                        v. Experimentally determine the molecular
                            weight of an unknown liquid (5.1-12-B-
                            1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS- 2,3,5)
                       vi. Determine the molecular weight of butane
                            (5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)
11.    The Atmosphere
                   A. Nitrogen fixation
                   B. Water vapor and carbon dioxide
                   C. Upper atmosphere
                   D. Oxygen and its discovery
                   E. Air pollution
                   F. Activities
                         i. Bubble-ology
                        ii. Hot air balloon construction
                   G. Objectives: students should be able to…
                         i. Describe the chemical composition of the
                            earth’s atmosphere (5.10-12-A-1, 5.10-12-
                            B-2)
                        ii. Describe the nitrogen cycle (5.10-12-A-1,
                            5.10-12-B-2)
                       iii. Describe the roles of Lavoisier, Priestly,
                            and Steele in the discovery of oxygen (5.2-
                            12-A-1, 5.2-12-B-1,3)

12. Chemical Equilibria in Gaseous Systems
                      H. Interpreting K
                      I. Calculations with K
                      J. LeChatelier’s Principle
                      K. Activities
                             i. Lab: equilibrium and precipitation
                            ii. Lab: Oscillating reactions
                           iii. Lab: equilibrium and temperature



                            14
                            iv. Lab: equilibrium and concentration
                        L. Objectives: students should be able to…
                              i. Calculate the concentration of reaction
                                 components in a gas equilibrium (5.3-12-
                                 A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                             ii. Use LeChatelier’s Principle to predict
                                 directions of shift in response to various
                                 stresses (5.6-8-B-3,4)
                            iii. Investigate the role of gases in chemical
                                 equilibrium (5.6-8-B-3,4)
                            iv. Experimentally construct an oscillating
                                 clock (5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1)

13. Rates of Reaction
                        A. Spontaneity and reaction rate
                        B. Dependence of reaction rate upon concentration
                        C. Reaction rate and time
                        D. Activation energy
                        E. Catalysis
                        F. Reaction rate and temperature
                        G. Reaction mechanisms
                        H. Activities
                              i. Iodine clock lab
                             ii. 1812 rates of reaction clock lab
                            iii. rate of reactions and temperature lab with
                                 Mg and vinegar
                            iv. demonstration: genie in a bottle
                             v. demonstration: elephant toothpaste
                        I. Objectives: students should be able to…
                              i. Calculate the quantitative aspects of the
                                 rate law (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                             ii. Calculate the rate constant given
                                 experimental trial data (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-
                                 12-C-1)
                            iii. Correctly label an activation energy graph
                                 (5.3-12-D-1)
                            iv. Describe the role and mechanism of
                                 catalysts (5.6-12-B-1,2)
                             v. Understand the concept of “rate
                                 determining step” (5.6-12-B-1,2)
                            vi. Describe the influence of temperature,
                                 concentration, steric factor, and collisions
                                 to rate (5.6-12-B-1,2)
                           vii. Experimentally manipulate the component
                                 solutions of an iodine clock to change
                                 color in a specific number of seconds (5.1-



                              15
                                         12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, 5.1-12-A-1,2, 5,6-
                                         12-B-1- WRS- 2,3,5)

14. Electronic Structure of Atoms
                              A. Quantum Theory
                              B. Bohr Model
                              C. Quantum Mechanical Theory
                              D. Quantum numbers
                              E. Electron configuration of atoms
                              F. Electron arrangement and the periodic table
                              G. Activities
                                    i. Mercury vapor lamp demonstration
                                   ii. Flame test demonstration
                                  iii. Project: analogy to subnuclear particle
                                       organization
                                  iv. Field trip to college instrumentation lab
                                   v. Periodic table trivia game
                              H. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                    i. Use the periodic table to predict metallic
                                       quality, radius, ionization energy,
                                       electronegativity, chemical reactivity and
                                       related trends (5.6-12-A-5)
                                   ii. Give the four digit address for a valence
                                       electron (5.-6-12-A-8, 5.3-12-D-1, 5.6-12-
                                       A-3)
                                  iii. Know the specific contributions of Pauli,
                                       Hund, and Heisenberg (5.2-12-B-1,2,3)
                                  iv. Analogize sub-nuclear particles to real-life
                                       situations (5.3-12-D-1)
                                   v. Describe the impact of the scanning
                                       tunneling microscope and particle
                                       accelerator on modern atomic theory (5.4-
                                       12-A-1)

15. Group I and II Metals and Their Compounds
                             A. Physical properties
                             B. Chemical properties
                             C. Activities
                                    i. Video: metals and their properties
                                   ii. Lab: constructing the electromotive series
                             D. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                    i. Identify the chemical and physical
                                       properties of metals (5.6-12-A-7)
                                   ii. Experimentally determine the order of
                                       reactivity by constructing an electromotive
                                       series (5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1)



                                    16
16. Nonmetals and their compounds
                            A. Properties of non-metallic compounds
                            B. Hydrogen compounds
                            C. Oxygen compounds
                            D. Halogen compounds
                            E. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                  i. Identify the chemical and physical
                                     properties of non-metals (5.6-12-A-7)

17. Covalent Bonding: Molecular Structures
                           A. Nature of the covalent bond
                           B. Lewis structures: the octet rule
                           C. Molecular geometry and VSEPR
                           D. Polarity of molecules
                           E. Atomic Orbitals and hybridization
                           F. Activities
                                   i. Ball and stick models
                                  ii. Styrofoam model building
                                iii. Demonstration: paramagnetism of CuSO4
                           G. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                   i. Predict the shape and hybridization of
                                      covalent bonding molecules (5.3-12-B-1)
                                  ii. Explain the bonding between atoms in
                                      molecules as it determines the nature,
                                      occurrence, and rate of chemical reaction
                                      (5.6-12-A-4, 5.6-12-B-2)
                                iii. Draw Lewis dot structures for a given
                                      covalent compound (5.6-12-A-3)
                                 iv. Construct a 3D representation of a
                                      covalent molecule (5.6-12-A-3)

18. Nuclear Reactions
                             A. Radioactivity
                             B. Rate of radioactive decay
                             C. Role of Marie Curie
                             D. Mass and energy relationships
                             E. Nuclear fission
                             F. Nuclear fusion
                             G. Activities
                                   i. Movie: Marie Curie
                                  ii. Demonstration: dating rocks and ancient
                                      materials
                                 iii. Guest speaker: Navy: nuclear submarines
                             H. Objectives: students should be able to:
                                   i. Compare and contrast nuclear and
                                      chemical reactions (5.6-12-A-1,2_



                                   17
                                  ii. Compare and contrast alpha, beta, and
                                      gamma particles and the products of these
                                      types of decay (5.4-12-A-1, 5.4-12-B-1,
                                      5.4-12-C-1)
                                 iii. Calculate the mass of the resulting
                                      radioactive decay using half-life (5.3-12-
                                      A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                                 iv. Contrast fission and fusion (5.6.12.A-1)
                                  v. Briefly describe the theoretical workings
                                      of a nuclear reactor (5.2-12-B-2,3)

19. Liquids and Solids
                            A. Properties of liquids
                            B. Intermolecular forces
                            C. Types of solids
                            D. Phase diagrams
                            E. Activities
                                  i. Lab: identifying the bonding of solids
                                 ii. Demonstration: surface tension
                           F. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                  i. Analyze intra-and inter-molecular forces
                                     present in solids and liquids (5.6-12-A-4)
                                 ii. Compare and contrast the properties of
                                     ionic, covalent, metallic, and macro-
                                     molecular bonding (5.1-12-A-1,2; 5.1-12-
                                     B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)
                                iii. Identify the portions of a phase diagram
                                     (5.6-12-A-6)
                                iv. Describe the relationship between
                                     hydrogen bonding and surface tension
                                     (5.6-12-A-6)
20. Coordination compounds: complex ions
                           A. Structure of coordination compounds
                           B. Geometry of complex ions
                           C. Uses of coordination compounds
                           D. Complex ions in water purification
                           E. Activities
                                  i. Synthesis of a copper tetra-amine complex
                                 ii. Demonstration: stalagtite growth
                           F. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                  i. Write the IUPAC name for transition
                                     metal complexes (5.6-12-A-7)
                                 ii. Correctly define the parts of a transition
                                     metal complex (5.6-12-A-7)
                                iii. Experimentally synthesize a transition
                                     metal complex (5.1-12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1)



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21. Thermochemistry
                             A. Enthalpy
                             B. Thermochemical equations
                             C. Heats of formation
                             D. Bond energies
                             E. Calorimetry
                             F. Activities
                                   i. Experimental determination of the specific
                                      heat capacity of an unknown metal
                                  ii. Demonstration: The Freezing Flask
                                 iii. Experimental determination of the heat of
                                      solution and the hear of neutralization
                             G. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                   i. Apply Hess’ Law to chemical
                                      thermodynamic systems (5.12-B-2)
                                  ii. Calculate the enthalpies associated with a
                                      chemical reaction (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-
                                      1)
                                 iii. Calculate the energy associated with
                                      changes in state and temperature in a
                                      calorimetry graph. (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-
                                      1)
                                 iv. Experimentally determine heats of
                                      solution and heats of neutralization (5.1-
                                      12-B-1,2; 5.1-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)


22. Redox Reactions: standard voltages
                            A. Oxidation number
                            B. Balancing redox equations
                            C. Voltaic cells
                            D. Standard voltages
                            E. Nernst equation
                            F. Activities
                                   i. Demonstration: Cu/Zn voltaic cell
                                  ii. Demonstration: Orange juice clock and
                                      potato clock
                                 iii. Lab: Construction of a chemical battery
                                      and salt bridge
                            G. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                   i. Balance redox reactions in an acidic or
                                      basic solution using the half reaction
                                      method (5.6-8-B-1)




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                                 ii. Calculate the electrical potential of a
                                     voltaic cell using the Nernst equation (5.3-
                                     12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-1)
                                iii. Use a table of standard voltages to
                                     calculate the E-cell. (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-
                                     C-1)
                                iv. Draw and label a voltaic cell (5.6-12-B-2)
                                 v. Construct a basic Cu/Zn voltaic cell and
                                     salt bridge. (5.1-12-A-1,2,3; 5.2-12-B-1,2;
                                     5.2-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)

23. Chemical Thermodynamics
                          A.   Enthalpy change
                          B.   Entropy change
                          C.   Free energy change
                          D.   Free energy and cell voltage
                          E.   Free energy and K
                          F.   Objectives: students should be able to…
                                  i. Calculate the H, S, and G associates with a
                                     chemical reaction (5.3-12-A-1, 5.3-12-C-
                                     1)
                                 ii. Calculate G based upon E-cell (5.3-12-A-
                                     1. 5.3-12-C-1)
                                iii. Calculate G based upon K.(5.3-12-A-1,
                                     5.3-12-C-1)
                                iv. Define the laws of thermodynamics,
                                     entropy, and Gibbs Free Energy (5.6-12-
                                     B-2)

24. Qualitative Analysis
                           A. Cation analysis
                           B. Anion analysis
                           C. Activities
                                i. 80 minute timed qualitative lab: match ten
                                   ions to ten test tube solutions using a team
                                   written procedure
                           D. Objectives: students should be able to…
                                i. Perform lab work which is focused on
                                   qualitative analysis and the identification
                                   of an unknown (5.1-12-A-1,2,3; 5.1-12-B-
                                   1,2, 5,1-12-C-1, WRS-2,3,5)




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                                       Assessment
Student proficiency (satisfactory achievement) in each of the outcomes/objectives listed
in this guide shall be determined by student attainment of the 70% district passing
standard which pertains to all curricula and populations. Such proficiency shall be
measured by a multiplicity of evaluation techniques and instruments (see Proficiencies
section of this guide.)

The following evaluation procedures are employed to measure student performance in
Advanced Placement Chemistry, specifically.

Test and Quizzes: (50%)
       The quizzes are given on a “needs” basis as subdivisions of chapter material are
covered. Tests consist of 50% teacher prepared questions and 50% AP questions derived
from previous College Board exams. Cumulative exams consisting only of AP derived
questions will be given at the end of each 3 chapter unit.

Laboratory: (25%)
        This includes formally written lab reports, lab notebooks, post-lab quizzes, and
lab practicum tests,

Homework and Participation: (25%)
        This includes assigned work which is independent of workbook problem
assignments, specifically worksheets, readings, projects, and reports. An attempt will be
made to incorporate writing, reading, art, history, world cultures, as well as the essential
mathematics, in order to address the various learning styles and multiple intelligences of
the students.




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                     Instructional Resources and Material

Brady and Holum, Chemistry: The Study of Matter and its Changes, John Wiley and
Sons, 1993.

Jespersen, Barron’s How To Prepare for the AP Chemistry Advanced Placement Test:
Chemistry, 1999.

Teacher prepared workbook consisting of sample AP problems from previous exams

Teacher prepared lab manual featuring the College Board recommended experiments

Teacher prepared literature manual of supplemental readings related to course topics.

Cosmic Chemistry: laser disk set




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