ANALYSIS & IDENTIFICATION OF
* Business employing 5 or more workers but not more than 50 workers with annual
turnover below 1.35 but not more than 6.8 billion cedis.
1.0 DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONAL AREA
Managing input factors in an innovative manner to generate value to the
customer with the hope that this value will exceed the cost of the input factors,
thus generating superior returns that result in the creation of wealth
2.0 POSSIBLE APPLICATION OF THE PRODUCTS TO BE DEVELOPED
The process of work analysis will involve a platform of dialogue and the creation
of collective knowledge that will, in addition to the product, could be used as
2.1 Enhancing curriculums of the Tertiary Education Community.
The product could be used to enhance the curriculums of educational institutions
offering courses in entrepreneurship and business management.
Informal learning relates to learning that takes place through real life work and
the particular wisdom and knowledge that workers acquire and how they do it.
This type of higher level training is not confined to and unobtainable in mere
education classroom setting. But, it can facilitate the identification and
incorporation of the competences of working adults into the intellectual life of
higher level institutions. The recognition and valuation of this wisdom and
knowledge is not only an individual good, but an institutional good that enriches
the life of the educational community.
2.2 Portfolio Assessment of Learning Outcomes of Prior Experiences for Formal
Modern University’s curriculum and much of its research should focus on the
connection between real life work and formal education.
Since the average age of undergraduates is approximately 27, many have been
involved in a variety of entrepreneurial life experiences which can offer learning
equivalent in substance and complexity to that offered in our classrooms.
Through reliable assessment of learning outcomes, educational institutions could
use the product in setting a high standard for formally and systematically
recognizing the linkage between the portfolios of entrepreneurial work and formal
2.3 Accreditation of Tacit Skill/Knowledge Development
Accreditation authorities could apply standards to allow flexibly to programs that
seek to provide quality training using innovative methods. The issue of wider
recognition of non-formal personal competences is becoming increasingly
prominent in education and employment in response to the demands of the
"knowledge society". Tacit forms of personal competences play an increasing
part in the education, training and work re-entry of adults.
Providing entrepreneurs with the opportunities for recognition and evaluation of
competencies may facilitate and shape their knowledge acquisition and
encourage them to use and demonstrate their skills in a variety of contexts and
2.4 Informal Learning for Policy makers
In countries where there is a major informal sector, low confidence in government
and institutions, could make members of society feel apathetic or left behind by
policies and will not want to participate in their governments. The result is high
levels of corruption, government becoming unaccountable and leaving people
with little hope in their countries. Training policy makers outside the formal
education will enable them experience and understand the needs and problems
faced by the informal sector and the importance of inclusion in any process
affecting the informal sector.
2.5 Promoting Social Integration Society: Ensuring Fairness and a “Society for All”
In Africa, decent education still remains a privilege of the rich, not a right for
everyone. Creating the opportunities and links for informal sector learners to
assess skills and knowledge could help improve their social mobility. People
qualified for employment in public office or civil service could be entered into the
formal sector based on a reliable assessment of learning outcomes to promote
integration and ensure that important positions in society are (or caretakership of
the policies and public institutions) are not left in the hands of a few people. In
this way Education in all sectors (formal, informal, and non-formal) will culminate
in promoting understanding within the community, knowledge of rights, and to
ensure all people have opportunities for social mobility, for employment, public
office, and civil service.
3.0 THE INFORMAL/SMALL BUSINESS SECTOR IN GHANA
3.1 An Overview
Ghana’s economy thrives on it’s working population just as any nation, The
working population is made up of the formal and informal sectors. The term
“informal sector” was coined in Ghana in 1971 by a British anthropologist who
was studying the economic activities of low-income communities in Accra. The
informal economy, as it is now called and defined, is comprised of self-
employment in small unregistered enterprises and wage employment in
unregulated and unprotected jobs. In developing countries, informal employment
comprises one half to three quarters of non-agricultural employment. In Sub-
Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, informal employment comprises nearly
80 per cent of non-agricultural employment. In Ghana today, informal
employment represents over 90 per cent of total employment.
The informal sector consists of small scale enterprises engaging in a wide variety
of economic activities on the margins of formal or mainstream activities. Their
activities are normally outside the conventional scope of government regulation
and assistance. The informal sector lacks social protection arrangements at
work and health facilities. Little or no training, Unhealthy or unsafe working
conditions, Lacks regulation and monitoring, and has few rights. This sector is
normally youthful, most of them with insufficient income (esp. women). Learning
within the informal sector takes place in a wide and wide and varied range of
settings, but mostly within the informal economic activities like agricultural
activities, services, construction and manufacturing.
3.2. Institutions and programmes relating to the informal sector
Over the last 20 years, as the informal sector has expanded, so have a variety of
institutions and programmes that relate to the sector been born. The plethora of
established institutions and programmes include the National Board for Small-
Scale Industries (NBSSI, see Box 1), the Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises
Development (FUSMED), the Programme of Action for the Mitigation of the
Social Costs of Adjustment (PAMSCAD), the Ghana Regional Appropriate
Technology Industrial Service (GRATIS, see Box 2), TECHNOSERVE (see Box
3) and the Council for Indigenous Business Associations (CIBA). Institutions like
the Internal Revenue Service as well as the Metropolitan and District Assemblies
provide the regulatory framework for the operations of the sector.
The range of institutions and programmes that are geared to the informal sector
different forms of credit and technical support to the sector. While the
Government has recognized the importance of the informal sector and its
potential contribution to employment, incomes and even a domestic industrial
base, it has not demonstrated the corresponding financial commitment to it. The
Government’s budget for supporting the informal sector is at best inadequate. On
the other hand, non-governmental organizations also intervene in the informal
sector, but again, inadequate finance is their overriding constraint.
Ghana applies to international labour standards a considerable extent,
particularly those concerning freedom of association and the protection of the
right to organize as well as to bargain collectively.
4.0 METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF COMPETENCIES
Functional Analysis methodology is preferred because as the most holistic
methodology, it will be compatible to apply to the educational objectives of the
identification, and also the sector analysis.
5.0 KEY ACTORS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION PROCCESS
5.1 GROUP OF EXPERTS TO BE CONSULTED
The following organizations will be invited to nominate entrepreneurs:
5.1.1 The Ghana Private Road Transport Union (GPRTU)
The GPRTU is composed mainly of hired drivers, owner-drivers and vehicle
owners. The union also engages paramilitary personnel that it employs as guards
with responsibility for monitoring the payment of daily income tax by private road
The union provides a peculiar framework for the pursuit of the interests of its
varied membership. It operates structures at branch, regional and national levels.
The national and regional structures are dominated by the vehicle owners’
component of the union while the presence of the owner-drivers in the union is
established mainly at branch level. GPRTU branches cover virtually all the
districts of the country. Hired drivers (and their apprentices) largely make up the
numbers in the union.
The union operates a welfare fund for members in distress. The fund is normally
accessed upon bereavement of members. The GPRTU is a member of the West
African Road Transport Union and the International Transport Workers’
5.1.2 General Agricultural Workers’ Union (GAWU)
GAWU organized its Rural Workers’ Organisation Division (RWOD) as early as
1979. The membership is national, with a higher concentration in the Volta and
Greater Accra Regions, and the Northern, Upper East and West regions. By
1998 total membership was over 12,000, with 60 per cent being women. The
members are peasant and landless farmers, farmers who hire out their labour,
flywheel tractor operators, stone-quarrying workers and other self-employed rural
workers. Apart from the flywheel tractor operators who have their own
association which is in turn affiliated to the union, all the others have direct
membership of the union and pay dues directly to it.
The union collaborates with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA), the
International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco
and Allied Workers’ Associations (IUF), the International Federation of Building
and Wood Workers (IFBWW), the Netherlands Federation of Trade Unions
(FNV), and others that address rural workers.
5.1.3 Timber and Woodworkers Union (TWU)
TWU began its organizational efforts in the informal sector in 1988. This was
after the TWU quadrennial conference in 1987 which adopted a resolution for
organizing self-employed woodworkers in the informal sector. The objectives for
• to promote the interests of all the self-employed and to secure united action on
all issues affecting or likely to affect those interests;
• to regulate their operations through education; and
• to secure both national and international recognition of their socio-economic
role in national development.
The first group of the self-employed targeted for organization included the power
chainsaw operators, firewood cutters, charcoal burners and the canoe carvers
whose activities are carried out right in the forest. The TWU organized the
National Sawyers Association (NSA) to cover all of them. Since 1991 the NSA
has been on its own in terms of organization. It is affiliated to the TWU and is
represented on its National Executive Council by two persons.
union has employed one of its members as a full-time official responsible for the
informal sector. There are 12,000 members spread over six regions in the
southern sector of the country. Few are, however, found in the Northern Region.
The union provides training and education to members. This has enhanced their
ability to register their businesses with the Registrar General’s Department, the
Internal Revenue Service, the District Assemblies and the Forestry Department
as a prerequisite to obtaining a felling permit to operate. The TWU finances
conferences of the NSA (pays for food, accommodation and organizational costs)
and the printing of membership cards.
Small-scale carpenters are also organized in the Small-Scale Carpenters’
Association. They are the users of the products of the chainsaw operators - the
carpentry, joinery and furniture workers. According to the union, a recent national
survey estimated the number of these workers at 1.5 million. The union has
organized 30,000 of them nationwide, concentrated in Kumasi and Accra. They
are spread in all the ten regions at local, district and regional levels.
The Wood Working Machine Owners’ Association is the third group of self-
employed operators to be organized. Their operations are centered in the six
forest regions of Ghana. While approximately 6,000 workers are estimated to be
in the sector, the union’s efforts at organizing them are proceeding steadily with
3,000 already under coverage.
The Cane and Rattan Workers’ Association is made up of suppliers and
weavers in the sector. The union’s organizational activities started in this sector
in February 1996, and are ongoing. The union now covers the Greater Accra and
Eastern Regions where about 1,000 workers have been signed on. The union is
also looking forward to organizing wood carvers who are concentrated in Accra
and Aburi. The TWU collaborates with the IFBWW and the TEDB.
5.1.4 The Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU)
The most organized informal sector group of workers in the ICU is the Ghana
Hairdressers and Beauticians’ Association (GHABA). They include
hairdressers, beauticians and barbers.
GHABA has a membership of 4,000 spread all over Ghana with special
concentration in Accra, Kumasi and Takoradi. The association has its own
structure from district through regional to national levels. In Accra, the district is
divided into zones because of the density of the population and range of
activities. Each member of the association pays 200 cedis per month to the
national executive committee who collects dues and in turn pays an affiliation fee
to the ICU. The association has a representation of three persons on the National
Executive Council (NEC) and on the women’s wing of the ICU.
Tie-and-dye workers as well as domestic cooks and stewards have also been
recently organized into the ICU. The ICU collaborates with the International
Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees
(FIET) and the Women Workers’ Union (KKD) of Denmark in furthering its
initiatives in the informal sector.
Other trade union initiatives in organizing informal sector workers include the
Ghana Union of Professional Photographers (GUPP). Constituted into a body in
1987 with a membership of 1,150, it became affiliated to the Public Services
Workers’ Union (PSWU). GUPP is national in character but has high membership
concentrations in Kumasi, Takoradi and Accra.
It operates regional and national executive structures. Members pay dues
through GUPP to PSWU but they are not represented in the structures of the
PSWU, e.g. the National Executive Council (NEC) or the Regional Councils.
The GUPP has unrealized expectations workers from its affiliation to the PSWU.
It expects education, training and exposure through photo exhibitions from its
association with the PSWU. It also expects the PSWU to assist with direct
organizational work in contacting potential members around the country.
Membership of GUP Phase dropped to 400 because of low morale and absence
of recognition of the value of belonging to the association. GUPP has a welfare
scheme for compensation in times of bereavement, but this has so far only
benefited a few persons.
The other group of informal sector workers to be organized by a trade union in
Ghana is the Butchers’ Association. It is affiliated to the Local Government
Workers’ Union (LGWU) and currently has membership only at the Kumasi
5.2 Observers for the Identification Process
Representative from the following Educational/Accreditation institutions will be
University of Ghana, this is Ghana’s premier tertiary institution
University of Turin, seen as committed and involved in labour Issues through its
partnership with the International Training Center of ILO.
Ghana’s National Accreditation Board
6.0 WORKPLAN FOR IDENTIFICATION
A suitable location (classroom) will be prepared with consideration to accessibility
by all invited participant. Members will sit around a table, and there will be a large
board on which colored card cards are fixed. A space for observers made
Prospective Facilitators will be interviewed or appraised in order to select one or
two who have comprehensive competence in facilitation in the process of
identification and analysis of competence. Apart from promoting participation, he
or she will methodologically guide the group, record its proceedings, prepare
material and meeting etc
6.3 Workshop (First Day)
During the half-day session of the first day we define the key purpose and then
derive the relevant functions and sub-functions of the sector.
6.4 Workshop (Second Day)
During the half days session of the second day we will review and fine-tune the
functions and sub-functions of the sector
6.5 After The Workshop
The Validation of the functional map will be done through a wide consultation and
will be directed to workers, enterprises and organizations of the sectors that did
not participated in the identification of competences. These entities may be
members of the umbrella organizations identified above or of other associations
in Ghana like the Ghana Employers Association etc.
7.0 IDENTIFICATION OF COMPETENCE UNITS AND ELEMENTS
The following two (2) entrepreneurs have been selected to provide easily
accessible qualitative information for the identification of competence in small
business, being active co-operants of the Association of African Entrepreneurs
7.1 Mr. Dennis Ahiabenu, Auto By Nature Center
Established in 1998 by its current Technician - in – Chief, Mr Ahiabenu, Auto By
specializes in repair of most brands of vehicles and manufacture of spare parts.
The Center engages 13 full time staff and 6 apprentices.
7.2 Mr. Tetteh Amegatcher, Sun World Tours
Sunworld Tours is a professional tour operating company based in Accra, Ghana,
offering services that span the full breadth of holiday activities, tailoring services
to the needs and culture of their clients. Sunworld Tours has the expertise in
package tours, customized itineraries, choir concerts/ tours.
8.0 FUNCTIONAL MAP
Combining various input factors in an innovative manner to generate value to the
customer with the hope that this value will exceed the cost of the input factors,
thus generating superior returns that result in the creation of wealth
8.1 Constructing the entrepreneurial model, to meet superior goals.
8.1.1 Drafting a mind map of the entrepreneurial vision, relating to the desired success
Outlining scope and purpose,
Illustrating strategy and objectives
8.1.2 Analyzing existing concepts and models to identify gaps and omissions
Review of similar concepts presently under development or in use,
Review of assessment of the existing models and structural and resource
Identification of gaps, omissions, and areas requiring more detailed analysis
8.1.3 Designing go-forward model and its component functions, structure, roles,
responsibilities, assignments, and resource requirements in light of strategy and
Undertake Feasibility studies
Write a Business Plan
8.1.4 Develop an execution plan, including a detailed schedule, assignments and
responsibilities, and expected results
Prepare Workplace Policies
Prepare Production Policies
Prepare Administrative policies
8.2 Communicating the vision to identified actors to make it operational
8.2.1 Facilitating Training Activities and Information Sessions conducive to work
DEFINITION, identifying training needs contributing to the development
and facilitation of internal training and information with the aim of
corroborating a relevant human resource management solution.
Identifying Training and key personnel development needs
DEFINITION: Keeping the register on staff performance with the aim of
verifying lapses in competence performance
• Collecting information and data on actual performance
• Collecting information and data on accepted standards
• Comparing both materials in order to identify gaps
• Information and data on actual performance
• Information and data on agreed standards
• List of Identified gaps in staff performance
RANGE OF APPLICATION
• Information & Research System: Paper – based, electronically
Developing & Delivering Training Programs
DEFINITION: Establishing a relevant training solution to improve
Evaluating Training & Information Sessions
DEFINITION: Comparing end-of-day situation with success standards.
8.2.2 Negotiating with public officers holders and decision makers for accommodative
policies for the industry and business
DEFINITION. Influencing public policy formulation by undertaking
appropriate research, building evidence based policy positions and
advocating those positions with government and other private sector
institutions/organization that may be targeted by the action.
Building and presenting evidence based policy positions
DEFINITION Co-coordinating data on the business environment
with the aim of identifying and relaying constraint elements in the
business environment to stakeholders
Sensitizing public and co-actors to put pressure on targets and for
DEFINITION Building consensus on identified environmental
problems with the aim of legitimizing the basis for communal
9.0 VALIDATION OF COMPETENCE STANDARDS
9.1 How It Was Done
In order to validate the content of standards, we counted on a wider consultation
with other entrepreneurs in order to explore the possibilities of application of the
same standards by the other entrepreneurs. In this regard we presented a
questionnaire of consultation, covering subject areas. Their inputs are
summarized in section 9.4
9.2 Persons Consulted
Our recipients comprised selected entrepreneur who did not participate in the
9.2.1 Camara Mustapha, Owner, Manager, Camara Mustapha Pallet Co., Padova Italy
9.2.2 Jonathan Mingle, Managing Director, Mingle Sportswear, Accra, Ghana
9.3 Short Summary of Comments
The standards were generally described as a most ambitious, systematic, and
comprehensive standards in small business entrepreneurship. Some comments
on the strengths of these standards include:
9.3.1 Inclusion of a variety of easily understood structures for organizing concepts in
the small business standards:
Innovative conceptualization of competence within the standards as a
result of integrating knowledge, skill, and attitude (KSAs), providing the
most complete description of competencies that are available;
Conceptualization of small business development as cycle of planning
and implementation providing an easily understood schema for the
application of entrepreneurship in practice;
Use of an easily understood topic structure for organizing the standards;
9.3.2 Conceptualization of the standards in a way that emphasizes generalizability:
Development of the standards by including entrepreneurship with a
variety of training and experience from a variety of settings, increasing the
likelihood that the standards are widely applicable across practitioners,
Conceptualization of the standards with optimum specificity, avoiding
standards that are too general to be helpful or too detailed to be
generalizable across practitioners, settings, and nationalities.
9.3.3 Conceptualization of the standards from the beginning as involving both design
and use, clearly communicating that good standards poorly used are as
ineffective as bad standards:
Inclusion of implementation as an integral part of creating the standards;
Design of pre-service and in-service training as an integral part of the
creation of the standards, as opposed to considering training as an
Emphasis on competence achievement as an integral aspect of training in
the use of the standards.
9.3.4 Construction of the standards in a way that maximizes the clarity of the standards:
Provision of a consistent and unambiguous grammatical structure for the
Consistent level of detail in presenting the standards.
PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCES
Interview Plan In Respect of an Invitation to be Addressed to one of the Enterprises
Selected to Participate in the Identification Process.
Mr. Dennis Ahiabenu, Auto By Nature Center
This interview is being conducted by the Training Department of the Association of
African Entrepreneurs (AAE) in preparation for a process of identification of
competences on the professional functions in small business entrepreneurship and is
targeted at entrepreneurs and key managers of small business.
As a major stakeholder with well noted accomplishment in the small business area, your
participation in the process is greatly desired. To this end, the Training Department will
be most pleased to hear from you on key related matters in respect of your work through
QUESTION 1 Please identify key issues that affected the selection, recruitment and
training of workers?
QUESTION 2 Do you support or sponsor staff training? Why?
QUESTION 3 What are the educational levels of key personnel?
QUESTION 4 Are you a member of an association or network?
QUESTION 5 Do you have research partnership with any educational institution?
QUESTION 6 Is your business formally registered and how will you classify your
operations: Small scale, Medium Scale or Large Scale?
QUESTION 7 What types of Research and development Activities are currently
undertaken by your company?
QUESTION 6 What are the current constraints facing Research activities?
QUESTION 9 How has research activities influenced decision making? Give an
QUESTION 10: What is your expected or current source of funds for Research
QUESTION 12: Is research and development done in-house or with external partners
QUESTION 13: What are some lessons learnt and review?
QUESTION 14: Do you feel that the identification of competence is important to the
development of your workers and your company? How?
QUESTION 15: Which days and times of the week will you consider ideal to engage in a
half day workshop for the purpose of identification of professional
PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCES
UNIT 2, Section A
A Functional Map Proposal With Reference to the Human Resources of Association of
African Entrepreneurs; the Key Purpose, Its Main Functions and the Units
of Competence of a Function Related to Staff Training and Development, and
Elements Of Competence of a Competence Unit.
Key Purpose of Human Resource:
Designing, Assigning and Communicating tasks to working team to meet requirements
for the delivery of superior products, and building on the lifelong learning in the
organization’s occupational context.
Functions of Human Resource
1.0 Setting up and monitoring workplace policies for the organization
of worker relationships to create a conducive environment for the
process of production
2.0 Designing, delivering & evaluating training programmes targeted
at the working team with the aim of making the work output
relevant to the organizational objectives
2.1 Analyse training requirements
Identify and analyse competence standards
Organise working modalities for the
identification of standards
Identify unit and elements of competence
Describe unit and elements of competence
Assess training needs within the organization
Analyse the working team targeted by a training
Identify the resources available and the constraints for the
design and implementation of a training programme
2.2 Design a training programme
2.3 Design and produce learning media and environments
2.4 Deliver a training programme
2.5 Evaluate a training programme
(Sources: 1. Function 2.0 based on the Training Programme of the Competency-based Training of Trainers of ITCILO
2. Daniel Awuley Ayin, Human Resource Consultant)
PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCES
UNIT 2, Section B
A Memo to Introduce the Questionnaire and to solicit Collaboration in the Validation
Process of the Identified Competencies.
Last week the AAE Training Department organized a workshop titled: “Analysis of
functions of entrepreneurs running small business” as part a set of activities aiming at
improving communication which is indispensable between the organization and the
traditional educational institutions.
The workshop had the objective of identifying actual requirements of the national
productive system to shape the formulation of the training offer, and was attended by the
following persons who contributed to the creation of a profile of competence as outlined
in the attached validation questionnaire.
Mr. Dennis Ahiabenu, Auto By Nature Center, Accra, Ghana
Mr. Tetteh Amegatcher, Sun World Tours, Accra, Ghana
At this point, it will be necessary to validate the profile of competence since it is intended
to be applied by any and all stakeholders within the sector. In order to do this, we are
counting on a wider consultation with the stakeholders who had not participated in the
identification process. In this regard we would like to ask you to fill out the validation
questionnaire, by ticking the relevant spaces in the questionnaire (it should take less
than 10 minutes to complete). All participants will then have at their disposal the
validated profile of competences that will serve as a reference for your work.
We thank you in advance for your cooperation and remain at your disposal for any
further clarification you might need.
PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCES
UNIT 3, Section A
The Standard Specifications of a Competence Element pertaining to the Functional
area of Associations Of African Entrepreneurs
Element of competence
ORGANISE WORKING MODALITIES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION
OF COMPETENCE STANDARDS
Promote, organise and orient the working team during the process of identification of
competence standards and occupational functions contributing to the generation of a
given product within technical or professional branch of the organisation with a view of
ensuring the active participation of the actors from the productive unit
Performance criteria Evidence
1. Collect and analyse
quantitative and The different procedures to analyse the consistency of the
qualitative basic design are identified.
information related to The most appropriate validation procedures
the functional area of ▪ are selected in line with the programme’s characteristics and
the organisation where the resources
the professional available to carry it out.
functions can be ▪ The selected validation procedures are implemented and the
identified. information collected is recorded.
2. Select a
methodology for the The selection of a methodology to be applied implies the
identification of analysis and evaluation of the main methodological options,
competence strengths and weaknesses in relation to:
standards. ▪ the key purpose and the achievement of the analysis to be
▪ the requirement of a participatory approach to the
▪ the necessary resources to implement it.
3. Identify, organise
and promote the The identification of the key actors
participation of key employers/workers/technicians
actors from the and methodologists) involved in the process requires:
productive unit. ▪ their participation in productive work; ▪ their interests and
▪ their availability.
The convocation, implementation and adaptation of different
organisational modalities enable to reach an active
participation of the key actors, which will guarantee the quality
and representativeness of the products.
Equal participation of all the key actors concerned in the
different working set ups will be ensured.
Assurance is given that the products are the result of a
consensus amongst participants and are mutually recognised.
Range of application:
Process of definition of competence standards which will be used as a reference for the
design of training programmes and for the assessment of learning achievements and
professional qualification at the individual level
PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCES
UNIT 3, Section B
One Questionnaires to Explore Possibilities of Application of the
Standards in Agreement with the Selected Interlocutors.
Questionnaire of Consultation
How can you use standards as a technique for recognizing the performance of
employees and their potential?