Written question by (MEP) Margrete Auken to the Commission. 26 by Rrb86I

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 24

									A Trans EU difference in the decline of trans
        fatty acids in popular foods

                             by

                Steen Stender; Professor, MD
            Department of Clinical Biochemistry
         Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen
                           Denmark

   The Future of Healthcare in Europe 13th May 2011
Industrially produced trans fatty acids
            for use in foods




              Chemical
               reactor
           Relative Risk of Coronary Heart Disease
           Associated with Trans Fatty Acid Intake




D Mozaffarian et al. NEJM 2006;354(15):1601-13
                                                                An intake of 5 grams
                                                                per day is associated
                                                                with 25 % increase in
                                                                risk of heart disease

                                                                There is no beneficial
                                                                effect of trans fatty
                                                                acids on health


In light of the Danish Nutrition Council´s reports on trans fatty acids from 1994, 2001, 2003,
and the present update, the Danish Nutrition Council recommends the following:

That industrially produced trans fatty acids should not be used in food.
                    “A high trans fat menu”




Danmark 2001

               0           10               20               30           40
                   Grams of industrially produced trans fatty acids
                             large serving of nuggets and French fries
                           AA large serving of nuggets and French fries
                            100 biscuits/cakes/wafers
                           100 ggrams biscuits/cakes/wafers
                            100 microwave popcorn
                           100 ggrams popcorn
            Places where “a high trans fat menu” was bought
                           during 2005-2006




                 USA




                                                     TURKEY

           South Africa




Jan 2008
    Trans fatty acids in ”a high trans fat menu”
                     2005-2006
            USA
     Czech Rep.
          Poland
        Hungary
        Bulgaria
         Canada
         Iceland
            Peru
       Romania
     South Africa
          France
       Lithuania
       Germany
        Portugal
           Spain
               UK
 The Netherlands
          Russia
          Austria
             Italy
        Sweden
         Norway
           China                            A large serving of nuggets and French fries
         Finland                            100 g biscuits/cakes/wafers
     Switzerland
                                            100 g microwave popcorn

   Denmark 2001
   Denmark 2005


                     0       10        20          30                40               50
30.09.09
                     Grams of industrially produced trans fatty acids
                              Grams of trans fatty acids
         Trans fatty acid in ”a high trans fat menu” in
                        2006 and 2009
         Hungary
     Czech Rep.
           Poland
           France
        Germany                                                                                                        2006
                UK
        Denmark
Czech Rep.            0               10                  20                  30                  40              50

     Poland A large serving of nuggets and French fries
     Czech Rep.                                           100 g biscuits/cakes/wafers   100 g microwave popcorn


           Poland
   Hungary
         Hungary
     France
        France                                                                                                         2009
     Germany
  Germany
                UK
         UK
        Denmark

                  0   0               10
                                       10              20     20          30       30 40                 50
                                                                                                         40                   5
                                                  Grams trans fatty acid
        A large serving of nuggets and French fries  100 g biscuits/cakes/wafers 100 g microwave popcorn
  A large serving of nuggets and French fries              100 g biscuits/cakes/wafers         100 g microwave popcorn
                                                Trends in ischemic heart disease mortality rates in
                                                selected OECD-countries, 1980 - 2006
                                                300
Age-standardised rates per 100,000 population




                                                250
                                                                                Hungary

                                                200
                                                                              Denmark

                                                150
                                                                       OECD

                                                100



                                                 50
                                                              Japan

                                                  0
                                                      1980   1985     1990    1995        2000   2005
    Adoption of the Danish trans fatty acid
    legislation (as Switzerland, Austria and
             Iceland have done) will:


• Eliminate the trans fatty acid related health risk for all groups
  now - and in the future
• Render labelling of pre-packaged food with content of trans
  fatty acid superfluous
• Render public information campaigns about trans fatty acid
  risk superfluous
• Be cheap and simple to enforce (basket investigations)

• Have no side effects for the population
                Market Cap         35,55
                $ 46,39 x 109




                                 Market Cap 34,32
                                 $ 44,84 x 109
A decrease of $1.5 billion
                                12 apr              2006
                                NEJM 13 apr
      McDonald’s® Europe takes action to reduce
          Trans Fatty Acids in cooking oil
                             London, United Kingdom (November 7
                             2006)

                             McDonald’s Europe today made public its
                             2-year plan to achieve a substantial
                             reduction in trans fatty acids in its cooking
                             oil.

                             By mid 2008 (depending on supply
                             availabilities), McDonald’s plans to have
                             more than 6,300 restaurants across
                             Europe using the new oil that will contain
                             no more than 2% trans fatty acids.
Press release fra McDonald´s Europe
                  Conclusion 1


• The amounts of trans fatty acids in popular
  foods in Europe has decreased from 2005 to
  2009.
• In Eastern Europe popular foods with high
  amounts of trans fatty acids are still easily
  available
• Subgroups of the population are exposed to
  an avoidable risk for heart disease
MR L’Abbé, S.Stender et al. EJCN, 2009, 63(2).
The findings suggest that millions of people
in Europe and millions in the rest of the
world in 2006 had an average daily intake of
more than 5 grams industrially produced
trans fatty acids.
Legislation has virtually eliminated the
intake of industrially produced trans
fatty acids in Denmark within a few
years and thereby the associated health
risk without any side effects for the
population.
”A high trans fat menu” in various countries
   A large fast food serving
 • French fries and fried chicken meat from
   McDonalds and from KFC

    Biscuits/cakes/wafers and microwave
   popcorn
 • More than 15% fat in the product
 • Partially hydrogenated fat or similar term high on
   the list of ingredients

   (3 large supermarkets in the capital were visited)
Stender et al. NEJM, July 2009
 Fatty acids (% of total fat) in micro-wave oven popcorn
         with high and low amounts of trans fat
           60                                                                     60

           40                                                                     40
TFA                                                                                    SAFA
           20                                                                     20


           0                                         high TFA           low TFA   0

           60                                                                     60

           40                                                                     40
                                                                        low TFA
MUFA                                                                                  PUFA
           20                                                                     20


           0     high TFA           low TFA                                       0
                                                   high TFA

           USA              Spain             UK                Portugal

Jan 2008
           France           Germany           Lithuania         Italy             Iceland
       The average intake of industrially produced trans
                  fat in Denmark 1978-2005
                                      7
Intake of trans fat per day (grams)




                                      6

                                      5

                                      4

                                      3

                                      2

                                      1

                                      0
                                      1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005   2010
         The average intake of industrially produced trans
         fat and the intake among the 1 % with the highest
                   intake in Denmark 1995 - 2005
                       8

                       7
                                                 DANISH
Grams / day / person




                                               LEGISLATION
Gram/dag/person




                       6
                                                 1-1-2004
                           1 % ABOVE
                       5
                           99 % BELOW                        OTHER EU-COUNTRIES
                       4

                       3

                       2
                           50 % ABOVE
                       1
                                                                    DENMARK
                           50 % BELOW
                       0
                             1995       2000           2005             2010
Amounts of industrially produced trans fatty acids
        in a large serving 2005 – 2006
           Hungary
            Bulgaria
        USA, Boston
             Poland
               Peru
             Romania
     Czech Republic
               Iceland
              Canada
            Bahamas
    S. Africa, Durban
   S. Africa, Jo.burg
              Oman
          USA, NYC
     The Netherlands
  Germany, Hamburg
                                                              KFC
             France
            Thailand
         UK, London
               China
        UK, Glasgow
    Spain, Barcelona                              French fries     Chicken
            Portugal
      Spain, Malaga
                                                              (grams)
            Malaysia
      UK, Aberdeen
                                                        171             160
            Denmark
             Russia
               India
Germany, Wiesbaden
              Egypt
      Spain, Madrid




                     0     5           10            15             20        25
   Jan 2008              Grams of industrially produced trans fatty acid
 Time trends for the amounts of industrially produced trans fatty acids in
 a high-trans menu bought in three Eastern EU countries in 2005 and
      and in three Western EU countries in 2005 and 2009
 200950
50                               2005                                             2009
                                                                                  50
                  2005
                 40                                           2009                            2005                                      2009
40                                                                                  40

                 30
30                                                                                  30


                 20
20                                                                                  20


                 10
10                                                                                  10



0                0                                                                   0
        ry




                                                  ry
                     ga .


                               ch nd




                                                                 .


                                                                          nd
                       ry




                                                                        la y
                                      .



                                             un d




                                                                                     .


                                                                                         G land
                   un ep




                                                              ep
                                   ep




                                                                                  ep
                                                                      Pogar




                                                                                                     y




                                                                                                                                         y
                                                                                                              K




                                                                                                                                               K
                                                                                            Po ce




                                                                                                                                ce
                                                n
     ga




                                               ga
                             ze ola




                                                                                                 an




                                                                                                                                         an
                                            a
                  H R




                                                           R




                                                                                                            U




                                                                                                                                               U
                                 R




                                                                               R
                                             l




                                                                                       an




                                                                                                                                an
 un




                                          Po




                                                                     un
               ch




                                                         ch
                            C P




                                                                                               rm




                                                                                                                                        m
                                                                             ch
 H




                                                 H




                                                                                     Fr




                                                                                                                              Fr
                                                                H
             ze




                                                       ze




                                                                                                                                      er
                                                                           ze




                                                                                          e
             C




                                                       C




                                                                                                                                     G
                                                                          C




        A large serving of nuggets and French fries            100 g biscuits/cakes/wafers          100 g microwave popcorn
        A large serving of nuggets and French fries                            100 g biscuits/cakes/wafers               100 g microwave popcorn
Courtesy translation
                        Order No. 160 of 11 March 2003
                                                                                                                  Section 3. As from 1 June
Order on the content of trans fatty acids in oils and fats etc.
The following is laid down pursuant to Section 13, Section 55, subsection 2 and Section 78 subsection 3 of
           Act No 471 of 1 July 1998 on foodstuffs etc. (Foodstuffs Act):                                         2003, the content of trans
Chapter 1
Scope
Section 1. This Order applies to oils and fats, including emulsions with fat as the continuous phase which,       fatty acids in the oils and
           either alone or as part of processed foodstuffs, are intended, or are likely, to be consumed by
           humans.
Subsection 2. The Order does not apply to the naturally occurring content of trans fatty acids in animal fats     fats covered by this Order
           or products governed under other legislation.
Subsection 3. The Order only applies to products sold to the final consumer.
Section 2. It is prohibited to sell the oils and fats covered by the Order to consumers if they contain a         must not exceed 2 grams
           higher level of the trans fatty acids defined in the Annex than that stated in Section 3.
Section 3. As from 1 June 2003, the content of trans fatty acids in the oils and fats covered by this Order
           must not exceed 2 grams per 100 grams of oil or fat, cf. however subsection 2.                         per 100 grams of oil or fat.
Subsection 2. From 1 June 2003 until 31 December 2003 the oils and fats covered by this Order and
           included in processed foodstuffs which also contain ingredients other than oils and fats and
           which are produced by the foodstuffs industry, in retail outlets, catering establishments,
           restaurants, institutions, bakeries etc. may, however, contain up to 5 grams of trans fatty acids
           per 100 grams of oil or fat.
Section 4. In products which are claimed to be “free from trans fatty acids”, the content of trans fatty acids    Section 5.
                                                                                                                  …
           in the finished product shall be less than 1 gram per 100 grams of the individual oil or fat.
Chapter 2
Penalty provisions etc.
Section 5. A fine shall be imposed on anyone who contravenes Section 2 or Section 4 of this Order.
Subsection 2. The penalty may increase to imprisonment for up to two years if the contravention was
           committed wilfully or through gross negligence, and the contravention                                  Subsection 2. The penalty
1)         caused damage to health or led to the risk thereof, or
2)         resulted in, or was intended to result in, financial gain for the perpetrator themselves or for
           others, including as a result of savings made.                                                         may increase to
Subsection 3. Criminal liability may be incurred by companies etc. (legal entities) in accordance with the
           rules of Chapter 5 of the Penal Code.
Section 6. This Order shall enter into force on 31 March 2003.                                                    imprisonment for up to two
Subsection 2. Products manufactured before this Order has entered into force, as well as products
           manufactured within the periods stated in Section 3(2), may be sold until expiry of the best
           before date. Annex 1                                                                                   years if the contravention
Definition of trans fatty acids
For the purposes of this Order, trans fatty acids are defined as the sum of all fatty acid isomers with 14, 16,
           18, 20 or 22 carbon atoms and one or more trans double bonds, i.e. C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2,         was committed willfully or
                                                                                                                  through gross negligence…
           C18:3, C20:1, C20:2, C22:1, C22:2 fatty acid trans isomers, but only polyunsaturated fatty
           acids with methylene interrupted double bonds.




                                                                                                                                   11 March 2003

								
To top