Reading a Food Label - PowerPoint by wanghonghx

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									    NUTRITION:
READING BETWEEN THE
       LINES
   Cara Karner MS, RD, LD, CDE
Catherine Robinson MS, RD, LD, CDE
             Revised 2010
        TOPICS TO DISCUSS
• Food Labels
  –   Required Nutrients
  –   Daily Value
  –   Serving Sizes
  –   False Information


• Nutrition Health Claims on Food Labels
  – Laws regarding claims
  – Definitions of common claims
BENEFITS OF FOOD LABELS
•   Understand the nutrition information
•   Make better food choices
•   Improve nutritional intake
•   Work toward prevention of disease
       -Calories for weight control
       -Lipid reduction for heart disease
       -Blood sugar control in Diabetes
       -Reduce blood pressure for hypertension
       -Avoid food intolerances and allergies
                   NUTRITION FACTS
Serving Size: 1 oz.
Servings Per Container 12
Calories 14                  Calories from Fat 130
                                        % Daily Value
Total Fat 14 g                                   22%
   Saturated Fat 2 g                             9%
   Trans Fat     0g
Cholesterol 0 mg                                 0%
Sodium 115 mg                                    5%
Total Carbohydrate 6 g                           2%
   Dietary Fiber 2 g                             10%
   Sugars 1 g
Protein 7 g                                      7%
Vitamin A 0 %                       Vitamin C 2 %
Iron 2 %                            Calcium 190 %
% Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
 WHAT MUST HAVE A FOOD
        LABEL?
• Most foods you buy at the grocery store.
  They do not have to have a label if they do
  not contain significant amounts of nutrients
    NOT REQUIRED TO HAVE
           LABELS
• Raw produce
• Fresh fish
• Restaurant foods
    – unless they make a health or nutrition claim
•   Food served for immediate consumption
•   Ready to eat food prepared on site
•   Food shipped in bulk (not sold in bulk)
•   Food produced by very small businesses
   ALSO NOT REQUIRED TO
       HAVE LABELS
• Foods that contain no significant amount of
  any nutrient
• Alcohol- it is not a food, therefore does not
  require a food label
• Plain coffee, tea, and some spices
WHAT IS REQUIRED ON THE LABEL?
 •   Serving Size
 •   Servings per Container
 •   Calories
 •   Calories from Fat
 •   Fat
     – Saturated Fat
     – Trans fat (required January 1, 2006)
 • Cholesterol
            ALSO REQUIRED
• Total Carbohydrates
  – Fiber
  – Sugar
• Protein
• Ingredients
  – listed by amount in the product
    REQUIRED VITAMINS AND
          MINERALS
•   Sodium
•   Vitamin C
•   Vitamin A
•   Iron
•   Calcium

ALL OTHER NUTRIENTS ARE OPTIONAL
                   NUTRITION FACTS
Serving Size: 1 oz.
Servings Per Container 12
Calories 14                  Calories from Fat 130
                                           % Daily Value
Total Fat 14 g                                   22%
   Saturated Fat 2 g                             9%
Cholesterol 0 mg                                 0%
Sodium 115 mg                                    5%
Total Carbohydrate 6 g                           2%
   Dietary Fiber 2 g                             10%
   Sugars 1 g
Protein 7 g                                      7%
Vitamin A 0 %                       Vitamin C 2 %
Iron 2 %                            Calcium 190 %
% Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
           SERVING SIZE
• Should be the FIRST thing observed on the
  label
• Is up to the manufacture, now more uniform
• Everything on the label is based on that
  serving size
• If serving size is not clear, check “servings
  per container”
• Many serving sizes on labels are not
  realistic! (Ice cream ½ cup)
            Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 1 cup (236 ml)
Servings Per Container 2


Amount Per Serving

Calories: 120        Calories from Fat 45
Total Fat 5 g
                    Calories
Calories provide a measure of how much
 energy you get from a serving of food.

•   Calories relate to serving size listed on label
•   40 calories is low
•   100 calories is moderate
•   400 calories or more is high
            Nutrition Facts
Serving Size: 1 cup (236 ml)
Servings Per Container 2


Amount Per Serving

Calories: 120        Calories from Fat 45
Total Fat 5 g
                     FAT
• Total Fat content per serving is required
• Saturated fat is required
  – Bad, “artery clogging” fat
• Trans fatty acids are required and listed
  under saturated fat on the label
   - Bad, “artery clogging” fat
• Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat
  content is optional
                Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 1 cup (236 ml)
Servings Per Container 2
Amount Per Serving
Calories: 120          Calories from Fat 45
                                              % Daily Value
Total Fat 5 g                                       8%
   Saturated Fat 3 g                               15%
   Trans Fat 0 g
Cholesterol 20 mg                                   7%
        CARBOHYDRATES
• Total Carbohydrates are required
  – is important for people with diabetes
  – fiber and sugar grams are included in the total
    carbohydrates
• Total fiber is required
  – does not distinguish between the types of fiber
• Sugar is required
  – does not distinguish between naturally
    occurring sugars and added sugars
            Total Sugars
      The American Heart Association
  recommends reductions in the intake of
   added sugars. A prudent upper limit of
 intake is half of the discretionary calorie
    allowance, which for most American
 women is no more than 100 calories per
 day (25 g) and for most American men is
no more than 150 calories per day (37.5 g)
         from added sugars (2009).
                   NUTRITION FACTS
Serving Size: 1 oz.
Servings Per Container 12
Calories 14                  Calories from Fat 130
                                           % Daily Value
Total Fat 14 g                                   22%
   Saturated Fat 2 g                             9%
Cholesterol 0 mg                                 0%
Sodium 115 mg                                    5%
Total Carbohydrate 6 g                           2%
   Dietary Fiber 2 g                             10%
   Sugars 1 g
Protein 7 g                                      7%
Vitamin A 0 %                       Vitamin C 2 %
Iron 2 %                            Calcium 190 %
% Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
            DAILY VALUE
• Only used on food labels
• All daily values for nutrients are based on a
  2,000 calorie diet
• Tells you what percentage of your daily
  requirement for a nutrient one serving of
  that food would provide
• 5% DV or less is low
• 20% DV or more is high
                   NUTRITION FACTS
Serving Size: 1 oz.
Servings Per Container 12
Calories 14                  Calories from Fat 130
                                        Percent Daily Value
Total Fat 14 g                                   22%
   Saturated Fat 2 g                             9%
Cholesterol 0 mg                                 0%
Sodium 115 mg                                    5%
Total Carbohydrate 6 g                           2%
   Dietary Fiber 2 g                             10%
   Sugars 1 g
Protein 7 g                                      7%
Vitamin A 0 %                     Vitamin C 2 %
Iron 2 %                          Calcium 190 %
% Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
        Your daily values may be higher or lower
           depending on your calorie needs.
                          Calories:    2,000    2,500
Total Fat                 less than     65g     80g
   Saturated Fat          less than     20g     25g
Cholesterol               less than    300mg    300mg
Sodium                    less than   2,400mg 2,400mg
Total Carbohydrate                      300g    375g
Fiber                                   25g     30g
       NUTRITION CLAIMS
• Regulated by the FDA
• It is illegal for a manufacturer to make
  definitive claims that their product can
  prevent or treat any disease
• May use words such as:
  – might
  – may
  – it is possible
           REDUCED FAT

• Must contain at least 25% or less fat than
  the comparison product
• Not necessarily a low fat item!
• Example: 2% milk
               LOW FAT

• Must contain 3 grams or less fat per serving
  – Example: 1% milk
               FAT FREE

• Must contain less than .5 grams of fat per
  serving
  – Example: Skim milk
            LOW CALORIE

• Must contain less than 40 calories per
  serving
• If it contains less than 20 calories, then the
  item is “free” on an exchange meal plan
            LOW SODIUM

• Must contain 140 mg or less sodium per
  serving
• Daily recommendation for all adults is less
  than 2,400 mg. per day
                  LIGHT

• May refer to either calories or color
• Contains 1/3 fewer calories or half the fat of
  the original product
             SUGAR FREE

• Contains less than .5 grams of sugar per
  serving
• Product may contain “sugar alcohols”
• Does not mean the product is low in
  carbohydrates, so it can still raise your
  blood sugar!
          WHAT ARE SUGAR
           ALCOHOLS?
• Type of sugar replacers (Polyols) gotten naturally
  from fruits and vegetables and then processed into a
  wide variety of foods with half the calories of sugar
• May cause gastrointestinal side effects such as gas,
  upset stomach, and diarrhea
• Common types (included in the ingredient list)
  include:
   – Sorbitol, Mannitol, Maltitol, Xylitol, Isomalt, Lactitol,
     Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH), Erythritol
                   NUTRITION FACTS
Serving Size: 1 oz.
Servings Per Container 12
Calories 14                  Calories from Fat 130
                                           % Daily Value
Total Fat 14 g                                   22%
   Saturated Fat 2 g                             9%
Cholesterol 0 mg                                 0%
Sodium 115 mg                                    5%
Total Carbohydrate 8 g                           2%
   Dietary Fiber 2 g                             10%
   Sugar Alcohols 6 g
Protein 7 g                                      7%
Vitamin A 0 %                       Vitamin C 2 %
Iron 2 %                            Calcium 190 %
% Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
    HOW DO I COUNT SUGAR
         ALCOHOLS?

• Divide the grams of sugar alcohols by 2
• Subtract these grams from the total
  carbohydrate grams


  – May still be a high carbohydrate item!
       NO SUGAR ADDED

• The manufacturer did not add sugar to the
  product
• The product may contain naturally
  occurring sugar grams
• Does not always indicate a low sugar item
           HIGH IN FIBER

• Contains 20% or more of the DV for fiber
• Product has at least 5 grams of fiber per
  serving
• Healthy goal is at least 25 grams of fiber per
  day (increase liquids to 6-8 cups/day)
     GOOD SOURCE OF ….

• Contains 10-19% of the Daily Value for that
  nutrient
  – Example: Peanuts are a good source of
    vitamin E
              HIGH IN ….

• Contains 20% or more of the Daily Value
  for that nutrient
• Better than “A Good Source of….”
  – Example: Carrots are high in vitamin A
                  LEAN

• Describes meat or poultry, per 100 grams
• Item contains less than 10 grams fat, less
  than 4.5 grams of saturated fat, and less
  than 95 mg. cholesterol per serving
• Does not always indicate a low-fat item!
  RECENT PROBLEMS WITH
         LABELS
• Incorrect Information
  – Example: Big Daddy’s ice cream (had triple
    the calories, double the carbohydrates, and
    more fat than the label claimed)




• Information doesn’t have to be 100%
  accurate
              Health Claims
• Calcium and Osteoporosis
• Sodium and Hypertension
• Dietary saturated fat, cholesterol and risk of heart
  disease
• Fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and
  vegetables and cancer
• Fruits, vegetables, grain products that contain
  fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and risk of heart
  disease
              Health Claims
•   Fruits and vegetables and cancer
•   Folate and neural tube birth defects
•   Dietary sugar alcohol and dental cavities
•   Dietary soluble fiber, such as found in
    whole oats and psyllium seed husk, and
    coronary heart disease
              Health Claims
• Heart Disease and Fats – food must be low in fat,
  saturated fat, and cholesterol
• Blood Pressure and Sodium – food must be low in
  sodium
• Heart Disease – a fruit, vegetable or grain product
  low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, that
  contains at least .6 gram soluble fiber, without
  fortification, per serving
               SUMMARY

• Never assume you know what you are
  eating unless you read the label
• Always check serving size on the label
• People with diabetes need to focus on total
  carbohydrates, NOT sugar
• BEST Nutritional Advice:
  – Eat a variety of foods!
   ANY
QUESTIONS?
          We Can Help!
– For additional information or questions,
  contact the Health Education Department
  at Florida Health Care Plans
– To set up an appointment with a
  registered dietitian call (386) 676-7133

								
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