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									Indian Refineries Overview


 •   Indian oil scenario
 •   Crude oil sourcing
 •   Refining Processes
 •   Refinery overview
Refineries in India

                                                           * GUWAHATI
                          * PANIPAT                        * DIGBOI
                               * MATHURA                  * BONGAIGAON
                                                          * NUMALIGARH
                                   BARAUNI *       *
       JAMNAGAR *   * KOYALI

                    * MUMBAI 2 Nos.
                                           * VISHAKAHAPATNAM

                      * MRPL

                    COCHIN *       * CHENNAI
Refining capacities

    HPCL – Mumbai          5.50     CPCL – Chennai            6.50
    HPCL – Visakh          7.50     CRL – Narimanam           0.50
    HPCL – Total           13.00    CPCL – Total              7.00

    IOC – Guwahati         1.00     NRL – Numaligarh          3.00
    IOC – Barauni          4.20     BPCL – Mumbai             6.90
    IOC – Koyali           12.50    MRPL – Mangalore          9.69
    IOC – Haldia           3.75     RPL – Jamnagar            27.00
    IOC – Mathura          7.50     CRL – Cochin              7.50
    IOC – Panipat          6.00     BRPL – Bogaingaon         2.35
    IOC – Digboi           0.65
    IOC – Total            35.60

 Total Refining capacity   112.04
                                    All Figures are in Million tons per annum
Dependence on Crude Oil imports
                                                                                                                           Indigenous Vs Imports
                           Indigenous crude supply Vs Demand
                 140                                                                                      100%
  Million tons

                  80                                                                                      60%

                  60                                                                                      40%
                  40                                                                                      20%












                                                   Supply            Dem and                                                                  Indigenous                Import

• Refining capacity increased from 52 MMPTA to 121 MMTPA over last
• Stagnant indigenous production (33 MMTPA) resulted in crude oil
  imports from 19 MMTPA to 88 TMT during last decade
• Indian crude mix shifted from lighter to heavier
• Crude sourced from Middle east, Far east, West Africa and South
From net imports to net exports
                           Product deficit to product surplus

            TMT    40000
                           1990-91 1995-96 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

                                     Prod.   Dem and   Net exports

 • Petroleum product imports increased from 5.5 MMT during 1990-91 to
   25 MMT during 1998-99.

 • Start up of new refineries and capacity additions to older ones, since
   2001 resulted in India becoming net exporter of Petroleum products
Crude oil sourcing

Crude Oil

   Crude oils are complex mixtures containing many different hydrocarbon
   compounds that vary in appearance and composition from one oil field
   to another. Crude oils range in consistency from water to tar-like solids,
   and in color from clear to black. An "average" crude oil contains about
   84% carbon, 14% hydrogen, 1%-3% sulfur, and less than 1% each of
   nitrogen, oxygen, metals, and salts.
Classification of Crude Oil
 • Crude oils are generally classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or
   aromatic, based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon
   molecules. Mixed-base crudes have varying amounts of each type of
   hydrocarbon. Refinery crude base stocks usually consist of mixtures of
   two or more different crude oils.
 • Relatively simple crude oil assays are used to classify crude oils as
   paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic, or mixed. One assay method (United
   States Bureau of Mines) is based on distillation, and another method
   (UOP "K" factor) is based on gravity and boiling points. More
   comprehensive crude assays determine the value of the crude (i.e., its
   yield and quality of useful products) and processing parameters.

 • Crude oils are usually grouped according to yield structure.
Classification of Crude Oil
 • Crude oils are also defined in terms of API (American Petroleum
   Institute) gravity.

 • The higher the API gravity, the lighter is the crude. For example, light
   crude oils have high API gravities and low specific gravities. Crude oils
   with low carbon, high hydrogen, and high API gravity are usually rich in
   paraffins and tend to yield greater proportions of gasoline and light
   petroleum products; those with high carbon, low hydrogen, and low API
   gravities are usually rich in aromatics.

 • Crude oils that contain appreciable quantities of hydrogen sulfide or
   other reactive sulfur compounds are called "sour." Those with lower
   sulfur are called "sweet."
Common crudes processed in India
      High Sulfur              Low Sulfur
  Arab Light (Saudi Arabia)    Bonny Light (Nigeria)
  Arab Mix    (Saudi Arabia)   Cieba         (Equ. Guinea)
  Basrah      (Iraq)           Escravos      (Nigeria)
  Dubai                        Farcados      (Nigeria)
  Kuwait                       Essider       (Libya)
  Iran Mix                     Labuan        (Malaysia)
  Murban       (UAE)           Masila        (Yemen)
  Oman                         Miri Light    (Malaysia)
  Suez Mix      (Egypt)        Tapis         (Malaysia)
  Umm Shaif      (UAE)         Ravva         (KGB India)
  Upper Zakum (UAE)            Mumbai High
Yield Patterns from different Crudes
                High Sulfur           Low Sulfur
              Basrah      AXL    Mum High      Qua Iboe
  API         33.2        37.9   40.5          37.2
  LPG         1.6         1.8    4.2           4.2
  MS          1.8         2.3    12.9          14.0
  Naphtha     9.6         10.4   15.6          12.1
  ATF/SKO     15.2        9.3    11.5          11.5
  HSD         15.7        38.4   41.5          30.6
  LDO         8.6         6.5    -             -
  Lubes       8.0         8.0    -             -
  IFO/LSHS    24.2        8.0    8.3           21.6
  Bitumen     7.5         7.5    -             -
  F&L         7.5         7.5    6.0           6.0
  GRM $/bbl   4.91        3.14   6.04          (2.52)
Crude oil Refining

Crude Oil Refining

 • Refining is a collection of processes necessary to convert low valued
   crude oil to wide range of high valued products

 • Refining processes are broadly divided into four types

    – Fractionation
    – Conversion
    – Treating
    – Blending
 • First & most important step in crude refining
 • Hydrocarbon molecules do not change in structure
 • No new compounds are formed

 Atmospheric Distillation
    – Separation of crudes into fractions using the principal of boiling point
      difference i.e. Light ends at the top & Heavy at the bottom
    – main products are LPG, Naphtha, Kerosene, ATF, HSD, Reduced
      Crude Oil.
 Vacuum Distillation
    – Re-distillation of Reduced Crude Oil for further separation.
    – Separation under vacuum to avoid decomposition of reduced crude
    – Main products are vacuum gas oil, distillates for lubes, FCC feed stock,
      Bitumen & LSHS
Conversion Processes
    Change in size and structure of the hydrocarbon molecule in order to
    convert surplus by products from fractionation to high valued
    marketable products
 1. Decomposition (dividing)
     • Fluidized catalytic cracking
     • Hydro cracking
     • Visbreaking
     • Delayed Coking
 2. Unification (combining)
     • Alkylation
     • Polymerization
 3. Alteration (rearranging)
     • Isomerization
     • Catalytic reforming.
Decomposition Processes
 Fluidized catalytic cracking

 •   Fluidized Catalytic cracking breaks complex hydrocarbons into simpler
     molecules in order to increase the quality and quantity of lighter, more
     desirable products and decrease the amount of residuals. This process
     rearranges the molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds to
     convert heavy hydrocarbon feedstock into lighter fractions such as
     kerosene, gasoline, LPG, heating oil, and petrochemical feedstock

 •   Produces better quality (High Octane) Gasoline by cracking Vacuum
     Gas oils in presence of a catalyst

 •   Simultaneously produces large amount of LPG
Fluidized catalytic Cracking
Decomposition Processes
 Hydro cracking
 •   A two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation,
 •   Heavier feedstock cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce more
     desirable products like Kerosene, Gasoline & Diesel.
 •   Process employs high pressure, high temperature, a catalyst, and
 •   Used for feed stocks that are difficult to process by either catalytic
     cracking or reforming due to high polycyclic aromatic content and/or
     high concentrations of catalyst poisons like sulfur and nitrogen
     – Atmospheric column residue
     – Vacuum column residue
     – Heavy Gas oils from Coker
Hydro Cracking
Decomposition Processes
 •   Reduces viscosity of Vacuum residue by thermal process
 •   IFO generation reduces by 30 – 35% due to lower diesel requirement for
     cutting viscosity
 •   LPG & Naphtha are produced as by-products

 Delayed Coking
 •   A severe method of thermal cracking used to upgrade heavy residuals
     into lighter products or distillates.
 •   Produces straight-run gasoline (coker naphtha) and various middle-
     distillate fractions used as FCCU feedstock.
 •   The process completely eliminate hydrogen so that the residue is a form
     of carbon called "coke."
Delayed coking
Unification Processes
 •   Makes high octane gasoline from olefins and refinery gases using

 •   Same as polymerization but the end product has better performance in I.
     C. Engines.
 •   Combines isobutane with light olefins to produce very high quality
     gasoline (RON >105)
Alteration Processes
 Catalytic reforming
 •   Convert low-octane naphthas into high-octane gasoline blending
     components called reformates.
 •   Reforming is a mixture of cracking, polymerization, dehydrogenation,
     and isomerization taking place simultaneously.
 •   Depending on the properties of the naphtha feedstock and catalysts
     used, reformates can be produced with very high concentrations of
     toluene, benzene, xylene, and other aromatics useful in gasoline
     blending and petrochemical processing.
 •   Hydrogen is produced a significant by-product
Alteration Processes
 •   Isomerization converts n-butane, n-pentane and n-hexane into their
     respective isoparaffins of substantially higher octane number.
 •   The straight-chain paraffins are converted to their branched-chain
     counterparts whose component atoms are the same but are arranged in
     a different geometric structure.
 •   n-butane is converted into isobutane to provide additional feedstock for
     alkylation units,
 •   N-pentanes and n-hexanes are converted into higher branched isomers
     for gasoline blending.
Isomerization & Reforming process
               Light Naphtha     I
           S                     S
           P              H2     O                                         G
           L                     M        Isomerate                        A
 Naphtha                                                                   S
           I                                                               O
           T              Naphtha Hydrotreater                             L
           T                & Isomerization    H2
                                                               LPG         N
           E                                                               E
           R    Heavy Naphtha                                              P
                                                      C        Reformate   O

                       Make up H2      NHT            R                    O

                                 Hydrotreater       Reformer

Treating Processes
•   Intended to prepare hydrocarbon streams for additional processing and
    to prepare finished products.
•   Includes the removal or separation of aromatics and naphthenes as well
    as impurities and undesirable contaminants.
•   Involves chemical or physical separation such as Dissolving,
    Absorption, or precipitation using a variety and combination of
    processes including desalting, drying, hydrodesulfurizing, solvent
    refining, sweetening, solvent extraction, and solvent dewaxing.
•   Major Treating process
    – Solvent Extraction
    – Solvent Dewaxing
    – Solvent De-Asphalting
    – Hydro-desulfurization
Solvent Extraction
•   The purpose of solvent extraction is to prevent corrosion, protect
    catalyst in subsequent processes, and improve finished products by
    removing unsaturated, aromatic hydrocarbons from lubricant and
    grease stocks.
•   The solvent extraction process separates aromatics, naphthenes, and
    impurities from the product stream by dissolving or precipitation. The
    feedstock   is   first   dried   and   then   treated using a continuous
    countercurrent solvent treatment operation. The feedstock is washed
    with a liquid in which the substances to be removed are more soluble
    than in the desired resultant product
•   The most widely used extraction solvents are phenol, furfural, NMP and
    cresylic acid
Solvent Extraction
                                        FURNACE          T 203
              RAFF SOLN
                 NMP                    SG             RAF RECOVERY

    TREATER               COMP                                                              STEAM

                                              DRY DRUM                       VAC       DRIER

                                                                             HP        SEPERATOR
                                  EXT FURNACE
                                                         T 202

          EXT. SOLN                           F-201
   FEED                                                               T
                                                                      2 EXT STRIPPER
                                                  SG                  6 STEAM        EXTRACT
Solvent Dewaxing
•   Solvent dewaxing is used to remove wax from either distillate or Lube oil
    base stock.

•   Steps involve in solvent dewaxing are
    – Mixing the feedstock with a solvent
    – precipitating the wax from the mixture by chilling
    – recovering the solvent from the wax and dewaxed oil for recycling by
       distillation and steam stripping.

•   The most widely used extraction solvents are Methyl Ethyl Ketone
    (MEK), Propane & Toluene
Solvent Dewaxing
Solvent De Asphalting
•   In this solvent extraction process, propane is used as a solvent

•   Heavy oil fractions are separated to produce heavy lubricating oil (Bright
    Stock), catalytic cracking feedstock, and asphalt.

•   Feedstock and liquid propane are pumped to an extraction tower at
    precisely controlled mixtures. Separation occurs based on differences in

•   The products are then evaporated and steam stripped to recover the
    propane, which is recycled.
Hydro de sulfurization

•   Hydrotreating for sulfur removal is called hydrodesulfurization
•   The feedstock is deaerated and mixed with hydrogen, preheated in a
    fired heater and then charged under pressure through a fixed-bed
    catalytic reactor.
•   In the reactor, the sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the feedstock are
    converted into H2S and NH3.
•   The liquid stream is sent to a stripping column for removal of H2S and
    other undesirable components.
•   H2S is further treated in Amine treating & Sulfur recovery unit to
    produce sulfur
Hydro desulfurization

  Blending is the physical mixture of a number of
  different liquid hydrocarbons streams to produce a
  finished product with certain desired specifications
Why Blending is required ?
•   Non compliance of individual streams from primary or secondary
    processing units to any product specification of its own
•   Non availability of matching secondary processing facilities leading to
    excess streams available for disposal as valuable products
•   Disposal problem for by-products from treating units like extract from
    solvent extraction unit or wax from dewaxing unit
•   Upgradation of valuable surplus streams due to lack of upliftment of
    specific product and thus avoiding downgradation to heavy ends
    Blending maximizes the Refinery profitability by optimizing the overall
    production slate to extract maximum value from each barrel of crude
Blended streams / Products
1.  HSD              3. IFO
   – Heavy Naphtha     - VTB
   – Kerosene          - JBO
   –   LVGO            - LVGO
   – JBO               - Extract
   – VGO               - FCC Residue
   – X’VGO
   – LCGO            4. LSHS
2. LDO                - VBO
   • HVGO             - LVGO
   • LVGO             - FCC Residue
   • X’VGO
   • I SS            5. Gasoline
                       - FCC Cracked Naphtha
                       - St. run Naphtha
Examples of blend optimization

•   Possible routing of High ‘S’ I SS is 150N, LDO & IFO
    Value of I ss realized in 150 N    Rs 16850 / T
    Value realized in LDO              Rs 15525 / T
    Value realized in IFO              Rs 10060 / T

•   Possible routing of VTB
    Value realized in Bitumen        Rs 8400 / T
    Value realized in IFO            Rs 4420 / T

 •   Refinery growth
 •   Refinery location & layout
 •   Crude processed
 •   Products
 •   Crude receiving and product dispatching facilities
 •   Refinery process units
 •   Refinery Block diagrams
 •   Physical performance
 •   Commitment to Environment
 •   Major Projects under implementation
Total Products = 29
 Fuel Products = 13                 Lube Products = 9
 1. Propane                         1. Neutral Oils = 3
 2. LPG                             2. Turbine Oils = 2
 3. Motor Gasoline                  3. Industrial Oils = 2
 4. Low Aromatic Naphtha            4. Spindle Oil
 5. High Aromatic Naphtha           5. Bright Stock
 6. Special Cut Naphtha
                                    Specialties = 7
 7. Aviation Turbo Fuel
                                    1. Hexane
 8. Superior Kerosene Oil
                                    2. Solvent 1425
 9. Special cut Kerosene            3. MTO
 10. High Speed Diesel (3 Grades)   4. CBFS
 11. Light Diesel Oil               5. RPO
 12. Fuel Oil ( 2 grades)           6. Bitumen (3 Grades)
 13. LSHS                           7. Sulfur
Product Mix

                        Others     LPG   Petrol
             IFO/LSHS    3%        3%     5%

      Bitumen                                             ATF
         6%                                               9%
            4% LDO                                  SKO
Crude receiving and Product shipment facilities

                                            SAHAR / SANTACRUZ            Mahul




                 24”                                                 Vashi / Loni /
                                                 MS/HSD/SKO/LDO      Sewri /Wadala
   MANIFOLD       36”                                                  Mazagaon
                                                  IFO / Lubes



                 BH Gas
                                  HP REFINERY
Refinery Process Units
 Fuels Block                     Lube Block
 Crude Distillation       -2     Vacuum Distillation
 Vacuum Distillation      -2     Solvent Extraction - 3
                                 Propane De-waxing
 Naphtha stabilizers      -2
                                 Propane De-Asphalting
 Fluidized Catalytic Cracking
                                 Industrial Oil Hydrofiner
 Diesel Hydro De Sulfurization
 Hexane                          Utilities
 Propane                         Captive Power Plant - 5 GTG’s
                                 Effluent Treatment Plants - 2
                                 Boiler House
                                 Cooling Towers
                                 Instrument/utility air system
Mumbai Refinery Process units
                 Stabilizer       HMU           Hexane /Solvent
     R           Treating                       ATF
HS                                              SKO/MTO
     C                                          HSD
                                        DHDS    Sulfur
     U                                          LDO
                   S                           Spindle Oil
         D         E                           150 N
         U         U          P                500 N
         s         s          D                1300 N
                                               Bright Stock
             P          I
             D          O
             A          H                      IO-1600
     R                                               Bitumen
     E                                         IFO
     C                 F
         V                                      Gasoline
     D                 C
     U   U             C
Commitment to Environment Protection

 • Major environmental projects
    – Implemented over past 2 decades : Rs 935 Cr. (208 Million USD)
    – Under implementation (GFECP ): Rs 1152 Cr. ( 256 Million USD)

 • Refinery meets stipulations set by MPCB & CPCB

 • Extensive green cover in the Refinery & residential complex.

 • Initiated Tank sludge treatment process to recovery oil from sludge
Green Fuels & Emission Control Project
 • Objectives
     • To meet EURO-III specifications for MS
     • Augmentation of crude processing capacity to 7.9 MMTPA
 • Project Cost:            Rs 1852 Crores (411 Mill. USD)
 • New Units
     • Naphtha Splitter
     • Naphtha Hydrotreater
     • Catalytic Reforming Unit
     • Isomerization unit
     • FCC Gasoline Hydrotreater (Prime G+)
     • Flue Gas Desulfurization Unit
     • De NOx Facilities
Green Fuels & Emission Control Project
                    Light Naphtha      I
                S                      S
                P               H2     O
                L                      M        Isomerate
  Naphtha                                                                         G
                I                                                                 A
                T               Naphtha Hydrotreater
                T                 & Isomerization    H2
                E                                                                 O
                                                            C                     L
                R    Heavy Naphtha
                                                            C        Reformate    I
                                             NHT            R
                            Make up H2                                            N
                                       Hydrotreater       Reformer

 FCCU Cracked
   Naphtha                                                  Light FCC Gasoline    O
                U         H2                                                      L

                                         PRIME G+            Heavy FCC Gasoline
      Selective Hydrogenation
              & Splitter

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