Enhancing entrepreneurial capacity to contribute to National

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                          SMALL BUSINESS*




* Business employing 5 or more workers but not more than 50 workers with annual
turnover below 1.35 but not more than 6.8 billion cedis.

          Managing input factors in an innovative manner to generate value to the
          customer with the hope that this value will exceed the cost of the input factors,
          thus generating superior returns that result in the creation of wealth


          The process of work analysis will involve a platform of dialogue and the creation
          of collective knowledge that will, in addition to the product, could be used as

2.1       Enhancing curriculums of the Tertiary Education Community.

          The product could be used to enhance the curriculums of educational institutions
          offering courses in entrepreneurship and business management.
          Informal learning relates to learning that takes place through real life work and
          the particular wisdom and knowledge that workers acquire and how they do it.
          This type of higher level training is not confined to and unobtainable in mere
          education classroom setting. But, it can facilitate the identification and
          incorporation of the competences of working adults into the intellectual life of
          higher level institutions. The recognition and valuation of this wisdom and
          knowledge is not only an individual good, but an institutional good that enriches
          the life of the educational community.

2.2       Portfolio Assessment of Learning Outcomes of Prior Experiences for Formal

          Modern University’s curriculum and much of its research should focus on the
          connection between real life work and formal education.
          Since the average age of undergraduates is approximately 27, many have been
          involved in a variety of entrepreneurial life experiences which can offer learning
          equivalent in substance and complexity to that offered in our classrooms.
          Through reliable assessment of learning outcomes, educational institutions could
          use the product in setting a high standard for formally and systematically
          recognizing the linkage between the portfolios of entrepreneurial work and formal

    2.3   Accreditation of Tacit Skill/Knowledge Development
          Accreditation authorities could apply standards to allow flexibly to programs that
          seek to provide quality training using innovative methods. The issue of wider
          recognition of non-formal personal competences is becoming increasingly
          prominent in education and employment in response to the demands of the
          "knowledge society". Tacit forms of personal competences play an increasing
          part in the education, training and work re-entry of adults.
          Providing entrepreneurs with the opportunities for recognition and evaluation of
          competencies may facilitate and shape their knowledge acquisition and
          encourage them to use and demonstrate their skills in a variety of contexts and

2.4   Informal Learning for Policy makers

      In countries where there is a major informal sector, low confidence in government
      and institutions, could make members of society feel apathetic or left behind by
      policies and will not want to participate in their governments. The result is high
      levels of corruption, government becoming unaccountable and leaving people
      with little hope in their countries. Training policy makers outside the formal
      education will enable them experience and understand the needs and problems
      faced by the informal sector and the importance of inclusion in any process
      affecting the informal sector.

2.5   Promoting Social Integration Society: Ensuring Fairness and a “Society for All”

      In Africa, decent education still remains a privilege of the rich, not a right for
      everyone. Creating the opportunities and links for informal sector learners to
      assess skills and knowledge could help improve their social mobility. People
      qualified for employment in public office or civil service could be entered into the
      formal sector based on a reliable assessment of learning outcomes to promote
      integration and ensure that important positions in society are (or caretakership of
      the policies and public institutions) are not left in the hands of a few people. In
      this way Education in all sectors (formal, informal, and non-formal) will culminate
      in promoting understanding within the community, knowledge of rights, and to
      ensure all people have opportunities for social mobility, for employment, public
      office, and civil service.


3.1   An Overview
      Ghana’s economy thrives on it’s working population just as any nation, The
      working population is made up of the formal and informal sectors. The term
      “informal sector” was coined in Ghana in 1971 by a British anthropologist who
      was studying the economic activities of low-income communities in Accra. The
      informal economy, as it is now called and defined, is comprised of self-
      employment in small unregistered enterprises and wage employment in
      unregulated and unprotected jobs. In developing countries, informal employment
      comprises one half to three quarters of non-agricultural employment. In Sub-
      Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, informal employment comprises nearly
      80 per cent of non-agricultural employment. In Ghana today, informal
      employment represents over 90 per cent of total employment.

      The informal sector consists of small scale enterprises engaging in a wide variety
      of economic activities on the margins of formal or mainstream activities. Their
      activities are normally outside the conventional scope of government regulation
      and assistance. The informal sector lacks social protection arrangements at
      work and health facilities. Little or no training, Unhealthy or unsafe working
      conditions, Lacks regulation and monitoring, and has few rights. This sector is
      normally youthful, most of them with insufficient income (esp. women). Learning
      within the informal sector takes place in a wide and wide and varied range of

        settings, but mostly within the informal economic activities like agricultural
        activities, services, construction and manufacturing.

3.2.    Institutions and programmes relating to the informal sector

        Over the last 20 years, as the informal sector has expanded, so have a variety of
        institutions and programmes that relate to the sector been born. The plethora of
        established institutions and programmes include the National Board for Small-
        Scale Industries (NBSSI, see Box 1), the Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises
        Development (FUSMED), the Programme of Action for the Mitigation of the
        Social Costs of Adjustment (PAMSCAD), the Ghana Regional Appropriate
        Technology Industrial Service (GRATIS, see Box 2), TECHNOSERVE (see Box
        3) and the Council for Indigenous Business Associations (CIBA). Institutions like
        the Internal Revenue Service as well as the Metropolitan and District Assemblies
        provide the regulatory framework for the operations of the sector.

        The range of institutions and programmes that are geared to the informal sector
        different forms of credit and technical support to the sector. While the
        Government has recognized the importance of the informal sector and its
        potential contribution to employment, incomes and even a domestic industrial
        base, it has not demonstrated the corresponding financial commitment to it. The
        Government’s budget for supporting the informal sector is at best inadequate. On
        the other hand, non-governmental organizations also intervene in the informal
        sector, but again, inadequate finance is their overriding constraint.

        Ghana applies to international labour standards a considerable extent,
        particularly those concerning freedom of association and the protection of the
        right to organize as well as to bargain collectively.


        Functional Analysis methodology is preferred because as the most holistic
        methodology, it will be compatible to apply to the educational objectives of the
        identification, and also the sector analysis.



        The following organizations will be invited to nominate entrepreneurs:

5.1.1   The Ghana Private Road Transport Union (GPRTU)

        The GPRTU is composed mainly of hired drivers, owner-drivers and vehicle
        owners. The union also engages paramilitary personnel that it employs as guards
        with responsibility for monitoring the payment of daily income tax by private road
        transport operators.

        The union provides a peculiar framework for the pursuit of the interests of its
        varied membership. It operates structures at branch, regional and national levels.
        The national and regional structures are dominated by the vehicle owners’

        component of the union while the presence of the owner-drivers in the union is
        established mainly at branch level. GPRTU branches cover virtually all the
        districts of the country. Hired drivers (and their apprentices) largely make up the
        numbers in the union.

        The union operates a welfare fund for members in distress. The fund is normally
        accessed upon bereavement of members. The GPRTU is a member of the West
        African Road Transport Union and the International Transport Workers’
        Federation (ITF).

5.1.2   General Agricultural Workers’ Union (GAWU)

        GAWU organized its Rural Workers’ Organisation Division (RWOD) as early as
        1979. The membership is national, with a higher concentration in the Volta and
        Greater Accra Regions, and the Northern, Upper East and West regions. By
        1998 total membership was over 12,000, with 60 per cent being women. The
        members are peasant and landless farmers, farmers who hire out their labour,
        flywheel tractor operators, stone-quarrying workers and other self-employed rural
        workers. Apart from the flywheel tractor operators who have their own
        association which is in turn affiliated to the union, all the others have direct
        membership of the union and pay dues directly to it.

        The union collaborates with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA), the
        International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco
        and Allied Workers’ Associations (IUF), the International Federation of Building
        and Wood Workers (IFBWW), the Netherlands Federation of Trade Unions
        (FNV), and others that address rural workers.

5.1.3   Timber and Woodworkers Union (TWU)

        TWU began its organizational efforts in the informal sector in 1988. This was
        after the TWU quadrennial conference in 1987 which adopted a resolution for
        organizing self-employed woodworkers in the informal sector. The objectives for
        organizing were:

        • to promote the interests of all the self-employed and to secure united action on
        all issues affecting or likely to affect those interests;

        • to regulate their operations through education; and

        • to secure both national and international recognition of their socio-economic
        role in national development.

        The first group of the self-employed targeted for organization included the power
        chainsaw operators, firewood cutters, charcoal burners and the canoe carvers
        whose activities are carried out right in the forest. The TWU organized the
        National Sawyers Association (NSA) to cover all of them. Since 1991 the NSA
        has been on its own in terms of organization. It is affiliated to the TWU and is
        represented on its National Executive Council by two persons.

         union has employed one of its members as a full-time official responsible for the
        informal sector. There are 12,000 members spread over six regions in the
        southern sector of the country. Few are, however, found in the Northern Region.

        The union provides training and education to members. This has enhanced their
        ability to register their businesses with the Registrar General’s Department, the
        Internal Revenue Service, the District Assemblies and the Forestry Department
        as a prerequisite to obtaining a felling permit to operate. The TWU finances
        conferences of the NSA (pays for food, accommodation and organizational costs)
        and the printing of membership cards.

        Small-scale carpenters are also organized in the Small-Scale Carpenters’
        Association. They are the users of the products of the chainsaw operators - the
        carpentry, joinery and furniture workers. According to the union, a recent national
        survey estimated the number of these workers at 1.5 million. The union has
        organized 30,000 of them nationwide, concentrated in Kumasi and Accra. They
        are spread in all the ten regions at local, district and regional levels.

        The Wood Working Machine Owners’ Association is the third group of self-
        employed operators to be organized. Their operations are centered in the six
        forest regions of Ghana. While approximately 6,000 workers are estimated to be
        in the sector, the union’s efforts at organizing them are proceeding steadily with
        3,000 already under coverage.

        The Cane and Rattan Workers’ Association is made up of suppliers and
        weavers in the sector. The union’s organizational activities started in this sector
        in February 1996, and are ongoing. The union now covers the Greater Accra and
        Eastern Regions where about 1,000 workers have been signed on. The union is
        also looking forward to organizing wood carvers who are concentrated in Accra
        and Aburi. The TWU collaborates with the IFBWW and the TEDB.

5.1.4   The Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU)

        The most organized informal sector group of workers in the ICU is the Ghana
        Hairdressers and Beauticians’ Association (GHABA). They include
        hairdressers, beauticians and barbers.

        GHABA has a membership of 4,000 spread all over Ghana with special
        concentration in Accra, Kumasi and Takoradi. The association has its own
        structure from district through regional to national levels. In Accra, the district is
        divided into zones because of the density of the population and range of
        activities. Each member of the association pays 200 cedis per month to the
        national executive committee who collects dues and in turn pays an affiliation fee
        to the ICU. The association has a representation of three persons on the National
        Executive Council (NEC) and on the women’s wing of the ICU.

        Tie-and-dye workers as well as domestic cooks and stewards have also been
        recently organized into the ICU. The ICU collaborates with the International
        Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees
        (FIET) and the Women Workers’ Union (KKD) of Denmark in furthering its
        initiatives in the informal sector.

      Other trade union initiatives in organizing informal sector workers include the
      Ghana Union of Professional Photographers (GUPP). Constituted into a body in
      1987 with a membership of 1,150, it became affiliated to the Public Services
      Workers’ Union (PSWU). GUPP is national in character but has high membership
      concentrations in Kumasi, Takoradi and Accra.

      It operates regional and national executive structures. Members pay dues
      through GUPP to PSWU but they are not represented in the structures of the
      PSWU, e.g. the National Executive Council (NEC) or the Regional Councils.

      The GUPP has unrealized expectations workers from its affiliation to the PSWU.
      It expects education, training and exposure through photo exhibitions from its
      association with the PSWU. It also expects the PSWU to assist with direct
      organizational work in contacting potential members around the country.
      Membership of GUP Phase dropped to 400 because of low morale and absence
      of recognition of the value of belonging to the association. GUPP has a welfare
      scheme for compensation in times of bereavement, but this has so far only
      benefited a few persons.

      The other group of informal sector workers to be organized by a trade union in
      Ghana is the Butchers’ Association. It is affiliated to the Local Government
      Workers’ Union (LGWU) and currently has membership only at the Kumasi

5.2   Observers for the Identification Process

      Representative from the following Educational/Accreditation institutions will be

      University of Ghana, this is Ghana’s premier tertiary institution
      University of Turin, seen as committed and involved in labour Issues through its
      partnership with the International Training Center of ILO.
      Ghana’s National Accreditation Board


6.1   Location
      A suitable location (classroom) will be prepared with consideration to accessibility
      by all invited participant. Members will sit around a table, and there will be a large
      board on which colored card cards are fixed. A space for observers made

6.2   Facilitator(s)
      Prospective Facilitators will be interviewed or appraised in order to select one or
      two who have comprehensive competence in facilitation in the process of
      identification and analysis of competence. Apart from promoting participation, he
      or she will methodologically guide the group, record its proceedings, prepare
      material and meeting etc

6.3   Workshop (First Day)
      During the half-day session of the first day we define the key purpose and then
      derive the relevant functions and sub-functions of the sector.
6.4   Workshop (Second Day)
      During the half days session of the second day we will review and fine-tune the
      functions and sub-functions of the sector

6.5   After The Workshop
      The Validation of the functional map will be done through a wide consultation and
      will be directed to workers, enterprises and organizations of the sectors that did
      not participated in the identification of competences. These entities may be
      members of the umbrella organizations identified above or of other associations
      in Ghana like the Ghana Employers Association etc.


      The following two (2) entrepreneurs have been selected to provide easily
      accessible qualitative information for the identification of competence in small
      business, being active co-operants of the Association of African Entrepreneurs

7.1   Mr. Dennis Ahiabenu, Auto By Nature Center
      Established in 1998 by its current Technician - in – Chief, Mr Ahiabenu, Auto By
      specializes in repair of most brands of vehicles and manufacture of spare parts.
      The Center engages 13 full time staff and 6 apprentices.

7.2   Mr. Tetteh Amegatcher, Sun World Tours
      Sunworld Tours is a professional tour operating company based in Accra, Ghana,
      offering services that span the full breadth of holiday activities, tailoring services
      to the needs and culture of their clients. Sunworld Tours has the expertise in
      package tours, customized itineraries, choir concerts/ tours.
      Website: www.sunnyblaze.com


        Combining various input factors in an innovative manner to generate value to the
        customer with the hope that this value will exceed the cost of the input factors,
        thus generating superior returns that result in the creation of wealth

8.1     Constructing the entrepreneurial model, to meet superior goals.

8.1.1   Drafting a mind map of the entrepreneurial vision, relating to the desired success

        Outlining scope and purpose,

        Illustrating strategy and objectives

8.1.2   Analyzing existing concepts and models to identify gaps and omissions

        Review of similar concepts presently under development or in use,

        Review of assessment of the existing models and structural and resource

        Identification of gaps, omissions, and areas requiring more detailed analysis

8.1.3   Designing go-forward model and its component functions, structure, roles,
        responsibilities, assignments, and resource requirements in light of strategy and
        desired results

        Undertake Feasibility studies

        Write a Business Plan

8.1.4   Develop an execution plan, including a detailed schedule, assignments and
        responsibilities, and expected results

        Prepare Workplace Policies

        Prepare Production Policies

        Prepare Administrative policies

8.2     Communicating the vision to identified actors to make it operational

8.2.1   Facilitating Training Activities and Information Sessions conducive to work

               DEFINITION, identifying training needs contributing to the development
               and facilitation of internal training and information with the aim of
               corroborating a relevant human resource management solution.

        Identifying Training and key personnel development needs

               DEFINITION: Keeping the register on staff performance with the aim of
               verifying lapses in competence performance

               •    Collecting information and data on actual performance
               •    Collecting information and data on accepted standards
               •    Comparing both materials in order to identify gaps

               •    Information and data on actual performance
               •    Information and data on agreed standards
               •    List of Identified gaps in staff performance

               •    Information & Research System: Paper – based, electronically

        Developing & Delivering Training Programs

               DEFINITION: Establishing a relevant training solution to improve
               identified lapses.

        Evaluating Training & Information Sessions

               DEFINITION: Comparing end-of-day situation with success standards.

8.2.2   Negotiating with public officers holders and decision makers for accommodative
        policies for the industry and business

               DEFINITION. Influencing public policy formulation by undertaking
               appropriate research, building evidence based policy positions and
               advocating those positions with government and other private sector
               institutions/organization that may be targeted by the action.

               Building and presenting evidence based policy positions

                       DEFINITION Co-coordinating data on the business environment
                       with the aim of identifying and relaying constraint elements in the
                       business environment to stakeholders

               Sensitizing public and co-actors to put pressure on targets and for

                       DEFINITION Building consensus on identified environmental
                       problems with the aim of legitimizing the basis for communal


9.1     How It Was Done
        In order to validate the content of standards, we counted on a wider consultation
        with other entrepreneurs in order to explore the possibilities of application of the
        same standards by the other entrepreneurs. In this regard we presented a
        questionnaire of consultation, covering subject areas. Their inputs are
        summarized in section 9.4

9.2     Persons Consulted
        Our recipients comprised selected entrepreneur who did not participate in the

9.2.1   Camara Mustapha, Owner, Manager, Camara Mustapha Pallet Co., Padova Italy

9.2.2   Jonathan Mingle, Managing Director, Mingle Sportswear, Accra, Ghana

9.3     Short Summary of Comments
        The standards were generally described as a most ambitious, systematic, and
        comprehensive standards in small business entrepreneurship. Some comments
        on the strengths of these standards include:

9.3.1   Inclusion of a variety of easily understood structures for organizing concepts in
        the small business standards:

               Innovative conceptualization of competence within the standards as a
               result of integrating knowledge, skill, and attitude (KSAs), providing the
               most complete description of competencies that are available;

               Conceptualization of small business development as cycle of planning
               and implementation providing an easily understood schema for the
               application of entrepreneurship in practice;

               Use of an easily understood topic structure for organizing the standards;

9.3.2   Conceptualization of the standards in a way that emphasizes generalizability:

               Development of the standards by including entrepreneurship with a
               variety of training and experience from a variety of settings, increasing the
               likelihood that the standards are widely applicable across practitioners,

               Conceptualization of the standards with optimum specificity, avoiding
               standards that are too general to be helpful or too detailed to be
               generalizable across practitioners, settings, and nationalities.

9.3.3   Conceptualization of the standards from the beginning as involving both design
        and use, clearly communicating that good standards poorly used are as
        ineffective as bad standards:

               Inclusion of implementation as an integral part of creating the standards;

               Design of pre-service and in-service training as an integral part of the
               creation of the standards, as opposed to considering training as an
               afterthought; and

               Emphasis on competence achievement as an integral aspect of training in
               the use of the standards.

9.3.4 Construction of the standards in a way that maximizes the clarity of the standards:

               Provision of a consistent and unambiguous grammatical structure for the
               standards; and

               Consistent level of detail in presenting the standards.


  Interview Plan In Respect of an Invitation to be Addressed to one of the Enterprises
                  Selected to Participate in the Identification Process.


Mr. Dennis Ahiabenu, Auto By Nature Center

This interview is being conducted by the Training Department of the Association of
African Entrepreneurs (AAE) in preparation for a process of identification of
competences on the professional functions in small business entrepreneurship and is
targeted at entrepreneurs and key managers of small business.

As a major stakeholder with well noted accomplishment in the small business area, your
participation in the process is greatly desired. To this end, the Training Department will
be most pleased to hear from you on key related matters in respect of your work through
this interview.

QUESTION 1 Please identify key issues that affected the selection, recruitment and
            training of workers?
QUESTION 2 Do you support or sponsor staff training? Why?
QUESTION 3 What are the educational levels of key personnel?
QUESTION 4 Are you a member of an association or network?
QUESTION 5 Do you have research partnership with any educational institution?
QUESTION 6 Is your business formally registered and how will you classify your
            operations: Small scale, Medium Scale or Large Scale?
QUESTION 7 What types of Research and development Activities are currently
            undertaken by your company?
QUESTION 6 What are the current constraints facing Research activities?
QUESTION 9 How has research activities influenced decision making? Give an
QUESTION 10: What is your expected or current source of funds for Research
QUESTION 12: Is research and development done in-house or with external partners
and why?
QUESTION 13: What are some lessons learnt and review?
QUESTION 14: Do you feel that the identification of competence is important to the
            development of your workers and your company? How?
QUESTION 15: Which days and times of the week will you consider ideal to engage in a
            half day workshop for the purpose of identification of professional

UNIT 2, Section A

 A Functional Map Proposal With Reference to the Human Resources of Association of
       African Entrepreneurs; the Key Purpose, Its Main Functions and the Units
     of Competence of a Function Related to Staff Training and Development, and
                   Elements Of Competence of a Competence Unit.

Key Purpose of Human Resource:

Designing, Assigning and Communicating tasks to working team to meet requirements
for the delivery of superior products, and building on the lifelong learning in the
organization’s occupational context.

Functions of Human Resource

        1.0                Setting up and monitoring workplace policies for the organization
                           of worker relationships to create a conducive environment for the
                           process of production

        2.0                Designing, delivering & evaluating training programmes targeted
                           at the working team with the aim of making the work output
                           relevant to the organizational objectives

        2.1                Analyse training requirements

                                     Identify and analyse competence standards

                                               Organise working modalities for the
                                               identification of standards

                                               Identify unit and elements of competence

                                               Describe unit and elements of competence

                                     Assess training needs within the organization

                                     Analyse the working team targeted by a training

                                     Identify the resources available and the constraints for the
                                     design and implementation of a training programme

        2.2                Design a training programme

        2.3                Design and produce learning media and environments

        2.4                Deliver a training programme

        2.5                Evaluate a training programme

(Sources:   1. Function 2.0 based on the Training Programme of the Competency-based Training of Trainers of ITCILO
            2. Daniel Awuley Ayin, Human Resource Consultant)

UNIT 2, Section B

  A Memo to Introduce the Questionnaire and to solicit Collaboration in the Validation
                       Process of the Identified Competencies.

Last week the AAE Training Department organized a workshop titled: “Analysis of
functions of entrepreneurs running small business” as part a set of activities aiming at
improving communication which is indispensable between the organization and the
traditional educational institutions.

The workshop had the objective of identifying actual requirements of the national
productive system to shape the formulation of the training offer, and was attended by the
following persons who contributed to the creation of a profile of competence as outlined
in the attached validation questionnaire.

Mr. Dennis Ahiabenu, Auto By Nature Center, Accra, Ghana
Mr. Tetteh Amegatcher, Sun World Tours, Accra, Ghana

At this point, it will be necessary to validate the profile of competence since it is intended
to be applied by any and all stakeholders within the sector. In order to do this, we are
counting on a wider consultation with the stakeholders who had not participated in the
identification process. In this regard we would like to ask you to fill out the validation
questionnaire, by ticking the relevant spaces in the questionnaire (it should take less
than 10 minutes to complete). All participants will then have at their disposal the
validated profile of competences that will serve as a reference for your work.

We thank you in advance for your cooperation and remain at your disposal for any
further clarification you might need.


UNIT 3, Section A
  The Standard Specifications of a Competence Element pertaining to the Functional
                  area of Associations Of African Entrepreneurs

                                 Element of competence
                             OF COMPETENCE STANDARDS
                                Performance description:
  Promote, organise and orient the working team during the process of identification of
  competence standards and occupational functions contributing to the generation of a
 given product within technical or professional branch of the organisation with a view of
           ensuring the active participation of the actors from the productive unit
 Performance criteria                                  Evidence
1. Collect and analyse
quantitative and          The different procedures to analyse the consistency of the
qualitative basic         design are identified.
information related to    The most appropriate validation procedures
the functional area of    ▪ are selected in line with the programme’s characteristics and
the organisation where the resources
the professional          available to carry it out.
functions can be          ▪ The selected validation procedures are implemented and the
identified.               information collected is recorded.

2. Select a
methodology for the      The selection of a methodology to be applied implies the
identification of        analysis and evaluation of the main methodological options,
competence               strengths and weaknesses in relation to:
standards.               ▪ the key purpose and the achievement of the analysis to be
.                        undertaken;
                         ▪ the requirement of a participatory approach to the
                         identification process;
                         ▪ the necessary resources to implement it.

3. Identify, organise
and promote the          The identification of the key actors
participation of key     employers/workers/technicians
actors from the          and methodologists) involved in the process requires:
productive unit.         ▪ their participation in productive work; ▪ their interests and
                         ▪ their availability.
                         The convocation, implementation and adaptation of different
                         organisational modalities enable to reach an active
                         participation of the key actors, which will guarantee the quality
                         and representativeness of the products.
                         Equal participation of all the key actors concerned in the
                         different working set ups will be ensured.
                         Assurance is given that the products are the result of a
                         consensus amongst participants and are mutually recognised.
                                  Range of application:
Process of definition of competence standards which will be used as a reference for the
design of training programmes and for the assessment of learning achievements and
professional qualification at the individual level

UNIT 3, Section B

            One Questionnaires to Explore Possibilities of Application of the
               Standards in Agreement with the Selected Interlocutors.

Questionnaire of Consultation

How can you use standards as a technique for recognizing the performance of
             employees and their potential?


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