6 Kingdoms of Life Prokaryotes …Prokaryotes by wuyunyi


									                                          • The grouping of organisms into
                                            kingdoms is based on 3 factors:
        6 Kingdoms of Life
                                            1. Cell Type
                                            2. Cell Number
                                            3. Feeding Type

1. Cell Type- The presence or absence
  of cellular structures such as the
  nucleus, mitochondria, or a cell wall   • DO NOT HAVE:
    Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes                 •a membrane bound
                                             •any membrane bound


  • DNA
  • Ribosomes
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell

     • separate membrane bound
     • other organelles

2. Cell #
Whether the organisms exist as single cells
or as many cells                                     3. Feeding Type - How the organisms
                                                       get their food
     •Unicellular- single celled organism
     •Multicellular- many celled organism           Autotroph (producer)
                                                      •Makes it’s own food

                                                    Heterotroph (consumer)
                                                      •Must eat other organisms to survive

There used to be only 5 kingdoms                                 6 Kingdoms
1. Moneran      This kingdom has now been            •   Archaebacteria
                divided into 2 – archaebacteria &
                eubacteria                           •   Eubacteria
2.   Protista                                        •   Protista
3.   Fungi                                           •   Fungi
4.   Plantae                                         •   Plantae
5.   Animalia                                        •   Animalia
Kingdom          Cell Type    Cell #          Feeding Type   Cell Wall
Archaebacteria   Prokaryote   Unicellular     Autotroph      Yes

Eubacteria       Prokaryote   Unicellular     Both           Yes

Protista         Eukaryote    Most
                                              Both           Yes & NO
                                                                         • Ancient
Fungi            Eukaryote    both            Heterotroph    Yes
                                                                           – Live in very
Plantae          Eukaryote    Multicellular   Autotroph      Yes
Animalia         Eukaryote    Multicellular   Heterotroph    NO            – extremophiles

                         Eubacteria                                                    Bacteria
                                                                         • Bacteria are
   • It is the eubacteria                                                  unicellular
     that most people are
     talking about when
     they say bacteria,
     because they live in
     more neutral

             Bacterial Locomotion                                              Bacterial Nutrition
   • Some bacteria have                                                  • Some bacteria are
     flagella or cilia for                                                 autotrophs and can
     movement                                                              photosynthesize
   • Some secrete a
     slime layer and                                                     • Some bacteria are
     ooze over surfaces                                                    heterotrophs
     like slugs
 • Protists include                                                                   • There are animal-like, fungus-like,
   many widely ranging                                                                  and plant-like protists
   microbes, including
   slime molds,                                                                       • Some are beneficial
   protozoa and
   primitive algae.                                                                   • Some protists can cause diseases in
  Odds & Ends                                                                           humans, such as:

  Disease          Protist      Vector       Symptoms                Details
   Amebic          Ameba         water         diarrhea         can get from tap
                                                                                              Protists Disease
  dysentery      histolytica                                  water in some places
  Giardaisis       Giardia       water         diarrhea,        don't drink water
                                                                                      • Amebic
(beaver fever)                                 vomiting          from streams           dysentery        Ameba histolytica
   African       Trypanosoma   Tse tse fly   uncontrolled        Only found in
  Sleeping                                    sleepiness,        isolated areas
  Sickness                                     confusion         lives in blood
                 Plasmodium    Anopheles     fever, chills,    can be treated with
                               mosquito         death                 quinine
                                                                  lives in blood
                                                                results in millions
                                                                 deaths per year

Toxoplasmosis    Toxoplasma       cats       fetal death or     pregnant women
                                             brain damage       should avoid cat

                   Protists Disease                                                           Protists Disease
     • Giardiasis                                                                     • African
                                                                                        Sleeping              Trypanosoma
     (beaver                                               Giardia
       fever)                                                                           Sickness
         Protists Disease                      Protists Disease
 • Malaria                            • Toxoplasmo


      Protists Locomotion                     Protists Nutrition
• 3 types of movement:              • Protists can be
 –Pseudopod (false                    autotrophs or
  foot)                               heterotrophs
 –Contractile vacuoles

• The Kingdom Fungi
  includes some of                  • All fungi are    Fungi
  the most important                  eukaryotic
                                                       Unicellular       Multicellular
• By breaking down                  • They may be
  dead organic                        unicellular or
  material, they                      multicellular
  continue the cycle
  of nutrients
  through                           • All fungi have
  ecosystems.                         a cell wall
                   Fungi                                   Fungi
  • Fungi can be very                     • Fungi also causes a number of plant
    helpful and                             and animal diseases:
                                        •Athlete's Foot
  • Many antibacterial
    drugs are derived
    from fungi

                   Fungi                          Fungi Locomotion
 • Ringworm
                                        • Fungi are

                                        • They have root-
                                          like structures that
                                          they use for

           Fungi Nutrition              There are 4 main types of Fungi (classified
                                           by how they reproduce)
• All fungi are
  heterotrophs                          1. Zygospore (Zygosporangia)
• They absorb                                • Bread molds
  nutrients from
  dead organic
• They are
There are 4 main types of Fungi                   There are 4 main types of Fungi
2. Club (Basidiomycetes)
    • Mushrooms & puffballs                       3. Sac (Ascomycetes)
                                                       • Yeasts

There are 4 main types of Fungi                                         Plants
4. Imperfect (Deuteromycetes)                     • All plants
    • penicillin                                    are
                                                    that have a
                                                    cell wall.

  • 4 important plant groups are the:               • Nonvascular Plants
      Mosses Non-vascular            Ferns
    (Bryophytes)                (Pteridophytes)   •Nonvascular plants are the simplest of all land
                                                  dwelling plants.

                     Vascular                     •They lack an internal means for water
                            Flowering Plants
   (Gymnosperms              (Angiosperms)        •They do not produce seeds or flowers.
                                                  •They generally only reach a height of 1 to 2
                                                  centimeters, because they lack the woody tissue
                                                  necessary for support.
   • Mosses                                          • Liverworts & Hornworts

   • Vascular Plants                                 • Ferns

 •Vascular plants have water-carrying tissues
 (xylem) and sugar-carrying tissues (phloem)
 enabling the plants to evolve to a larger size.

 •Vascular plants produce seeds.

• Conifers (cone                                   • Flowering plants
  bearing)                                           – Angiosperms
  – Gymnosperms
     • Oldest vascular
                               Animals are divided into taxa by many
                    Animalia   One variable is body
All animals are
multicellular                  symmetry
heterotrophs that                Asymmetrical –
LACK a cell wall and
are capable of                   Asymmetrical
movement at some                 animals (sponges)
point in their lives.            have no general
                                 body plan or axis of
                                 symmetry that
                                 divides the body
                                 into mirror-image

   Radial –                      Bilateral –
   Radially                      Bilaterally
   symmetrical                   symmetrical
   animals (such as              animals (such as
   coral and jelly fish)         humans and fish)
   have body parts               have only a single
   organized about a             plane of
   central axis and              symmetry that
   tend to be                    produces mirror
   cylindrical in shape.         halves.

                                 • Animals are also classified by their
                                   skeletal system

                                   – Invertebrates have a hard external
                                     skeleton made of chitin known as an

                                   – Vertebrates have a hard internal
                                     skeleton made of bone
• Some important animal groups               • Porifera: sponges
  (phyla) are the:

• Cnidarians: Jellyfish, corals, and other   • Nematocyst
  stingers. . . Their stinger is called a

• Mollusks                                   • Mollusks
   – Octopi, squid                             – Clams, oysters
• Mollusks                          • Platyhelminthes (flat worms)
  – Snails, slugs                     – Tapeworms & flukes

                                                               Human liver fluke

• Annelids (segmented worms)        • Echinoderms
  – Worms & leeches                   – Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers

• Arthropods                        • Chordates
  – Shell fish, arachnids & BUGS!     – The Chordata is the animal phylum with
                                        which everyone is most familiar, since it
                                        includes humans and other vertebrates.
    • Chordates                                                  Viruses
                                               • Viruses do not share many of the
                                                 characteristics of living organisms.

                                                                                   HIV Virus

          Viruses              DNA or
    • Viruses are not cells.                  • Viruses can
                                                only inside a
    • Basic viral structure                     living cell,
      consists of a nucleic                     the host cell.
      acid (DNA or RNA)
      core surrounded by a
      protein coat.

                     Viruses                               Virus Vectors
•  The viral reproductive process includes     Viruses are transmitted through vectors,
   the following steps:                          such as:
1. A virus must insert its genetic material    • Airborne
   into the host cell.                           – Influenza
2. The viral genetic material takes control      – Common cold
   of the host cell and uses it to produce
3. The newly formed viruses are released
   from the host cell.
                  Virus Vectors                                 Virus Vectors
 • Contaminated food or water                   • Infected animal bite
    – Hepatitis                                   – West Nile
                                                  – Rabies
                                                  – Avian influenza (bird flu)
                                                  – Ebola

                                                                Virus Vectors
                  Virus Vectors                 • Contaminated blood products or
 • Sexual contact                                 needles
    – HIV                                         – HIV
    – Herpes                                      – Hepatitis

             Virus Treatment                    • http://www.spsk12.net/schools/kfhs/staff/c
– Viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics.     adorette/taxomy/6kingol.ppt

– There are some anti-viral drugs available.

– You generally have to wait for the virus to
  run its course and let your immune system
  fight it off.

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