12 Kendall Ess 8e PPT

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12 Kendall Ess 8e PPT Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 12

     Education and Religion
Questions for You…
   How do the social institutions of education and
    religion affect the order and structure of society?

   How are issues of race, class and gender factored
    into religious and educational institutions?
Chapter Outline
 An Overview of Education and Religion
 Sociological Perspectives on Education

 Problems Within Elementary and Secondary
  Schools
 Opportunities and Challenges in Colleges and
  Universities
 Religion in Historical Perspective
Chapter Outline
 Sociological Perspectives on Religion
 Types of Religious Organization
 Trends in Religion in the United States
 Education and Religion in the Future
An Overview of Education and Religion
   Education and religion are socializing
    institutions.

   The sociology of education examines formal
    education or schooling in industrial societies.

   The sociology of religion focuses on religious
    groups and organizations, on the behavior of
    individuals within those groups, and how religion
    is intertwined with other social institutions.
How Much Do You Know About the
Impact of Religion on U.S. Education?
   True or False?
       The Constitution of the United States originally
        specified that religion should be taught in the public
        schools.
How Much Do You Know About the
Impact of Religion on U.S. Education?
   False.
       Due to the diversity of religious backgrounds of the
        early settlers, no mention of religion was made in the
        original Constitution.

       Even the sole provision that currently exists (the
        establishment clause of the First Amendment) does
        not speak directly of the issue of religious learning in
        public education.
How Much Do You Know About the
Impact of Religion on U.S. Education?
   True or False?
       Virtually all sociologists have advocated the
        separation of moral teaching from academic subject
        matter.
How Much Do You Know About the
Impact of Religion on U.S. Education?
   False.
     Most contemporary sociologists do not think that it
      is their role to advocate specific stances on
      morality topics.

       Early sociologists were less inclined to believe that
        they had to be “value-free.”

       Durkheim strongly advocated that education
        should have a moral component and that schools
        had a responsibility to perpetuate society by
        teaching a commitment to the common morality.
Education
   The social institution responsible for the
    transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural
    values within a formally organized structure.

   In all societies, people must acquire certain
    knowledge and skills in order to survive.
     In simple technology societies, this might include
      hunting, gathering, fishing and farming.
     In complex technology societies, knowledge and skills
      are related to the requirements of the job market.
Sociological Perspectives on Education
   Functionalists suggest that education
    contributes to the maintenance of society and
    provides opportunity for upward social mobility,
    and meritocracy.

   Conflict theorists argue that education
    perpetuates social stratification.

   Symbolic interactionists focus on classroom
    dynamics and the effect of self-concept on grades
    and aspirations.
Manifest Functions of Education




                       Socialization
                       Transmission of culture
                       Social control
                       Social placement
                       Change and innovation
Latent Functions of Education




                       Restricting some
                        activities.
                       Matchmaking and
                        production of social
                        networks.
                       Creating a generation
                        gap.
Conflict Perspectives
   Education reproduces existing class
    relationships.

   Unequal funding is a source of inequality in
    education.

   Access to colleges and universities is determined
    not only by academic record but also by the
    ability to pay.
Cultural Capital and Class Reproduction
   According to the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu,
    students come to school with different amounts of
    cultural capital.
       socially approved dress and manners, knowledge
        about books, art, music


   The educational system teaches and reinforces
    values that sustain the elite’s position in society.
Tracking and Social Inequality
   Tracking is the practice of assigning students to
    specific groups based on their test scores,
    previous grades, or other criteria.

   Conflict theorists believe tracking affects
    educational performance and overall academic
    acheivement.
The Hidden Curriculum
   A study of five elementary schools in different
    communities found:
     Schools for working-class students emphasize
      procedures and rote memorization.
     Schools for middle-class students stress the processes
      involved in getting the right answer.
The Hidden Curriculum
  Schools for affluent students focus on activities in
   which students express their own ideas.
  Schools for students from elite families work to
   develop critical thinking skills, applying abstract
   principles to problem solving.
Symbolic Interactionist Perspecitive
   Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - students perform
    according to expectations of teachers.
     Girls learn to attribute success to effort.
     Boys learn to attribute success to intelligence.
Polling Question
   How far do you intend to go in school?
      A.   Two years of college
      B.   Four years of college
      C.   Master's degree
      D.   Professional degree (law, medicine, dentistry)
      E.   Ph.D.
Unequal Funding of Public Schools
   State and local governments contribute about
    47% each toward education and the federal
    government pays the remaining 6%.

   In recent years, some states have been held
    accountable for unequal funding that results in
    rich and poor school districts.

   Voucher systems would allow families to spend
    government money to purchase education at the
    school of their choice.
School Violence
   In the 1990’s violent acts resulted in numerous
    deaths in schools across the nation.

   Schools in Pearl, Mississippi, West Paducah,
    Kentucky, Jonesboro, Arkansas, Springfield,
    Oregon, and Littleton, Colorado, witnessed a
    series of killings in schools by students that
    shocked people across the world.
Contrary to public perception, violent crime in schools has
declined dramatically since 1994. The annual rate of serious
violent crime in 2007 (40 per 1,000 students)was less than
half of the rate in 1994. These data are victim reports
collected as part of the National Crime Victimization Survey
and are not derived from school records.
The rate of homicides in U.S. schools has declined substantially
since the early 1990s. There was an apparent interruption in the
downward trend during a period of highly publicized shootings that
may have generated some copycat shootings.
Dropping Out
   About 10% of people between the ages of 14 and
    24 left school before earning a high school
    diploma.

   Dropout Rates:
     Latinos/(Hispanics) - 24%
     African Americans - 12.2%
     non-Hispanic whites - 7.9%
     Asian Americans - 1%
Racial Segregation and Desegregation
   In 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
    “separate but equal” segregated schools are
    unconstitutional.

   Five decades later, racial segregation remains a
    fact of life in education.

   Efforts to bring about desegregation or
    integration have failed in districts throughout
    the country
Polling Question
   How far do you intend to go in school?
      A.   Two years of college
      B.   Four years of college
      C.   Master's degree
      D.   Professional degree (law, medicine, dentistry)
      E.   Ph.D.
Community Colleges
   In 1948 a presidential commission report called
    for the establishment of a network of public
    community colleges that would:
     charge little or no tuition
     serve as cultural centers
     be comprehensive in their program offerings
     serve the area in which they were located.
Community Colleges
   According to the American Association of Community
    Colleges (2005):
     There are 1,166 community colleges in the U.S.
     They enroll almost 12 million students.
     Community college enrollment accounts for 46% of
      U.S. undergraduates.
     Almost 40% of community college students receive
      financial aid.
     Women make up 58% of community college
      students.
The Cost of a College Education
   According to some social analysts, a college
    education is a bargain at about $90 a day for
    private schools or $35 for public schools.

   Others believe that students who lack money
    may be denied access to higher education, and
    those who are able to attend college tend to
    receive different types of education based on their
    ability to pay.
Racial and Ethnic Differences in
Enrollment
   Latina/o enrollment as a percentage of total college
    enrollment increased from 5.7% to 9.8% between 1990
    and 2001.

   Although African American enrollment increased
    between 1990 and 2001, today it remains at 11%.

   Native American enrollment rates have remained at
    about 0.9% from the 1970s to the 2000s; however, tribal
    colleges on reservations have experienced an increase in
    enrollment.
Educational Achievement: Persons 25
and Older
Polling Question
   How important would you say religion is in
    your own life?
      A.   Very important
      B.   Fairly important
      C.   Not very important
      D.   No opinion
Religion and the Meaning of Life
   Religion seeks to answer important questions
    such as why we exist, why people suffer and die,
    and what happens when we die.

   Religion seeks to explain suffering, death, and
    injustice in the realm of the sacred.

   Things that people do not set apart as sacred are
    referred to as profane—the everyday, secular or
    “worldly” aspects of life.
Four Categories of Religion
   Simple supernaturalism - the belief that
    supernatural forces affect people's lives positively
    or negatively.

   Animism - the belief that plants, animals, and
    elements of the natural world are endowed with
    spirits that impact events in society.
Four Categories of Religion
   Theism - belief in a God or Gods.

   Transcendent idealism - belief in sacred
    principles of thought and conduct, such as truth,
    justice, life and tolerance for others.
Major World Religions

                Christianity       Islam


   Current
                1.7 billion       1 billion
  Followers

  Founder          Jesus         Muhammad




    Date      1st century C.E.   ca. 600 C.E
Major World Religions

                 Hinduism              Buddhism

  Current
                719 million            309 million
 Followers

  Founder    No specific founder   Siddhartha Gautama




   Date        ca. 1500 B.C.E       500 to 600 B.C.E.
Major World Religions
                   Judaism           Confucianism

  Current
                  18 million          5.9 million
 Followers


  Founder    Abraham, Isaac, Jacob   K’ung Fu-Tzu




   Date         ca. 2000 B.C.E.       500 B.C.E
Functionalist Perspective
Religion has 3 functions:
1.  Providing meaning and purpose to life.
2.  Promoting social cohesion and a sense of
    belonging.
3.  Providing social control and support for the
    government.
Conflict Perspective
 According to Karl Marx, religion is the "opiate of
  the people."
 Max Weber argued that religion could be a
  catalyst to produce social change.
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
   Religion serves as a reference group to help
    people define themselves.

   Women’s versions of a certain religion usually
    differ from men’s versions.
Characters of Churches and Sects

                Organization                Membership



             Large, bureaucratic        Open to all; members
 Church      organization,led by       usually from upper and
             professional clergy           middle classes




                                       Guarded membership,
          Small group,high degree of
  Sect                                  usually from lower
               lay participation
                                              classes
Characters of Churches and Sects

                Worship                  Salvation




 Church      Formal, orderly          Granted by God




  Sect    Informal, spontaneous   Achieved by moral purity
         Attitude Toward Other Religions




Church              Tolerant




 Sect              Intolerant
Major U.S. Denominations that Self
Identify as Christian
    Religious Body          Members      Churches
    Roman Catholic          69,135,000    18,992
    Southern Baptist
                            16,270,000    43,669
      Convention
   United Methodist         8,075,000     34,660

Church of Jesus Christ of
                            5,691,000     12,753
   Latter Day Saints

Church of God in Christ     5,500,000     15,300
Major U.S. Denominations that Self
Identify as Christian
       Religious Body            Members     Churches

National Baptist Convention,
                                 5,000,000    9,000
          U.S.A.

Evangelical Lutheran Church
                                 4,851,000    10,519
        in America

National Baptist Convention of
                                 3,500,000     N/A
          America


Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)     3,099,000    10,960
U.S. Religious Traditions’ Membership
Polling Question
   Do you think schools in America should
    continue to follow the Christian holiday
    schedule?
      A.   Yes
      B.   No
Sociological Perspectives on Education
and Religion
Functionalist

 Education      One of the most important components of society:
                Schools teach students not only content but also to
                put group needs ahead of individuals.




  Religion      Sacred beliefs and rituals bind people together and
                help maintain social control.
Sociological Perspectives on Education
and Religion
Conflict

   Education   Schools perpetuate class, racial, and gender
               stratification, through what they teach, to
               whom.




   Religion    Religion may be used to justify the status quo
               (Marx) or to promote social change.
Sociological Perspectives on Education
and Religion
Symbolic Interactionist

 Education         Labeling and the self-fulfilling prophecy are
                   examples of how students and teachers affect each
                   other as they interact.




  Religion         Religion may serve as a reference group for many
                   people, but because of race, class, and gender
                   people may experience it differently.
Quick Quiz
1. According to the cultural capital model:
   A.   a student will be taught by teachers of one's own
        culture.
   B.   children with less cultural capital coming into
        school will have fewer opportunities for
        succeeding.
   C.   children with less cultural capital coming into
        school will catch up with the rest of the nation.
   D.   going to school provides one with the necessities
        of one's culture.
Answer: B
   According to the cultural capital model
    children with less cultural capital coming
    into school will have fewer opportunities
    for succeeding.
2. The assignment of students to specific courses
    and educational programs based on their test
    scores, previous grades, or both is called:
      A.   positioning
      B.   assessment
      C.   placement
      D.   tracking
Answer: D
   The assignment of students to specific courses
    and educational programs based on their test
    scores, previous grades, or both is called
    tracking.
3. According to Pierre Bourdieu, schools
   legitimate and reinforce the dominance of
   social elites.
      A.   False.
      B.   True.
Answer: B
   According to Pierre Bourdieu, schools
    legitimate and reinforce the dominance of
    social elites.
4. According to sociologists, religion attempts to:
      A.   bridge the gap between the known and the unknown.
      B.   have a personal relationship with God.
      C.   all of the choices.
      D.   save every soul.
Answer: A
   According to sociologists, religion attempts to
    bridge the gap between the known and
    the unknown.
5. Who said "religion is the opiate of the masses?”
      A.   Emile Durkheim
      B.   Karl Marx
      C.   Max Weber
      D.   Talcott Parsons
Answer: B
   Karl Marx said "religion is the opiate of the
    masses”
6. A relatively small religious group that has
   broken away from another religious
   organization to renew what it views as the
   original version of the faith is referred to as:
      A.   an ecclesia
      B.   Catholicism
      C.   a sect
      D.   a denomination
Answer: C
   A relatively small religious group that has
    broken away from another religious
    organization to renew what it views as the
    original version of the faith is referred to as a
    sect.

				
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