• The grouping of organisms into kingdoms is based on 3 factors: 6 Kingdoms of Life 1. Cell Type 2. Cell Number 3. Feeding Type Prokaryotes 1. Cell Type- The presence or absence of cellular structures such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or a cell wall • DO NOT HAVE: Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes •a membrane bound nucleus •any membrane bound organelles …Prokaryotes • DO HAVE: • DNA • Ribosomes • Cytoplasm • Cell membrane Eukaryotes • DO HAVE: • separate membrane bound nucleus • other organelles 2. Cell # Whether the organisms exist as single cells or as many cells 3. Feeding Type - How the organisms get their food •Unicellular- single celled organism •Multicellular- many celled organism Autotroph (producer) •Makes it’s own food Heterotroph (consumer) •Must eat other organisms to survive There used to be only 5 kingdoms 6 Kingdoms 1. Moneran This kingdom has now been • Archaebacteria divided into 2 – archaebacteria & eubacteria • Eubacteria Prokaryotes 2. Protista • Protista 3. Fungi • Fungi 4. Plantae • Plantae Eukaryotes 5. Animalia • Animalia Kingdom Cell Type Cell # Feeding Type Cell Wall Archaebacteria Archaebacteria Prokaryote Unicellular Autotroph Yes Eubacteria Prokaryote Unicellular Both Yes Protista Eukaryote Most Unicellular Both Yes & NO • Ancient bacteria- Fungi Eukaryote both Heterotroph Yes – Live in very Plantae Eukaryote Multicellular Autotroph Yes harsh environments Animalia Eukaryote Multicellular Heterotroph NO – extremophiles Eubacteria Bacteria • Bacteria are • It is the eubacteria unicellular that most people are prokaryotes talking about when they say bacteria, because they live in more neutral conditions. Bacterial Locomotion Bacterial Nutrition • Some bacteria have • Some bacteria are flagella or cilia for autotrophs and can movement photosynthesize • Some secrete a slime layer and • Some bacteria are ooze over surfaces heterotrophs like slugs Protists Protists • Protists include • There are animal-like, fungus-like, many widely ranging and plant-like protists microbes, including slime molds, • Some are beneficial protozoa and primitive algae. • Some protists can cause diseases in Odds & Ends humans, such as: Kingdom Disease Protist Vector Symptoms Details (carrier) Amebic Ameba water diarrhea can get from tap Protists Disease dysentery histolytica water in some places Giardaisis Giardia water diarrhea, don't drink water • Amebic (beaver fever) vomiting from streams dysentery Ameba histolytica African Trypanosoma Tse tse fly uncontrolled Only found in Sleeping sleepiness, isolated areas Sickness confusion lives in blood Plasmodium Anopheles fever, chills, can be treated with mosquito death quinine Malaria lives in blood results in millions deaths per year Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma cats fetal death or pregnant women brain damage should avoid cat litter Protists Disease Protists Disease • Giardiasis • African Sleeping Trypanosoma (beaver Giardia fever) Sickness Protists Disease Protists Disease • Malaria • Toxoplasmo sis Plasmodium Toxoplasma Protists Locomotion Protists Nutrition • 3 types of movement: • Protists can be –Pseudopod (false autotrophs or foot) heterotrophs –Flagella/cilia –Contractile vacuoles Fungi • The Kingdom Fungi includes some of • All fungi are Fungi the most important eukaryotic Unicellular Multicellular organisms. (yeast) • By breaking down • They may be dead organic unicellular or material, they multicellular continue the cycle of nutrients through • All fungi have ecosystems. a cell wall Fungi Fungi Penicillin • Fungi can be very • Fungi also causes a number of plant helpful and and animal diseases: delicious •Athlete's Foot • Many antibacterial drugs are derived from fungi Fungi Fungi Locomotion • Ringworm • Fungi are stationary • They have root- like structures that they use for attachment Fungi Nutrition There are 4 main types of Fungi (classified by how they reproduce) • All fungi are heterotrophs 1. Zygospore (Zygosporangia) • They absorb • Bread molds nutrients from dead organic matter • They are saprophytes There are 4 main types of Fungi There are 4 main types of Fungi 2. Club (Basidiomycetes) • Mushrooms & puffballs 3. Sac (Ascomycetes) • Yeasts There are 4 main types of Fungi Plants 4. Imperfect (Deuteromycetes) • All plants • penicillin are multicellular autotrophs that have a cell wall. • 4 important plant groups are the: • Nonvascular Plants Mosses Non-vascular Ferns (Bryophytes) (Pteridophytes) •Nonvascular plants are the simplest of all land dwelling plants. Vascular •They lack an internal means for water transportation. Flowering Plants Conifers (Gymnosperms (Angiosperms) •They do not produce seeds or flowers. ) •They generally only reach a height of 1 to 2 centimeters, because they lack the woody tissue necessary for support. • Mosses • Liverworts & Hornworts • Vascular Plants • Ferns •Vascular plants have water-carrying tissues (xylem) and sugar-carrying tissues (phloem) enabling the plants to evolve to a larger size. •Vascular plants produce seeds. • Conifers (cone • Flowering plants bearing) – Angiosperms – Gymnosperms • Oldest vascular plants Animals are divided into taxa by many variables. Animalia One variable is body All animals are multicellular symmetry heterotrophs that Asymmetrical – LACK a cell wall and are capable of Asymmetrical movement at some animals (sponges) point in their lives. have no general body plan or axis of symmetry that divides the body into mirror-image halves. Radial – Bilateral – Radially Bilaterally symmetrical symmetrical animals (such as animals (such as coral and jelly fish) humans and fish) have body parts have only a single organized about a plane of central axis and symmetry that tend to be produces mirror cylindrical in shape. halves. • Animals are also classified by their skeletal system – Invertebrates have a hard external skeleton made of chitin known as an exoskeleton – Vertebrates have a hard internal skeleton made of bone • Some important animal groups • Porifera: sponges (phyla) are the: • Cnidarians: Jellyfish, corals, and other • Nematocyst stingers. . . Their stinger is called a nematocyst • Mollusks • Mollusks – Octopi, squid – Clams, oysters • Mollusks • Platyhelminthes (flat worms) – Snails, slugs – Tapeworms & flukes Human liver fluke • Annelids (segmented worms) • Echinoderms – Worms & leeches – Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers • Arthropods • Chordates – Shell fish, arachnids & BUGS! – The Chordata is the animal phylum with which everyone is most familiar, since it includes humans and other vertebrates. • Chordates Viruses • Viruses do not share many of the characteristics of living organisms. HIV Virus Viruses DNA or RNA Viruses • Viruses are not cells. • Viruses can reproduce only inside a • Basic viral structure living cell, consists of a nucleic the host cell. acid (DNA or RNA) core surrounded by a protein coat. Viruses Virus Vectors • The viral reproductive process includes Viruses are transmitted through vectors, the following steps: such as: 1. A virus must insert its genetic material • Airborne into the host cell. – Influenza 2. The viral genetic material takes control – Common cold of the host cell and uses it to produce viruses. 3. The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell. Virus Vectors Virus Vectors • Contaminated food or water • Infected animal bite – Hepatitis – West Nile – Rabies – Avian influenza (bird flu) – Ebola Virus Vectors Virus Vectors • Contaminated blood products or • Sexual contact needles – HIV – HIV – Herpes – Hepatitis reference Virus Treatment • http://www.spsk12.net/schools/kfhs/staff/c – Viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics. adorette/taxomy/6kingol.ppt – There are some anti-viral drugs available. – You generally have to wait for the virus to run its course and let your immune system fight it off.
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