FinalReport--Wildlife Without Borders--Latin America & the

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					Final Report--Wildlife Without Borders--Latin America & the Caribbean project

"Conservation and Research at Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Paraguay--
a Collaboration of Educational, Governmental, and Non-governmental Organizations"

Organization:       Texas Tech University

Project Officer:    Robert D. Owen

Assistance Award:   96200-0-G298

Start Date:         26 September 2010

End Date:           31 December 2011 (with 3-month no-cost extension)
                                       Final Project Status

I. Activities undertaken, results achieved, delays encountered, products generated,
modifications to planned timetable.

Two project objectives were defined:

1. To advance, through capacity building, the transition of the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca
(RNLB) from a legally established but poorly protected and under-utilized Reserve, to an
effectively managed, protected, and utilized natural resource of conservation and educational
importance (both nationally and regionally).

2. To establish a long-term conservation research and training program, and an associated
outreach program.

Six project activities were proposed. Although each of these activities supported both
objectives to a greater or lesser degree, most were focused primarily on one or the other of the
two objectives. Following is a description of each of the six activities, an indication of which
objective(s) it primarily supported, and a summary of project accomplishments.

Protected area guards (activity 1)--this activity supported Objective 1. Two residents of the
local community were selected and contracted as Park Guards (see Appendix 1, sample
contract). They were initially contracted for a probation period of 2 months, and upon successful
completion of this probationary period, both were contracted for the duration of the project
funding period (through 30 September 2011). After receiving a no-cost extension, we were able
to support them for another 2 months. Both guards spent approximately 4 weeks in training, at
two different reserves administered by the Fundación Moises Bertoni (Reserva Natural Tapytá,
and Reserva de la Biósfera Mbaracayú) (see Appendix 2, reports of training activities and
accomplishments). Since their training period, they have been performing park guard functions
as described in the project (see Appendix 3, final report of guard activities). This activity of the
project has proceeded as proposed.

Based on continuing interactions with Fundación Moises Bertoni (collaborating NGO), the
guards developed a new way of writing the guard reports based on a template provided by FMB.
Through this method they are able to plan more effectively, using an observations section to
detail any needs around the Reserve and to document animal sightings.

Based on the success of this aspect of the project, Para La Tierra (primary collaborating NGO)
has submitted several proposals that include continuation and expansion of the park guard
program. Of the proposals submitted, one was funded (partially, without the guard funding), and
four are pending.

Outreach and education specialists (activity 2)--this activity supported both Objectives 1
and 2. This activity committed 2 people at 25% FTE, from Para La Tierra (PLT--the NGO
administering the biological research station and intern program at the Reserve). One of these
two people left her position with PLT shortly after the beginning of this project, leaving PLT's
on-site director to manage two full-time positions, including project-related activities. The
person contracted to replace the departed Outreach Specialist did not perform satisfactorily, and
was released at the end of her 6-month probationary period. This instability hampered progress
in this and some other activities (see below). As a response to this situation, and toward
advancement of the project and other PLT functions, it was decided that the two park guards
would also undertake the Outreach Specialist training being provided by Red Paraguaya de
Conservación Ambiental en Tierras Privadas, and Fundación Moises Bertoni. Thus 3 people (the
two guards and PLT's on-site director), rather than the 2 originally envisioned, undertook the
Outreach Specialist training program as described in the proposal. We feel that this decision has
worked well, as it has enhanced the capacity of the guards to interact constructively and
informatively with both visitors and local residents near the Reserve. Given that these two guards
are the only project personnel who speak Guarani (the more predominant local language), this is
of particular benefit to the objectives of the project. Notwithstanding the difficulties presented by
the departure of one Outreach Specialist, a number of noteworthy communication products
resulted from this activity (see Appendix 4, list of outreach accomplishments, new RNLB logo,
map, information, and education documents for Outreach and Education).

Workshops for community leaders (activity 3), and Workshops for community educators
(activity 4)--these two activities supported Objective 1. These activities did not initially
progress as well as planned, due to the departure of one of the two originally designated
Outreach Specialists. Also, based on early lessons learned, it was clear that a revised approach
to the workshops was needed. A combined workshop for community leaders and educators was
held in Month 6, putting this activity 4 months behind the planned schedule. This workshop was
conducted for one day rather than the two days originally proposed, and the list of invitees was
not as broad as originally proposed. The workshop was successful, judging from attendance and
participation from the attendees.

Among other things, the organizers realized that categorizing the workshops and participants as
"community leaders" or "community educators" held little meaning for local residents or
participants in the workshops. The invitations were therefore more broadly disseminated, and
were opened to all community members who cared to participate. Subsequent workshops were
better attended, with more enthusiastic and thoughtful participation. A total of 4 of these
workshops was held, spaced through the remainder of the funding period (including one in the
no-cost extension period). See Appendix 5, reports of workshops.

Student research (activity 5)--this activity supported Objective 2. This activity was generally
very successful. Applications for these research scholarships were solicited (see Appendix 6,
solicitation for research proposals), and 4 applicants were initially selected as recipients. Their
research projects pertained to the reptile, amphibian, and spider fauna of the Reserve, and to the
floral communities found in the cerrado-Atlantic Forest interface. Subsequently, two additional
proposals (one for an M.S. thesis project) and a 3-day field trip for a university biology class
were also funded. We are very pleased with the progress on this activity of the project. See
Appendix 7, research reports from grant awardees.

Evaluation and planning (activity 6)--this activity supported both Objectives 1 and 2. Again
due to the departure of one of the Outreach Specialists, the first Project Monitoring (via survey
of area residents) was not conducted until Months 5-6, rather than Month 1 as planned (see
Appendix 8, report of surveys completed). Based on the participation and results of this survey, it
was decided to discontinue direct surveys as an opinion and awareness monitoring method, and
to use a more indirect approach, by group discussions during the workshops. See comments on
this in the workshop reports, Appendix 5.

The first Evaluation and Planning Meeting (to include all partner organizations) was to have
been held in Month 2, following up on the survey results. Because of delays in conducting the
surveys, and more so because of the need to re-think our means of conducting surveys (or more
generally, of gaining an understanding of local residents' knowledge, understanding, and
concerns regarding the Reserve), the first Evaluation and Planning meeting was delayed until
Month 9.

Two Evaluation and Planning meetings were held. The first, a 2-day meeting, was held at the
Reserve, to ensure that all participating organizations' representatives were intimately aware of
the physical environment in which the project was being conducted. This meeting encouraged
input from all participating entities, and also included a walking tour on one of the trails which
was being revitalized. See Appendix 9 for agendas of the Evaluation and Planning meetings.

The second of these meetings was held in Asunción, in order to facilitate participation by more
people and organizations. For this meeting, additional potentially interested organizations were
also invited to attend and participate. Additionally, the research scholarship recipients were
invited to attend and present reports of their projects to date. This meeting was well attended, and
the students' reports were well received, which was encouraging to them and to their academic
advisors. Appendix 9 includes a list of the persons and organizations invited to this meeting,
most of whom were in attendance.

II. Project's impact on conservation and management of the Reserva Natural Laguna

Two project objectives were defined, both relating broadly to conservation and
management of the Reserve:

1. To advance, through capacity building, the transition of the Reserva Natural Laguna
Blanca (RNLB) from a legally established but poorly protected and under-utilized Reserve,
to an effectively managed, protected, and utilized natural resource of conservation and
educational importance (both nationally and regionally).

This part of the Project has experienced good success. The decision for the park guards to
undertake Outreach training has enabled them to educate, as well as enforce; in the long term,
this is the more effective way to protect the Reserve. Aside from enforcement activities, they
have also contributed to educational trails and signage, thus encouraging visitors to appreciate
the Reserve more, but in less damaging ways.
Through education, outreach, and enforcement as necessary, the Reserve has experienced an
increasing rate of use by eco-tourists, volunteers, interns, and professionals. To date,
approximately 50 volunteers, interns, and professionals, from 17 countries, have stayed and
worked at the Reserve, indicating that it is gaining in regional and international visibility.
Additionally, both Para La Tierra and the USFWS project are now listed in Eco-Index:

USFWS grant project:

Para La Tierra:

The present project final report will be made available on both of these web pages, as well as the
Para La Tierra web site.

One solid indicator of the improving protection status of the Reserve is the reappearance of
several "bush meat" and predator species in the Reserve over the past year. Local people indicate
that they have not seen some of these species in the area for several years, and others only
infrequently. Recent sightings of two species of deer, several armadillo species, a grison, and
others, suggest that these animals have experienced a marked reduction of hunting pressure, and
are able to re-populate the Reserve via immigration from populations elsewhere.

2. To establish a long-term conservation research and training program, and an associated
outreach program.

Workshops and other Outreach activities--this part of the Project also was successful. Based on
lessons learned in organizing the first workshop, we revised our approach to these activities, and
found that these adaptations to local expectations effectively improved our capacity to educate
and involve the community in a "stakeholder" mentality. The success of these activities has
probably been as important, if not more so, in the reduction of hunting pressure mentioned

An outreach activity that grew out of the evaluation and planning sessions was an emphasis on
interaction with local primary schools--both students and teachers. Several classes from rural
primary schools near the Reserve were invited to visit the Reserve, and outreach personnel from
PLT visited a number of schools. An associated project, which will be used in future public-
school interactions, was the development of a coloring book of plants and animals. Drawings for
the coloring book were created and donated by an artist from the US, who stayed at the Reserve
for 2 weeks while creating the drawings.

Guided trails and signage--one outcome of the workshops was the realization that a majority of
local people, as well as visitors from cities and towns within Paraguay and surrounding
countries, had only a rudimentary knowledge of plants, plant communities, and associated faunal
elements. Several old trails within the Reserve (previously used by hunters and fishermen) have
been revitalized, cleaned, and extended, and signage posted, to enable visitors to become familiar
with the various plant communities associated with Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and Dry
Transitional Forest eco-regions as they abut and interact within the Reserve.
Museum--another outcome of both the workshops and the school visits was the realization that
many people (students, parents, and teachers) were unaware of the diversity of plants and
animals within the Reserve (and that the Reserve is the "archive" or "living historical document"
of the rural area where they live, which has become increasingly transformed by agriculture and
settlement). Partly to meet this need, and partly as a research resource, PLT has developed a
small museum, where tourists, students, interns, etc. may see representatives of many of the plant
and animal species that are present in the Reserve.

Research on fauna and flora of the Reserve--we consider this to be of critical importance in
convincing decision-making authorities of the importance of continuing protection of this
Reserve. To date, most research activities have been in the nature of faunal inventories, and they
have yielded impressive results. Discoveries resulting from investigations during this project are
listed in Appendix 10.

Approximately 50 volunteers, research interns, and professionals have come to work in the
Reserve, most of them during the project funding period. They represent 17 countries, and
several states within the US. Clearly, the RNLB is rapidly gaining a level of visibility among
conservation-oriented biologists and students. Appendix 11 includes a listing of the projects
which these people have worked on, which are quite varied in focus and approach.

This grant supported 5 research projects and one university class field trip, at the Reserve. These
were as follows:

1. Curso de evaluación de la biodiversidad como parte practica de la catedra de ecología de
poblaciones en Rancho Laguna Blanca Departamento de San Pedro - Paraguay (M.S. Cristina
Morales, Professor).

2. Sitios prioritarios para la conservación en Rancho Laguna Blanca Departamento de San Pedro
- Pedro (Biol. Cesar Benítez Torres, for his M.S. thesis project).

3. Anfibios de la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (Johanna López, undergraduate biology

4. Ampliación y actualización de los conocimientos de flora y vegetación de la Reserva Natural
Laguna Blanca (Biol. Gloria Cespedes and Biol. Juana de Egea).

5. Diversidad de arañas de la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (Biol. Fátima Carolina Recalde).

6. Caracterización espacio temporal de ensamblaje de reptiles, asociaciones con formaciones
vegetales y variables clamáticas (Rodrigo Ayala, undergraduate biology student).

The reports for these research projects are attached as Appendix 7.

Although scientific publication is a time-consuming process, publications based on work at the
RNLB are beginning to appear in the scientific literature. Manuscripts or theses based on work
facilitated by the project, which have been published, accepted for publication (in press),
submitted for publication, or are nearing submission are listed in Appendix 12.

III. Collaboration among local organizations, related to this project.

1. Para La Tierra--our primary partner organization in this project. Directed Outreach and
Educational activities of the project, as well as opinion surveys and workshops. See Appendix 4
for a list of Outreach accomplishments, most of which were direct or indirect results of the
Outreach training provided through this project. In addition, PLT hosts and directs the Volunteer
and Intern programs based at the Reserve. See Appendix 11 for a list of volunteers, interns, and
professionals working (or scheduled to work) at the Reserve (not including the research grant
recipients listed in Appendix 7).

2. Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca--because the RNLB is a private Reserve, under the
regulatory authority of the Paraguayan Secretariat of the Environment, it is considered as a
partner organization in this Project. The RNLB provided the physical environment in which this
Project was conducted, and to the protection of which this Project was oriented. Para La Tierra
maintains a close working relationship with the administration of RNLB, seeking to maximize
the information exchange, and the exposure of RNLB visitors to the research and outreach
efforts of PLT.

3. Red Paraguaya de Conservación Ambiental en Tierras Privadas--this NGO provides
support and guidance for administrators of reserves within the private reserve system of
Paraguay. Additionally, RED provided Outreach training for 3 persons as part of this Project,
and is providing mapping services based on physical, floral, and faunal data being collected and
systematized as part of this Project. RED is also the primary entity (in collaboration with RNLB)
in charge of developing and submitting to the Secretariat of the Environment, the RNLB
Conservation Management Plan, to which the present document will contribute substantively.

4. Fundación Moises Bertoni--administers the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve (ca. 100 km east
of RNLB) and several other natural reserves in Paraguay, and provided Outreach training for 3
Project personnel, both in the FMB headquarters in Asunción and in their regional center in Villa
Ygatimi, near the Mbaracayú Reserve. Also of special significance to the success of this Project,
provided 4 weeks of training for 2 park guards, in the Mbaracayú Reserve and Tapytá Reserve.
As follow-up for the training (both outreach and park guards), FMB sent 2 people to RNLB, to
help conduct one workshop, to visit a local primary school, and to conduct on-site training for
the RNLB park guards.

5. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FACEN), Universidad Nacional de Asunción--
five research grants for FACEN students or graduates for investigation at RNLB were funded
through this project. Two of these were undergraduate, and three were graduate studies (one was
an M.S. thesis project). Additionally, the project supported a field trip of a FACEN biology class
of ca. 25 students to RNLB, for 3 days. See Appendix 7 for reports from these research projects
and field trip results.

6. Local primary schools--
As mentioned above, an outreach activity that grew out of the evaluation and planning sessions,
and the workshops, was an emphasis on interaction with local primary schools--both students
and teachers. Several classes from rural primary schools near the Reserve have been invited to
visit the Reserve, and outreach personnel from PLT will visit a number of schools, when classes
resume in March. An associated project, which will be used in future public-school interactions,
was the development of a coloring book of plants and animals. Drawings for the coloring book
were created and donated by an artist from the US, who stayed at the Reserve for 2 weeks while
creating the drawings.

PLT is also linking a local primary school (San Isidro) with a primary school in Scotland called
Maxwellton Primary, where children between 8 and 10 years of age will start to share photos and
details of their lives by postcards and email. The San Isidro students will learn about their own
home (i.e., environs of the reserve), which they will have to describe, and about the home of the
person they are paired up with in Scotland. This is intended to be a long-term, multi-diciplinary
and inexpensive project that will benefit both sets of students.


Appendix 1--sample contract for park guards

Appendix 2--reports of park guard training

Appendix 3--final report of park guard activities

Appendix 4--list of Outreach accomplishments, logo design for RNLB, map, and educational and
informational documents for outreach and education

Appendix 5--reports of workshops

Appendix 6--solicitation for student research proposals for USFWS project grants

Appendix 7--final reports from research grant awardees

Appendix 8--early opinion survey form, and report of local opinion surveys completed

Appendix 9--reports of Evaluation and Planning meetings

Appendix 10--noteworthy faunal records at Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (2010-11)

Appendix 11--volunteers, interns, and professionals utilizing the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca

Appendix 12--manuscripts or theses based on work facilitated or supported by the project, which
have been published, accepted for publication (in press), submitted for publication, or are nearing
submission for publication
Appendix 1--sample contract for park guards
Appendix 2--reports of park guard training

                                         Informe Final
                      Entrenamiento y Capacitación de Guardabosques
Conservation and Research at Reserva Natural Blanca, Paraguay – a Collaborative Project
           of educational, Governmental and non-governmental Organizations

La Fundación Moisés Bertoni para la conservación de la naturaleza (FMB), es una entidad
privada sin fines de lucro que trabaja para el desarrollo sostenible a través de la conservación y
uso de los recursos naturales. Articulando acciones con la sociedad.
Dentro de los programas de trabajo, un punto importante para la fundación es la de cooperar en
el fortalecimiento del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas (SINASIP) del Paraguay,
tanto en el sistema público como de áreas privadas. En este sentido la capacitación, la formación
de agentes de conservación como Guardaparques, Guardarecursos o Guardabosques es
fundamental para una protección y manejos efectivos de espacios naturales protegidos.
La FMB tiene sumada experiencia en el manejo de ASP en el país y actualmente es responsable
de la protección de más 80.000 ha de Bosque Atlántico del Alto Paraná, en dos reservas naturales
privadas, la Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú (RNBM) en Canindeyú y la Reserva Natural
Privada Tapyta (RNPT) en Caazapá, donde se cuenta con todo un sistema de manejo modelo
para otras áreas protegidas tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.
En este sentido y dentro del marco de acuerdo de cooperación con el proyecto “Conservation
and Research at Reserva Natural Blanca, Paraguay – a Collaborative Project of
educational, Governmental and non-governmental Organizations, dos Guardabosques de la
Reserva laguna Blanca realizaron una pasantía y capacitación de un mes de duración, uno en la
RNBM y el otro en la RNPT, de tal forma a que los dos Guardabosques adquieran capacidades a
través de actividades similares pero en dos áreas con características y entornos sociales,
culturales y económicos muy diferentes.
En general, podemos destacar la gran capacidad de trabajo, el esfuerzo, la predisposición y la
responsabilidad demostrada por los dos guardabosques que realizaron la pasantía, características
muy importantes para que las actividades que se desarrollen en la Reserva Laguna Blanca tengan
el éxito deseado
El presente documento corresponde a lo realizado por los pasantes en el tiempo de estadía en las
dos reservas, a modo de informe final de la actividad.
Detalle de las actividades
Los Guardabosques de Laguna Blanca que fueron seleccionados para hacer la pasantía y
entrenamiento fueron Concepción Gómez y Jorge Ayala, los que realizaron diversas actividades
desde el 12 de octubre de 2010 hasta 5 de noviembre del mismo año.
Es importante destacar que de común acuerdo con los encargados del proyecto implementado en
la Reserva Laguna Blanca, se tomó la decisión de que las personas a ser capacitadas se trasladen,
uno a la RNBM y la otra a la Reserva Natural Privada Tapyta. Con esto, se pretendió dar la
posibilidad a los Guardabosques de conocer y experimentar, si bien realizando actividades
similares, dos áreas con contextos socioculturales, económicos y políticos muy diferentes, lo que
hace a la experiencia más rica, ya que ellos mismos tendrán la oportunidad de compartir e
intercambiar sus experiencias al continuar sus trabajos en Laguna Blanca
En general, las actividades estuvieron enmarcadas en las operaciones y gestiones establecidas en
los planes de manejo de las reservas administradas por la FMB, directamente relacionadas a la
administración de la reserva, el mantenimiento de la infraestructura, la recepción y
acompañamiento a visitantes o turistas, incluyendo científicos; operaciones de patrullaje de
control y vigilancia, todo esto complementados con lo ejecutado en educación ambiental y otros
en las dos reservas.
A modo de seguimiento a las actividades de los pasantes, se enviaron reportes semanales a cerca
de las acciones desarrolladas en las dos reservas. Informes que fueron remitidos por los
encargados de las reserva a los responsables de proyecto en Laguna Blanca.
A continuación se presentan los detalles de los informes remitidos desde la RNBM y la RNPT.
                       Actividades en la Reserva Natural Privada Tapyta

                             Semana del 12 al 17 de octubre de 2010
Martes 12: Llegada a la administración de la Reserva Tapyta del GB Concepción Gómez con el
colectivo de las 18:00 hs.
Miércoles 13: Trabajos de limpieza con machete y preparación para corpida con desmalezadora
del sendero oeste, desde el mojón 103 hasta la zona de Español Cué, 3000 metros de limpieza. El
trabajo se realizó por Rumildo Toledo, Alcides Torres y Concepción Gómez.
 Jueves 14: Por la mañana actualización de informes semanales y de patrullaje y explicación del
sistema de archivos de documentos a Concepción Gómez. Por la tarde patrullaje en la zona norte,
con inicio en la zona de la Carbonería y finalización en la el Puente Tajay, durante el recorrido
no se presentó novedad.
Patrulleros: Alcides Torres, Rumildo Toledo, Conceción Gómez.
Viernes 15: Por la mañana traslado hasta el puesto sur para cambio de cubierta y ajuste de
amortiguador de moto Kenton. Al medio día salida a la administración del Parque Caazapá para
participación del Curso sobre GPS.
Sábado 16: Curso de utilización de GPS y Cartografía en la administración del Parque Nacional
Caazapá hasta las 15:00 hs. Participaron del taller José Vega, Rumildo Toledo, Concepción
Gómez y Hugo Mora. Hemos recibido certificados de participación del mismo. Por la tarde
trabajos de limpieza y mantenimiento de los puestos.
 Domingo 17: Limpieza con desmalezadora del sendero oeste, se realizó el trabajo por la mañana
y por la tarde con la utilización de tres desmalezadoras, ese día se logró la limpieza de 1500
metros de sendero. El trabajo fue realizado por Rumildo Toledo, Alcides Torres y Concepción
                            Semana del 17 al 23 de octubre de 2010
   Domingo 17: Por la mañana y por la tarde limpieza del sendero oeste con desmalezadora, se
   realizó la limpieza de 1500 metros. AT, RT, CG, HM.
   Lunes 18: Por la mañana limpieza con machete de sendero oeste, preparación para limpieza
   con dezmalezadora. JV, AT, RT.
   Traslado a San Juan para compras varias y reunión en Municipalidad. HM
   Acompañamiento a Eligio Fariña de Educación Ambiental para recorridos a escuelas de
   Lorito, Ñumi y Ciervo Cuá, organización de presentación de títeres en escuelas. CG.
   Martes 19: Por la mañana patrullaje con inicio en el puesto sur y finalización en la zona de
   canoa paso, durante el recorrido no se presentaron novedades. AT, JV, CG.
   Por la tarde limpieza del sendero Oeste con desmalezadora, se realizó la limpieza de 1200
   mts. AT, JV, CG.
   Miércoles 20: Por la mañana limpieza del sendero Oeste con desmalezadora, se completó el
   100% del mismo, se terminó el trabajo a las 11:00 hs. AT. JV, CG, HM.
   Por la tarde actualización de informes semanales y de patrullajes en la sede administrativa.
   AT, JV, CG, HM.
   Trabajos de construcción de Tatakua en la sede administrativa. JV, AT, CG.
   Jueves 21: Por la mañana patrullaje con inicio en el cuadro 082 y finalización en el puente
   Tajay, durante el recorrido se pudo constatar el corte y preparación de 8 postes de árbol caído
   lampino. AT, JV, CG.
   Traslado a Tavai para participación en taller SEAM. HM
   Por la tarde limpieza con desmalezadora de sendero Puente Kyha y desalijo con motosierra
   de árbol caído. AT, JV, CG, HM.
   Viernes 22: Por la mañana traslado a San Juan para compras y gestiones varias. AT, HM.
   Limpieza y mantenimiento de los puestos. JV, CG.
   Traslado al puesto sur para entrega de provisiones. AT, HM.
Sábado 23: Por la mañana trasplante de rama para mandioca en la huerta de la sede
administrativa. Por la tarde construcción de infraestructura para tatacua en la sede, AT, CG, JV.
                            Semana del 24 al 30 de octubre de 2010
   Domingo 24: Por la mañana limpieza del sendero con machete y mano camino que conduce
   hacia el puerto Tebicuary. Por la tarde limpieza y mantenimiento de los puestos. AT, JV, RT,
   Lunes 25: Por la mañana y por la tarde corpida del sendero tebicuary con desmalezadora.
   JV, RT, CG
   Traslado a san Juan para gestiones varias. Por la tarde terminación de tatakua en la sede
   administrativa, AT
   Martes 26: Corpida del sendero tebicuary de mañana y de tarde, AT, RT, CG, JV
   Miércoles 27: Por la mañana corpida del sendero Tebicuary con desmalezadora. Por la tarde
   patrullaje con inicio cuadro 273 finalizando arroyo Tajay durante el recorrido no se registro
   novedad, AT, RT, CG, JV
   Jueves 28 Por la mañana patrullaje con inicio clavel finalizando deslinde manduara durante
   el recorrido no se registro novedad. Por la tarde actualización de informes semanales y
   patrullaje, AT, RT, CG, JV
   Viernes 29: No se realizo patrullaje por motivo de lluvia, con 15mm en la sede
   administrativa y en el puesto sur 11mm. Se realizó cambio de amortiguador trasero a la moto
   honda 185, actualización de informes semanales, AT, JV, CG.
Sábado 30 Por la mañana redacción de informe semanal sobre actividades desarrolladas en la
                   Actividades en la Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú

                            Semana del 12 al 17 de octubre de 2010
Martes 12: arribo a la RNBM a las 14:30 hs, esa misma tarde, presentación tipo charla, a modo
de introducción, sobre los trabajos que se desarrollan en la reserva, básicamente se le informó
todo esa misma noche.
Miércoles 13: aprovechando la distribución de los víveres, tuvo la oportunidad de visitar el
puesto de control La Morena, ese mismo día tuvimos un pequeño curso de ingles en la casa de
guardabosques con la ing. Giovana Daponte, también Jorge participó de la clase.
Jueves 14: estuvimos trabajando en el taller realizando limpieza del depósito además hicimos
mantenimiento de motos, se destaca la participación muy activa en estas tareas.
Viernes 15: participación en actividades de patrullaje, desarrollado en la zona de Horquetamí de
la reserva, en conjunto con los Gbs, Bruno, Milton, Isabelino, Derlis, Gaspar y Ricardo.
Recorrido de rutina y reconocimiento en un patrullaje específico.
Sábado 16: salida del patrullaje hacia la zona de Aguarañú debido una lluvia muy intensa.
Pernocte en Aguarañú.
Domingo 17: a la mañana, continuación del patrullaje hacia la zona de Suzü, a la tarde regreso a
la sede administrativa de Jejui mí.

                            Semana del 18 al 24 de octubre de 2010
Las actividades que estuvimos realizando en la semana fueron los siguientes:
Lunes y Martes, Jorge estuvo ayudando a Anastasio en reparar la rotativa y posterior ayudó en
la corpida del patio de la sede administrativa y corpida del costado de camino hacia la
comunidad indígena Ache de Arroyo bandera.
Miercoles, realizamos corpida del sendero Aguara i, continuación de la corpida del costado de
camino principal de la reserva.
Jueves, inicio de la corpida de camino hacia Lagunita con la rotativa, y un grupo realiza corpida
del costado de la misma, en el cuál Jorge también ayudó.
Viernes, no tuvimos actividad resaltante por que amaneció con lluvia, pero se realizaron algunos
arreglos en el depósito de la reserva.
Sabado, Jorge y Derlis realizaron corpida del patio hacia el Centro Educativo Mbaracayú (CEM)
con la dezmalezadora. Esta parte incluyó un mini curso de uso y manejo del aparato ya que
ambos estaban en proceso de aprender a utilizarlo. El Guardabosque Isabelino Chaparro fue el
Domingo, se realizó limpieza y mantenimiento en la sede administrativa, casa de Guardabosques
y lavado de ropas. Así mismo registro de visitas que vinieron al CEM, Jorge estuvo apoyando
dicha actividad.

                           Semana del 25 al 31 de octubre de 2010
Lunes 25: estuvo ayudando nuevamente a Anastasio y otros compañeros en la corpida y arreglo
de camino hacia Lagunita y en el sendero Arroyo morotï.
Martes 26: Participa en la charla sobre Autoestima y Género con la gente de la Secretaría de la
Mujer en la sede administrativa de la reserva.
Miércoles 27: Jorge estuvo apoyando a Don Tito en el tambo del CEM en la construcción del
Jueves 28: continuación de trabajos en el tambo del colegio con el Guardabosque Osvaldo
Viernes 29: realización de corpida del patio con la dezmalezadora.
Sábado 30: Limpieza del puesto y lavado de ropas.
Domingo 31: apoyando a Porfirio en el control de las personas que vinieron a visitar a sus
familiares en el CEM.
Consideraciones finales
    Ambos Guardabosques cuentan con la capacidad y las condiciones necesarias para el
     desarrollo de actividades en relación a la Reserva Laguna Blanca.
    Tanto Concepción como Jorge, han tenido la oportunidad de ver y acompañar el trabajo
     que se desarrolla en dos reservas naturales privadas con el mismo sistema de trabajo pero
     en situaciones totalmente diferentes.
    Se aprovecharon instancias ya establecidas de capacitación para que ellos participen,
     donde se pueden señalar el curso de capacitación en uso de GPS en el Parque Nacional
     Caazapá y el taller dictado por la gente de la Secretaría de la Mujer en Mbaracayú y de
     inglés básico en esta misma reserva.
    Ambos han realizado trabajos de control, vigilancia y patrullaje asimilando así las bases
     para la aplicación de procedimientos en estos eventos importantes en la protección de
     áreas silvestres.
    Tuvieron la oportunidad, en especial en la reserva Tapyta, de participar de todo un
     proyecto de orgullo para la reserva con un componente muy fuerte en educación
    Desde las dos zonas, tanto de Mbaracayú como Tapyta, el reracionamiento y la
     integración plena de los pasantes a las actividades y sistemas de trabajo ha sido muy
     buen. Esto es importante ya que muestra la capacidad de adaptación a diferentes
     circunstancias y diferentes ambientes en relación a las ASP.
    Así mismo, han tenido la oportunidad de desarrollar actividades establecidas en un plan
     de manejo y un POA o plan operativo anual, elementos fundamentales de gestión de AP,
     que deben ser implementados en Laguna Blanca en el corto plazo.
    Al mismo tiempo, han tenido la oportunidad de conocer de cerca los costos e insumos,
     uniformes, equipos, herramientas y materiales, asociados a las actividades de manejo,
     protección de un área silvestre protegida.
    Estas instancias de capacitación e intercambio de experiencias son acciones de doble vía,
     ya que así como los pasantes adquieren experiencia, también los Guardabosques dueños
     de casa, tienen la oportunidad de conocer sobre otros lugares y los esfuerzos que se
     realizan en otras áreas protegidas.
    Es importante que estas actividades tengan un seguimiento, por ejemplo, Guardabosques
     de Mbaracayú o Tapyta en algún momento pueden ir a Laguna Blanca y acompañar
     actividades en esa reserva, a modo de complemento a lo recibido en su capacitación.
    Finalmente, agradecer la confianza depositada en la FMB para realizar parte de la
     formación de personas que estarán directamente relacionadas a las actividades de la
     Reserva Laguna Blanca.
Appendix 3--final report of park guard activities

                      Final Forest Guard Report
Two project objectives were defined:
1. To advance, through capacity building, the transition of the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca
(RNLB) from a legally established but poorly protected and under-utilized Reserve, to an
effectively managed, protected, and utilized natural resource of conservation and educational
importance (both nationally and regionally).
2. To establish a long-term conservation research and training program, and an associated
outreach program.

Training and Organization:

When the guards entered into the job, neither understood the role, nor had any knowledge of
conservation or what a reserve was. The month they spent with Fundación Moisés Bertoni (FMB) gave
them full immersion in the role of a Forest Guard and provided valuable training which they brought
back to Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (RNLB). Upon return to the RNLB, they were able to apply lots of
aspects of this training, but also learned that the reserves they visited were different from each other
and from RNLB, each with its own distinct needs and problems. They adapted well to this realization and
asked for help where needed. There was no Forest Guard manager onsite at this time, so they learned
to manage their own work load and log their own reports. Towards the end of the funding period, Karina
Atkinson took over planning and reporting on their work, creating a program of weekly objectives. The
guards agreed that in this first year, they needed guidance, and that there was a need for a manager
who remained onsite in constant contact with them, and understood the problems they faced.


The guards undertook formal patrols for the first 3 months of the funding period. They found it difficult
to approach people who were undertaking extractive activities in the reserve, with no way to defend
themselves, should the people have weapons. After the first three months, they began to include
patrolling alongside other activities. For example, they could go out to help the biologists and at the
same time, walk one of the trails in the area, talking to anyone they encountered. They found this
method less aggressive and more effective in communicating the importance of the reserve to local
people. It also gave them the opportunity to demonstrate to people the work going on inside the
reserve. After the workshops, there were much less people entering the reserve in general, and the
Guards found this method of safe guarding the reserve much more effective than patrolling.


Following the first planning and evaluation meeting held at Laguna Blanca, it was decided that a Forest
Guard from FMB would visit RNLB for one week to help the Guards with some “next steps” in reserve
management. This interchange was successful in providing the RNLB guards with ideas and further
training. Following this interchange, the guards created a new trail and improved signage around the
Education and Outreach Specialists:

After one of the original education and outreach specialists left her role at Para La Tierra (PLT), it was
decided that both of the guards should be trained as outreach assistants. The training itself was short
and at times misdirected. Upon return to RNLB, the Guards proved vital in making contact with the local
population. They were able to talk to people as friends and family, reducing suspicion and helping to
gather useful data. The majority of people living close to the reserve speak Guarani, the local dialect,
and a little Spanish. The guards were key in translating the messages from the reserve and PLT to the
community. The guards found the education aspect of their jobs difficult due to lack of training. They
needed someone more experienced to take charge of the workshops, that they could then join in and
provide support where needed.


Through the project funding, the guards have gained training, experience and opportunities they would
never have had otherwise. They have made friends and connections with international volunteers, other
members of conservation organizations in Paraguay and within the local community. They can see the
impact they have made on the local population and the changes in thinking which have come about
through their effort. Jorge has also learned to use a computer including typing, email, social networking,
and Microsoft office word and excel programs. He is also learning English. They now have skills in
reserve management; creating signs, cutting trails, recycling waste, GPS, fire fighting, education and
outreach. They feel proud that visitors to the reserve are now utilizing the trails and signs they made,
and that more animals are now being seen within the reserve boundaries such as deer, peccaries, coati,
agouti and cats. Through talking with local people they can see the changes in attitude that their work
has brought about. They said that the locals still want to come in and hunt, but now they don’t because
they have a new respect for the animals and the people who are working towards protecting them.


If further funding is found and the guards have the opportunity to continue their work, this is a list of the
things they would like to do in and around the reserve, based on their experiences and training from the
previous year:
      Continue to improve the trails and create more “áreas de descanso” within them.
      Improve the signs and add more including instructions about dumping rubbish and driving
      Create a small children’s area with a park.
      Continue to support education and outreach activities, with the help of a trained professional.
      Create an outdoor museum of orchid and cactus species of the reserve.
      Create an exhibition of the reuse of rubbish.
      Continue to work with community leaders to spread positive news about the return of animals
         to the reserve.
      Build a small suspension bridge in one of the trails.
      Cut a new trail through the flooded forest in the south of the reserve.
      Take part in further training opportunities with FMB and other conservation organizations in
Appendix 4--list of Outreach accomplishments, logo design for RNLB, map, and
educational and informational documents for outreach and education

List of noteworthy Outreach accomplishments: (Note: this is extracted from a report from the
on-site director of Para La Tierra, our primary partner in this project)

1. The museum and visitor center: has been developed and is now open to the public. A limited
tourist business is located adjacent to the RNLB, and these tourists are encouraged to visit the
public-access portions of the Reserve, learn about the ecology of the area, etc. At the weekends
during the tourist season we had about 20 people passing through the museum and visitor center
every day. They can pick up a map so they know where the public trails are, and a leaflet to learn
a bit more about the reserve (we have them in Spanish or English).

2. Tourists from the tourist business: After seeing the museum and talking to Para La Tierra's
on-site director or the forest guards lots of tourists have increased their stay length at Laguna
Blanca even up to one week extra. Some decide they want to go on walks, some want to join in
with the volunteers to do their work, and some are young people who just like what we are doing
and want to spend more time with us.

3. Forest Guard Volunteers: Volunteers at Para La Tierra can also volunteer as a forest guard.
The 2 volunteers who are in Laguna Blanca at the moment are 50% small mammal trapping and
50% forest guard shadowing. None of the potentially dangerous stuff though, they are doing trail
clearing, trail measuring (GPS), making sign posts, labeling trees, etc. One of these volunteers is
interested in a career in reserve management so he says it was exactly the experience he was
looking for.

4. Return of interns: 3 of our previous interns liked their stays so much that they came back a
second time.

5. Extended stays: 5 visitors so far have extended their intended stay length with PLT at RNLB,
two for an extra month.

6. Intern jobs: Through their experience at RNLB, two interns now have jobs doing scientific
research projects and volunteer coordination in Central America.
Logo for Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca
New habitat map, created by ground-truthing and GPS use
Informational brochure for Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (Spanish version)
Informational brochure for Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (English version)
Visitor display at RNLB visitor center
Intern information pack, Spanish

                              Para La Tierra
    Para La Tierra es una organización sin fines de lucro, dedicada a la
     conservación del Cerrado Paraguayo, con el énfasis en estudios
Para La Tierra se aloja en Rancho Laguna Blanca cerca de la ciudad de Santa Rosa Del Aguaray,
Departamento San Pedro. La ubicación es de interés especial debido a su posición en la zona
transitoria entre dos hábitats globalmente amenazados – el Bosque Atlántico del Alto Paraná y el
Cerrado Paraguayo.


Laguna Blanca es propiedad de la familia Duarte quienes tienen un pequeño negocio turístico
asociado con la playa. La estancia cuenta con 4 casas, uno de las cuales ha sido otorgado a Para
La Tierra para realizar sus estudios científicos. Nuestra ubicación es suficientemente distante del
negocio turístico para no sufrir interferencia de los visitantes, pero también lo suficiente cerca
para poder mostrar nuestro trabajo a los visitantes y demostrar su importancia. Nuestra casa tiene
cuatro piezas capacitadas para alojar entre 2 y 5 personas cada una, y cuentan con cuartos de
baño y ducha de agua caliente. Cada pieza también tiene una toma eléctrica. Una amplia galería
ocupa la parte central de la casa donde socializamos, trabajamos, cocinamos y comemos. En el
corredor externa hay una pileta de agua y parilla para hacer asado. Una buena señal de internet
inalámbrica alcanza hasta el corredor y dos de los dormitorios

Los Hábitats:
El cerrado consiste de cuatro “sub-habitats”: Campo limpio siendo campos de vegetación
pastosa sin plantas leñosas, Sensu strictu consistiendo de campos de arbustos sin pastos ni
arboles, Cerradón refiriéndose a bosque seco típico del cerrado y Campo sucio una comunidad
vegetativa con una mezcla de pasto, arbustos y arboles. El suelo es arenoso con drenaje rápido.
Los cuatro “sub-habitats” están representados en Laguna Blanca resultando en una comunidad
de animales y plantas muy variable y de distribución localizado adentro de la parte del cerrado.
Aunque por gran parte del año el cerrado tiene aspecto de seco y muerto, se florece de repente
después de periodos de lluvias resultando en un paisaje de hermosura impresionante. 65% de las
especies de plantas están consideradas como endémicas al cerrado y según Conservation
International el cerrado es el hábitat con la velocidad de desaparición mas alta en todo el planeta
- es decir que se considera como unos de los hábitats mas amenazadas en el mundo. El otro
hábitat de importancia en la Reserva Laguna Blanca es el Bosque Atlántico del Alto Paraná, un
bosque húmedo subtropical. La laguna, denominado Laguna Blanca, es un lago artesiano y como
tal el mas grande en Paraguay. Aunque pobre en nutrientes, las orillas proveen un hábitat único
para una multitud de especies de anfibios, reptiles y mamíferos.

La gente:

Viviendo de forma permanente en Laguna Blanca, Karina y Loraine son las encargadas en el
manejo de los aspectos diarios de Para La Tierra. Karina es la gerente en situ de la base,
Científica Principal y directora executiva del proyecto Para La Tierra. Ella está responsable para
trabajos de comunicación, interacción con voluntarios y interns, aspectos financieros del
proyecto y relaciones publicas. Ella mantiene la pagina de PLT en Facebook y la pagina web Loraine es la asistente de campo residente. Ella esta encargada de las
compras, desarrollando el "blog" y realizando los trabajos de inventarios de Lepidoptera, reptiles
y anfibios.
En las casa de la familia Duarte viven cuatro personas quienes manejan el negocio turístico de la
familia Duarte.
PLT tiene un concejo de personas quienes asumen un papel concejero y supervisaría para asistir
en el manejo del proyecto. El concejo de PLT esta formado por tres personas profesionales; Dr.
Robert Owen, el coordinador científico, y experto en micromamíferos; Paul Smith, de Fauna
Paraguay; y Malvina Duarte. Contarás con el apoyo y ayuda de toda la gente de Para La Tierra y
Rancho Laguna Blanca durante de tu estadía con nosotros.

Muchos de nuestros equipos se tratan de la ciencia de mastozoología, pero existe un presupuesto
para la compra de algunos equipos específicos y hemos desarrollado una capacidad de inventar y
construir nuestros propios equipos cuando sea necesario! Contamos con trampas Sherman,
trampas arbóreos, trampas Victor, redes de varias clases incluyendo para pescar, para mariposas
y redes de niebla, trampas para reptiles, trampas baldes, etc. Otros equipos incluyen materiales
para la preparación de ejemplares colectados, cinta para medir, guantes, cajas de varias clases,
papel, unidades de GPS, software estadístico y ArcGIS, un gancho para serpientes, estación
climática, y camera. Podemos prestar ropas impermeables. El notebook de PLT está disponible
para acceso al internet si no cuentes con uno proprio. Está disponible una camioneta para llegar a
los rincones mas lejanos de la reserva, y también tendrás derecho de uso de caballos, kayaks y
barcos para trabajos científicos. Tenemos una pequeña biblioteca científica en la oficina y una
enorme biblioteca electrónica en lo que cual se dispone de todas las referencias claves, revista
científicas, libros, fotografías, grabaciones de vocalizaciones y mucho más.
Proyectos—Algunos de nuestros proyectos actuales son:

Estudio poblacional (por marca-recaptura) de mamíferos pequeños en el cerrado
Estudio poblacional (por marca-recaptura) de mamíferos pequeños en los distintos bosques altos
       (húmido y seco) de la zona
Inventario de reptiles
Estudios de los ciclos de vida de anfibios
Estudio del uso de micro hábitats por mamíferos
Inventario de lepidóptera
Estudio de capturas de trampas alboréales
Inventario de murciélagos
Management plan for on-site natural history museum, which functions both as a research
and education / outreach tool

                                        Para La Tierra
                                    Colección de Referencia
                                        Plan de Manejo

1- Objetivo
El objetivo principal de la colección de referencia de Para La Tierra es proveer información
acerca de la flora y fauna existente en el área de la Reserva Privada de Laguna Blanca, así como
la importancia de la conservación de su diversidad biológica.

Además, también se intenta promover la investigación botánica y zoológica en el área la Reserva
Privada de Laguna Blanca, con el fin de aumentar los conocimientos que se tienen sobre la
biodiversidad del cerrado Paraguayo. Por lo tanto, la colección también servirá de referencia para
investigaciones científicas.

2- Origen de las colecciones
Las colecciones botánicas y zoológicas que se depositarán en la colección de referencia de Para
La Tierra serán exclusivamente de plantas y animales que procedan de la Reserva Privada de
Laguna Blanca (en adelante RPLB) y sus alrededores.

El herbario contará con plantas vasculares, de las cuales se tendrá una representación de las
flores y los frutos de cada una. En caso de árboles, se contará con una muestra de la corteza de
los mismos.

Los grupos zoológicos que se incluirán en las colecciones serán invertebrados, peces, anfibios,
aves, reptiles y pequeños mamíferos. Bajo ningún concepto se promoverá la colecta de
mamíferos grandes para que los mismos formen parte de la colección. Sólo se albergarán estos
animales (o restos de estos) siempre y cuando hayan sido encontrados muertos de manera
ocasional en el área del RPLB.

La colección de referencia de Para La Tierra aceptará ejemplares colectados por cualquier
persona dentro del RPLB. Toda aquella persona que tenga a bien la donación de ejemplares para
el enriquecimiento de la colección de referencia de Para La Tierra, deberá aceptar los términos
presentados en este Plan de Manejo, para lo cual no se aceptarán condiciones u objeciones
alegadas por el donante. Una vez que la donación se realiza, los ejemplares pasarán a formar
parte del patrimonio de la colección de referencia de Para La Tierra, y recibirán igual tratamiento
que el resto de la colección de acuerdo a este Plan de Manejo.

3- Volumen de las colecciones
La colección de referencia de Para La Tierra no pretende competir con otras colecciones
nacionales por volumen del material albergado. Pretende solo contar con una muestra de
especímenes de cada especie, a modo de presentar las características de las especies que
componen la flora y fauna del RPLB.
Debido a esto, los ejemplares que componen la colección deben estar en buen estado de
preservación, por lo cual deben haber sido fijados adecuadamente. En el caso de los herbarios,
los ejemplares deberán mostrar al menos uno de los órganos sexuales útiles para la
determinación taxonómica y reconocimiento específico.

En caso de que se produzcan colectas redundantes sobre algún grupo taxonómico (como ocurre
comúnmente con las serpientes), por parte de personas que desconozcan los términos de este
Plan de Manejo, los especímenes serán donados a otras instituciones nacionales que cuenten
asimismo con colecciones científicas, y para las cuales puedan ser de valor científico.

4- Catalogación
A pesar de tratarse de una colección de referencia, se mantendrán los datos de los especimenes
colectados, con el fin de que estos datos siempre puedan ser utilizados posteriormente y generar
información importante que apunte a la conservación de la diversidad biológica del RPLB.

Por lo tanto, cada espécimen de botánica será debidamente identificado con una etiqueta pegada
a la cartulina en la que se encuentra el ejemplar, con los datos de colecta. Cada ejemplar
zoológico será identificado con un número escrito en una etiqueta atada a una sección del cuerpo
del animal. El número será único e irrepetible.

Los datos de cada animal y planta serán anotados en un cuaderno o catálogo, el cual contendrá
toda la información acerca de cada uno de los especimenes que componen la colección de
referencia de Para La Tierra.

5- Alojamiento de las colecciones
El almacenamiento de las colecciones se efectuará atendiendo al grupo taxonómico de acuerdo a
los estándares internacionales que rigen el manejo de las colecciones.

En este sentido, las muestras vegetales se pegarán con cola vinílica transparente a cartulinas
blancas. En el extremo de cada cartulina se adherirá un sobre que contendrá órganos de la planta
que se hayan desprendido. Cada muestra de herbario se archivará en carpetas que estarán
separadas por familias. Las carpetas se guardarán en armarios de madera natural, que no haya
recibido ningún tipo de tratamiento químico. Todos los armarios que sean necesarios para alojar
el material de herbario se fumigará con productos químicos especiales, y se colocará naftalina y
gel de sílice (u otro absorbente de humedad).

Las pieles de pequeños mamíferos se almacenarán en gavetas de puertas herméticas con cajones
de madera natural, que no hayan recibido ningún tipo de tratamiento químico. Las pieles se
depositarán sobre una base de papel libre de ácido y sin lignina. Los cráneos y demás huesos de
los animales que hayan sido preparados como piel, se colocarán en cajas o frascos y se los
mantendrá bajo el mismo número de catálogo y en la misma gaveta donde se depositó la piel
correspondiente. Cada cajón contendrá un recipiente con naftalina y otro con gel de sílice. Estos
productos, al igual que el papel libre de ácido y sin lignina se cambiarán periódicamente.
Otra forma de almacenamiento será en frascos de vidrio. Estos contendrán peces, anfibios,
reptiles y ocasionalmente pequeños mamíferos e insectos. Las muestras estarán almacenadas en
una solución de alcohol etílico 70%.

Los insectos preparados en seco se montarán con alfileres entomológicos en cajas de cartón o
madera. Las mismas contendrán químicos que eviten la proliferación de hongos y otros insectos
que puedan dañar las colecciones.

Para asegurar la calidad de las muestras, y no desperdiciar especimenes, las mismas serán
preparadas por personal capacitado. Se seguirán los métodos de preparación de especimenes para
colecciones científicas para cada grupo taxonómico.

Toda la colección estará alojada en un único lugar, que contará preferentemente con un
acondicionador de aire que mantenga la temperatura por debajo de los 20 ºC. La habitación en la
que se encuentren las colecciones será de acceso restringido, y cualquier persona podrá ser
autorizada a revisar el material de la misma, siendo acompañado por personal de Para La Tierra.

6- Control e inventario
El control de la colección se realizará de forma visual, y estará a cargo de una o más personas de
Para La Tierra. Este control estará regido por un inventario del material existente en la colección.
El inventario se realizará cada un año. Este inventario arrojará con el transcurso del tiempo,
información acerca del crecimiento de las colecciones y dará pautas sobre la progreso de las
condiciones físicas en las que se encuentra cada espécimen.

7- Políticas de préstamo
La colección de referencia de Para La Tierra no tendrá exclusivamente fines científicos, por lo
que no existen políticas de préstamo estrictas, y se recomienda que los ejemplares no abandonen
el local, para contar siempre con material de apoyo.

En casos excepcionales se podrán realizar prestamos, pero siempre dejando al menos uno de los
especimenes de la especie solicitada para préstamo, en la colección. Si una especie cuenta con un
único ejemplar, éste no será cedido en calidad de préstamo.

Los préstamos se realizarán dentro del territorio nacional. En ningún caso el material de la
colección de referencia de Para La Tierra podrá abandonar el país.

Los interesados en solicitar el préstamo de material, deberán completar una solicitud escrita en la
cual dejen en claro las intenciones de uso del material y la finalidad. No se permitirá dañar en
manera alguna a los especimenes, por lo que no se podrán realizar estudios de contenido
estomacal, diafanizaciones, estudios genéticos, etc., que necesariamente deban cortar la dermis
de los ejemplares. Por lo tanto, todo aquel que solicite material prestado, deberá devolverlo en el
mismo estado en que le fue entregado.

Se sugiere que el plazo para la revisión de ejemplares durante el préstamo no supere los dos
8- Condiciones de uso
Toda persona que desee manipular especimenes de la colección, deberá tener en cuenta las
siguientes recomendaciones para un mejor mantenimiento y preservación de las muestras.

 Para herbarios
 · Utilizar guantes de látex para manejar los especimenes.
 · No maltratar las muestras moviendo innecesariamente hojas o tallos.
 · Mantener siempre ordenadas las carpetas en las que se encuentra cada muestra.
 · En caso de desprendimiento de alguna sección de la planta, utilizar el sobre para almacenar las
      secciones fragmentadas.
 Para animales en líquido
 · Utilizar guantes de látex para manejar los especimenes.
 · No maltratar los especímenes, forzando las articulaciones de los mismos.
 · No dejar los especímenes fuera del líquido más de dos horas.
 · Lavar todos los instrumentos una vez usados.
 Para pieles
 · Utilizar guantes de látex para manipular las muestras.
 · No maltratar los especímenes, moviendo inadecuadamente las pieles.
 · No forzar demasiados ejemplares dentro de una misma gaveta. Habilitar nuevas gavetas si es
 · Lavar todos los instrumentos una vez usados.

9- Consideraciones especiales
En caso de que las muestras presenten una importancia local o regional, como lo puede ser un
nuevo registro para el país, en ese caso se puede considerar la donación a una institución
nacional que cuente con una colección de rigor científico.

10- Forma de mantenimiento anual
La colección de referencia de Para La Tierra se mantendrá mediante donaciones particulares o
institucionales y los aportes de voluntarios. También mediante proyectos específicos que puedan
provenir de distintas fuentes, pero que tengan como objetivo ayudar a mantener la colección.

Debido a que no se pretende contar con una colección que represente al total de la fauna y flora
del país, sino que únicamente aquella que se encuentra en el RPLB, es fácil contar con los
medios necesarios para un correcto mantenimiento de las mismas, y que sirva como una
colección tanto didáctica como científica.
Appendix 5--reports of workshops

                                   Report of Workshop 1
                                     18th March 2011

Community leaders in Santa Barbara
Community educators in Santa Barbara
All members of the families who live in Calle San Francisco
All members of the families who live in Calle San Isidro

Community leaders in Santa Barbara
Women and children of most families living in Calle San Francisco and Calle San Isidro
Men of two households in Calle San Francisco

21 adults in total attended workshop 1, hosted by Education and Outreach Officers
Concepcion Gomez, Jorge Ayala and Karina Atkinson.

8.00am - we left the reserve to collect the invitees from their homes. We had to make two trips to
bring everyone.
9.00am – began the workshop by giving a talk which included:
     Introduction and welcome to RNLB including brief explanation of why they were invited
         and the aims for the day.
     Introduction to everyone who works at RNLB including Rancho Laguna Blanca and Para
         La Tierra staff.
     Explanation of what a natural reserve is, why they are important and what they do.
     Explanation of why Laguna Blanca is a natural reserve and what this means.
     Description of all organisations associated with the reserve and what their roles are
         within it.
     Presentation of the project with description of what it’s for, what it does and who does it.
     Presentation by the forest guards of their job.
     Presentation by Para La Tierra of their function and work within RNLB.
10.00am – Break to drink terere and chat informally with the attendees
10.30am – Continued the workshop by talking more about the project, what it involves and what
it has to do with them.
11.00am - Conservation lesson covering:
     Why the plants and trees are important
     Why the lake is important
     Why the animals are important
     Photosynthesis (including short video to demonstrate the process)
     The water cycle (including short video)
followed by a showing of a video made by the WWF called “Sin bosque no hay vida” which
relates directly to the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay.
11.30am – Presentation of the map of the reserve and the different habitats within it.
11.45am – Picture reel to music of:
     “Para La Tierra at work”
     All of the habitats within the reserve, including the farther away areas which the locals
        may not be so familiar with.
     Some important and beautiful flora and fauna found within the reserve.
12.00pm – Lunch and informal chat with the attendees
1.30pm – Visit to the museum and visitor centre including description of some of the species
collected by Para La Tierra volunteers and interns.
2.30pm – Question and answer session.
3.00pm – Left the reserve to take all attendees home.
                                   Report of Workshop 2
                              (a) 27th and (b) 29th March 2011

   (a) All members of the families who live in Calle San Isidro
   (b) All members of the families who live in Calle San Francisco

At least one representative of each family living in Calle San Isidro and Calle San Francisco.

40 adults in total attended workshop 2, hosted by Education and Outreach Officers
Concepcion Gomez, Jorge Ayala and Karina Atkinson.

Aim: To gauge response to the reserve in the community as a whole, how much the new status
affects them, how they feel about the project and how this project or another project might help
relieve pressures felt by the reserve.

Structure: The workshop consisted of a fairly informal meeting where we posed some questions
to promote discussion and allowed the community to converse together.

    In workshop 1, you learned the meaning and rules behind the reserve. In what ways if any
       have your lives been affected by its creation?
    What are your feelings in general about this?
    What do you think could be done to relieve any of these concerns?

   1. There is a great variety in the extent to which individuals and families are affected by the
      reserve i.e. some are very affected and some are not affected at all by the changes.
   2. People who are affected most are the fishermen and hunters.
   3. Some people have been affected in a positive way e.g. existence of PLT and an increase
      in the number of tourists = more employment for locals, increase in purchase of locally
      produced products and more items bought in local stores.
   4. There is a mixed response to the existence of the reserve. Some are happy that the land is
      now being protected; others wish they could still enter to hunt and fish with nets and
      others are angry about the amount of foreigners and “rich people” passing through. Some
      believe the foreigners have too much money and should be doing a lot more to help them.
   5. Some people believe the foreigners are there to take their land and water sources.
   6. The communities are keen to organise themselves into committees and councils to act
      more as a whole community on matters such as these instead of as individuals.
   7. Following on from this project, they are all keen to receive help from “the foreigners” in
      the form of another project, centred around improving their quality of life in
      compensation for their loss of fishing and hunting rights.
   8. Calle San Isidro is keen to form a community project which they all share e.g. the
      construction of a chicken house, which allows them to make some money.
9. Calle San Francisco are keen to have help also, but are as yet not as organised as Calle
   San Isidro and are undecided about what would be helpful to them.
                               Report of Workshop 3
                               25th September 2011

All members of the communities closest to the reserve:
San Francisco
San Isidro
San Jorge

Over 100 adults in total from all of the 3 communities.

    To invite all members of all communities to the reserve in order to strengthen
     relations between RNLB/PLT and each community.
    To consolidate previous environmental education lessons and build upon
     existing knowledge.
    To ensure an understanding of the meaning of the word reserve and its
    To give the community a chance to walk one of the trails in the reserve which
     they may never have done before.
    To complete questionnaires.


   •   Bienvenido y Introducción
   •   Nosotros y nuestro trabajo
   •   La reserva
   •   El agua
   •   El sol y las plantas
   •   Contaminación
   •   Deforestación y extinción
   •   Para La Tierra
   •   Caminar por el sendero
   •   Museo
   •   Encuesta
   •   Terere/Almuerzo
   •   Película/ Vóley/ Bingo

The workshop was carried out by Karina Atkinson and Jorge Ayala.
Observations and Outcomes of the Workshop:

  1. We had planned an event for around 50 people and over 100 turned out, leaving
     us slightly unprepared. We struggled to bring everyone into the reserve, often
     having to leave people waiting and in total it took us 2 hours to bring everyone
     in, even with 2 vehicles. The event would have been better split over two days
     with different communities attending different days, or for the workshop to have
     taken place in a more central location. We wanted the event to take place inside
     the reserve in order to give people the opportunity to see it for themselves.
  2. We used a screen and a projector for the presentation, which people liked, but
     we could have done the workshop in the dark for it to have had full effect. Some
     of the images were lost in the light. A few people requested we take the
     equipment to their homes at night in order to see the photos and videos better.
     We have decided against this idea, but in the future, we will ensure the
     presentation part of the workshop takes place in the dark, or that there are few
     enough people in attendance that the presentation can take place inside.
  3. Everyone in the surrounding communities speaks Guarani and most understand
     Spanish, but we are unsure to what extent. The main speaker throughout the
     workshop was Karina Atkinson who doesn’t speak Guarani. Throughout the
     presentation there was one response to questions asked to the audience in
     Spanish and more (but still few) responses when the question was repeated in
     Guarani. Not all questions or information was repeated in Guarani. This leads us
     to think that people were a. Shy and didn’t want to speak out; b. Didn’t
     understand what was being said in Spanish or c. Didn’t understand the concepts
     being taught.
  4. Towards the end of the workshop, we invited the audience to ask any questions.
     The leader of the community in San Jorge raised his hand and stood up to talk.
     He repeated many of the key points in Guarani to which the people responded
     with nodding heads and murmurs. He also asked for clarification of the rules of
     the reserve, which were then provided in Guarani by Jorge. Based on this and the
     comments of some members of the audience at the end, the whole workshop
     should have taken place in Guarani.
  5. The audience responded much better to the community leader talking to them
     than to us talking to them, stimulating further conversation. He knew how to
     address the audience and to talk to them in a language they understood. Future
     workshops should be presented in Guarani by community leaders with the
     support and equipment of PLT and RNLB staff.
  6. Not many people opted to walk one of the trails of the reserve. Perhaps it was
     too hot, or they just weren’t interested. The people who went were mostly male
     students from San Jorge. We believe that in the past students from this area have
     carried out acts of vandalism in the trails. Jorge used this as an opportunity to
     explain to them the work that goes into preparing the trails and signals and their
      function in the reserve in hope that they will stop the vandalism and pass the
      message on to their fellow students.
   7. Almost everyone was interested in visiting the museum, although with so many
      people, not many were able to see the displays properly, as the space is very
      small. This could have been better organised.
   8. We invited much less people to the first workshop and didn’t invite anyone from
      the community San Jorge. We should have involved everyone from the start of
      the project.


   1. We asked people to come to talk to us after the presentation in order to
      complete a questionnaire. Out of over 100 people in attendance, 3 volunteered,
      and in total on the day, we completed just 17 questionnaires.
   2. After our last experience with questionnaires where people seemed very
      unwilling to talk, we decided to invite people to give their opinions in groups of
      2 or 3 in an attempt to make them feel more comfortable. This approach didn’t
      work, as often one person took the lead then later felt under pressure when they
      didn’t understand what was expected of them. The idea of the questionnaires
      and our requirements of them should also have been explained in Guarani.
   3. Despite people saying they understood Spanish, they didn’t understand many of
      the questions when asked in Spanish. It therefore fell to Jorge to carry out the
      majority of the questionnaires.
   4. While interviewing one person, a crowd often gathered around the interviewee.
      In these cases the responses were often of a number of people instead of just the
      interviewee with everyone just repeating everyone else’s answers.
   5. In general, despite the problems we had with the questionnaires and getting
      people to talk to us, the level of knowledge was much greater than the first time
      we asked the questions in February.

Ideas for the future:

      The reserve is under most threat from the community San Jorge, where many
       members are still hunting within the reserve boundaries. The community leader
       of San Jorge was most interested and most involved in helping us to organise
       people and translate messages into Guarani. Regular meetings with him would
       allow him to better understand the reserve and its implications, encouraging him
       to pass the message on to the community.
      Allowing members of these three communities free access to the reserve and
       Laguna Blanca would greatly improve relations between the two, as many people
       don’t have the money to pay entry.
      The children really liked running around in the sand and playing in the water.
       Involving children more and introducing children’s days at the reserve would give
       them the opportunity to experience what it has to offer. Along-side some
       environmental education, we could encourage the next generation to take more
       pride in the reserve and protect it.
      All communication with the community should be in Guarani, but with the input
       and support of PLT/RNLB staff. According to local people, members of the
       community are more likely to believe the words of PLT/RNLB staff, but it makes
       no difference if they can’t understand them. For this reason it needs to be a joint
       effort, or new outreach staff need to be contracted who have experience in
       environmental education and understand it’s concepts AND speak Guarani.


Aim - To invite all members of all communities to the reserve in order to strengthen
relations between RNLB/PLT and each community.

The reserve and the role of PLT within it are generally better understood. All participants
now know our names and faces and we have opened the door to better communication.
The results of this aim will be clearer with time.

Aim - To consolidate previous environmental education lessons and build upon existing

Based on the results of the completed questionnaires, this aim was partly fulfilled, where
some people now know the answers to questions they didn’t previously know the
answers to.

Aim - To ensure an understanding of the meaning of the word reserve and its

Some people still seemed not to know what the reserve was when asked during the
questionnaire, but most now seem to know that it means they can’t hunt or cut down
trees, but they can fish.

Aim - To give the community a chance to walk one of the trails in the reserve.

We gave people the option, but not many were interested.

Aim - To complete questionnaires.

This we didn’t do well, however each questionnaire took longer than expected to
complete, with many only willing to carry-out a questionnaire if the questions were
asked in Guarani by Jorge.
                               Report of Workshop 4
                                4th November 2011

The fourth workshop was carried out in two parts. We visited two local primary schools,
one in the morning and one in the afternoon. We also invited Amelio Rodas and Pablo
Amarilla from Fundacion Moises Bertoni, who helped us with planning and took the lead
in presenting the workshops.

Students between 5 and 11 years old and teachers from local primary schools:
San Isidro and San Blas. They were chosen as children from all three of the communities
closest to the reserve, which have been the focus of previous outreach activities, attend
these schools.

~100 students and 3 teachers from San Blas primary school
~70 students and 2 teachers from San Isidro primary school

    To introduce the idea of environmental education in schools.
    To undertake the first PLT workshop in Guarani and compare the participation
     level of the children with that of previous workshops.
    To learn teaching methods and attitudes from FMB which can be used in future
    To present PLT and the forest guards specifically to the children in the
    To learn about using a mascot and experiment with the idea of introducing a
     Laguna Blanca mascot.

             1.  Bienvenido y Introducciones
             2.  Que es una reserva?
             3.  Que es conservacion?
             4.  Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca
                       I. Campo Natural/Cerrado
                      II. Ka’aguy/Bosque
             5. Porque es importante cuidar la reserva?
             6. Y/Agua
             7. Basura/Contaminación
             8. Para La Tierra
             9. Animales y Plantas
             10. Como puedes ayudarnos a conservarlo?
             11. Pinchi
             12. Animal photo slideshow
The workshop was carried out by Amelio Rodas, Pablo Amarilla, Karina Atkinson, Jorge
Ayala and Concepcion Gomez, with the help of volunteer Michael Kempster as Pinchi.
Obseravtions and Outcomes of the Workshop:

   9. We planned well for this workshop the night before, ensuring everyone knew
       what we were going to discuss in the morning and that we all understood the
       concepts which were going to be taught. This made a huge difference and we all
       felt more comfortable in the classroom the following day than we had in previous
       workshops. In previous workshops, the content was written and delivered by one
       person. Everyone being involved in the whole process was effective in building a
       team mentality. Amelio took the role of team leader in this case, but PLT also
       needs a team leader for future environmental education activities.
   10. We used a screen and a projector for the presentation, which the children
       responded well too, being unused to being taught in this way. We found a
       location dark enough and used a white wall to display our presentation.
   11. All the children speak Guarani as their first language, and are also learning some
       Spanish at school. The workshop was presented in Guarani, with occasional
       Spanish when spoken by Karina. The questions in the presentation were written
       in Spanish in order for the children to learn some new words, and then explained
       in Guarani. The children responded well to this mix, answering questions when
   12. In San Blas primary school, the children were difficult to control. They didn’t
       respond well to us telling them where to go, or to sit down and were noisy
       throughout. The teachers seemed to have no control over them, and seemed
       uninterested in helping us with organising the workshop in general. The children
       eventually responded to a whistle. The next time, we will divide the school into
       two groups to help them concentrate more on the presentation.
   13. In San Isidro primary school the children were very well behaved and listened
       well to the presentation. The teachers actively helped us to organise them.
   14. FMB brought with them their mascot from Reserva Natural Tapyta, Pinchi. One of
       the PLT volunteers dressed up as Pinchi, who was introduced to the children as a
       friend of the white-winged nightjar, which is the flagship species of Para La
       Tierra. The white-winged nightjar had called on his friend for help because his
       habitat is in danger and he needed Pinchi to help him to explain to the children
       how they can help save it. The children responded well to this idea and it seemed
       an effective way of getting the message across while leaving them with a good
       memory for the day.

Ideas for the future:

      We would like to continue to collaborate with FMB in environmental education
       and outreach activities. They bring a lot of experience and expertise which we
       learned a lot from, and can now apply to future activities.
      Now that we have some experience in dealing with schools and teachers, we can
       start to explore the idea of expanding our outreach program to other schools
       across Pedro Gimenez.
      We should offer the children from San Blas and San Isidro the opportunity to visit
       the reserve, in order to gain a better understanding of its role and importance.
      PLT now has funding to continue the education outreach program in schools, and
       we plan to make a White-winged Nightjar costume and to introduce it as the
       mascot of Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca.
      PLT needs to contract staff from outside in order to help build an education
       program. We are looking into the possibility of collaboration with schools in
      We plan to begin a pilot project linking Maxwelton primary school in Scotland
       with San Isidro primary school in order to promote global citizenship. The
       children in each school will learn similar theories and complete similar activities.
       They will then be able to communicate with each other about conservation
       through letters and photos. If the pilot project is successful in the first year, we
       can include more schools in the project the following year.


Aim - To introduce the idea of environmental education in schools.

This aim was completed successfully, where all teachers agreed to continue to be
involved in PLT/RNLB’s outreach program.

Aim - To undertake the first PLT workshop in Guarani, and compare the participation
level of the children with that of previous workshops.

Conducting the workshop in the language the children understand best made it much
more successful than the previous ones which had been presented in Spanish. The
children actively participated in the event and were happy to discuss ideas and concepts
which they hadn’t been previously. Future outreach will be undertaken mostly in
Guarani, with some Spanish.

Aim - To learn teaching methods and attitudes from FMB which can be used in future

From start to finish, Amelio and Pablo guided us in planning and presenting the
workshop. We can now incorporate techniques introduced by them into our own work,
including planning methods and tricks to hold the children’s attention.

Aim - To present PLT and the forest guards specifically to the children in the
We wanted the children to recognise the faces and names of those who will be involved
in future outreach programs. This we completed successfully, where each member
involved in the presentation had the chance to present themselves and to talk about
their own opinions about conservation and the reserve.

Aim - To learn about using a mascot and experiment with the idea of introducing a
Laguna Blanca mascot.

After having spoken to the FMB, we have decided to create a RNLB mascot for children,
to be used in future outreach activities. We learned about the logistics of using a
mascot in lessons and some of the pitfalls to avoid.
Appendix 6--solicitation for student research proposals for USFWS project grants

              Becas para investigaciones biológicas de campo
Cuatro becas están disponibles para apoyar la investigación en la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca
(RNLB), Departamento de San Pedro. Estas becas están disponibles gracias a una subvención del
US Fish & Wildlife Service a Texas Tech University, y patrocinados por la Reserva Natural
Laguna Blanca (RNLB) y por Para La Tierra (PLT), una organización no gubernamental creada
para apoyar la investigación biológica y conservación en el Paraguay. En Para La Tierra (PLT)
opera una estación biológica junto con RNLB. Mas información sobre RNLB, PLT y la estación
biológica es proveída en el documento adjunto.

Cada beca patrocinará hasta tres meses de investigación biológica en las residencias de la
Reserva, incluyendo alojamiento y comidas en la estación biológica, acceso a la Reserva,
algunos equipos y provisiones (de acuerdo a la disponibilidad), y guía del Biólogo de Campo
residente. El becario es responsable del viaje a/desde la estación biológica, la mayoría de los
equipos y provisiones necesarios, y algunos gastos incidentales.

Estas becas están dirigidas a apoyar la investigación de los estudiantes graduados o no graduados
avanzados en cualquier área de la biología, en la cual la investigación es esencial. Esto incluye
pero no limita a: investigaciones de trabajos de campo para Tesis sobre temas de: ecología,
poblaciones, conductas o asociaciones de mamíferos, aves, reptiles, anfibios, insectos u otros
invertebrados, además de: plantas, hongos o microbios en general. Dentro de la RNLB se
encuentran una serie de formaciones vegetales que incluyen al: Bosque Atlántico del Alto
Paraná, el Cerrado, Humedales y Hábitats Acuáticos, manteniendo de esta forma un nivel
excepcional de biodiversidad.

La investigación de campo puede ser realizada de una vez, o en varios periodos cortos de tiempo,
como se indica en el plan de investigación. Los trabajos de campo deberán iniciarse antes del 1
de setiembre 2011, y completados para finales del año 2011.

Los estudiantes interesados deben presentar una solicitud y propuesta de investigación a mas
tardar hasta el 15 de febrero de 2011. Las evaluaciones se iniciaran inmediatamente después de
dicha fecha. Se notificará a los solicitantes exitosos lo mas pronto posible, a mas tardar el 15 de
marzo de 2011. Las solicitudes completas deben ser enviadas por email a Dr. Robert Owen
en Las solicitudes incompletas no serán consideradas.
Propuesta de investigación:

Su propuesta debe describir el proyecto de investigación completamente, con detalles
particulares de aspectos de campo que realizará en la RNLB. La propuesta no debe ser de mas de
5 páginas, pero debe incluir suficiente información para que los revisores puedan comprender
exactamente que trabajos se realizarán en la estación biológica, así como de las necesidades de
estos trabajos para el proyecto. Deberá incluir el/los taxa con los que desea trabajar, sus métodos
de campo, los datos que espera colectar, sus métodos de análisis de datos, y los resultados

Calendario de investigación:

Deberá incluir una línea de tiempo que incluya las fechas de inicio y finalización de su
investigación de campo, y los hitos importantes durante dicha investigación. Como se menciona
en la descripción de la beca, puede solicitar trabajar en la Reserva durante mas de un periodo,
hasta un periodo no mayor a tres meses, de manera que todo el trabajo esté finalizado para el fin
del año 2011.

Equipos y provisiones necesarias:

Provea una lista completa de equipos y provisiones que sean necesarios para conducir su
investigación propuesta, e indique que equipo y provisiones ya tiene o puede obtener, y cuales
está solicitando, para que PLT los provea. PLT proveerá cualquier equipo y provisiones que
tenga disponibles, pero una beca no podrá ser otorgada si parece que los equipos o provisiones
esenciales no están disponibles para asegurar el éxito de la investigación. Usted puede consultar
con nuestro Biólogo de Campo referente a los equipos y provisiones disponibles en

Declaración de interés en la publicación de los resultados:

Un objetivo importante de la investigación científica es la publicación en una revista para
revisión por parte de los colegas. Debe indicar la(s) revista(s) en las cuales cree que sus
resultados de la investigación deben ser publicados, y declare claramente su intensión de colectar
datos confiables, conducir análisis apropiados, preparar un manuscrito, y presentar el manuscrito
para publicación.

Carta del consejero de investigación:

Su solicitud debe incluir una carta de su consejero de investigación (tutor de tesis o jefe de
equipo de trabajo). Esta es la persona que supervisará su proyecto de investigación. La carta debe
declarar que el/ella ha leído y aprobado la solicitud completa y propuesta, incluyendo la
descripción del proyecto, línea de tiempo, y lista de los equipos y provisiones necesarias. La
carta también debe declarar que el/ella está de acuerdo en supervisar este proyecto de
investigación, incluyendo análisis de datos y preparación y presentación del manuscrito. Favor
notar que nuestro Biólogo de Campo coordinará en forma necesaria con los consejeros de todos
los becarios, para asegurar el éxito de la investigación patrocinada, y publicación final de los


                             INFORME FINAL

                         Coordinación Técnica
                       Lic. Cristina Morales; MSc.
           Encargada de Cátedra Ecología de Poblaciones y Comunidades
                     Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales
                        Universidad Nacional de Asunción

                         Lic. César Benítez; MSc.
                            Dirección de Investigación
                     Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales
                        Universidad Nacional de Asunción

                         Instructores Invitados
                   Lic. Romina Cardozo – Ornitología
                         Asociación Guyra Paraguay

                   Lic. Carmen Paradeda – Ictiología
                           Asociación Guyra Paraguay

                      Sr. Sergio Ríos – Entomología
                     Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

                                 Enero 2012

El curso se realizó en el marco del contenido curricular de la Cátedra Ecología de Poblaciones y
Comunidades del 7mo Semestre, de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales/ Universidad
Nacional de Asunción. El entrenamiento de campo y la información generada es un requisito
indispensable para acceder al derecho de examen final. El objetivo del curso es proporcionar una
solida base teórica y práctica para que los futuros profesionales del área de biología de la
conservación sean capaces de reconocer problemas, evaluar impactos y proponer soluciones para
diversas cuestiones ambientales.

Esta disciplina tiene como propuesta ofrecer una visión actual de la ecología abriendo nuevas
perspectivas de trabajo para los alumnos de biología. Durante la salida de campo los alumnos reciben
instrucción en metodologías de toma de datos y análisis de comunidades de fauna y flora; con énfasis
en el estudio de comunidades de mariposas, peces, aves y micromamíferos.

Participaron del curso 28 estudiantes de último semestre de la carrera de biología y seis instructores
de FACEN y la Asociación Guyra Paraguay; así como 3 voluntarios de la Fundación Para la Tierra.

Métodología del curso
El curso se realizó en la Reserva Privada Laguna Blanca del 12 al 16 de octubre de 2011; se
estableció un programa de clases teóricas (Tabla 1), prácticas para cada taxón objeto de estudio.
Se formaron cuatro grupos de trabajo que implementaban las metodologías y análisis con un
Las clases estuvieron programadas de manera que el alumno adquiera un conocimiento más
profundo sobre teorías ecológicas y sistemas de interpretación de la biodiversidad. Durante las
clases prácticas se incluyeron metodologías de trabajos de campo para estudio de poblaciones y
comunidades. Para cada taxón se entregó a los alumnos materiales de lectura y se presentaron
casos de estudio.

Contenido del Curso
   I. El cerrado, consideraciones biogeográficas.
   II. Atributos de la Comunidad: Riqueza específica, Equitatividad, Diversidad Específica, Dominancia,
            Abundancia Relativa, Estructura Relativa, Interacción entre especies,
   III. Cálculo de algunos atributos comunitarios,
   IV. Muestreo de comunidades
   V. Determinación de la diversidad y sus componentes.
   VI. Cómo escribir un artículo científico
Tabla 1. Cronograma del trabajo de campo.
                          JUEVES 13 AL SABADO 15 OCTUBRE
  HORARIO         AVES y MARIPOSAS             MAMÍFEROS                 PECES
05:00 - 06: 00 hs                                 Opcional
                     Registro de aves y                                  Opcional
06:00 - 07:00 hs                                  Desayuno
                    mariposas en campo,
07:00 – 08:00 hs      llevar desayuno                                   Desayuno
08:00 – 09:00 hs                            Registro de huellas y
09:00 – 10:00 hs           Receso           heces, utilización de
                                              trampas Sherman     Colecta e identificación
10:00 – 11:00 hs
                   Procesamiento de datos
11:00 – 12:00 hs
12:00 – 14:00 hs         Almuerzo                 Almuerzo              Almuerzo
14: 00 - 15:00 hs   Colocación de redes     Colocación de Redes Procesamiento de muestras
15: 00 - 16:00 hs Registro de aves en redes Registro de huellas y
16:00 - 17:00 hs y observación. Colecta de heces. Utilización de  Colecta e identificación
17:00 - 18:00 hs         Mariposas            trampas Sherman
18:00 - 19:00 hs
                  Procesamiento de datos,                         Procesamiento de datos,
18:00 - 19:00 hs                             Redes Murciélagos
                       Clases Teóricas                                Clases Teóricas
19:00 - 20:00 hs
20:00 - 21:00 hs            Cena                    Cena                   Cena
21:00 - 24:00 hs           Receso            Redes Murciélagos            Receso

                             DOMINGO 16 DE OCTUBRE
06:00 - 07:00 hs Acomodación de equipaje
07:00 - 08:00 hs Desayuno
08:00 - 12:00 hs Regreso a Asunción

El desempeño del alumno fue evaluado mediante la presentación de seminario especial. El
seminario tiene como meta que los alumnos adquieran habilidad para realizar una publicación
científica aplicando los criterios aprendidos en el curso. Los objetivos específicos propuestos
para el trabajo a presentar fueron:
(1) Determinar el área mínima necesaria para estimar la riqueza específica de una comunidad.
(2) Calcular la riqueza específica, la diversidad y la equitatividad de una comunidad.
(3) Construir una curva rango-abundancia para una comunidad.
(4) Evaluar el grado de similitud entre distintas comunidades.
(5) Estimar similitudes y diferencias en los patrones de diversidad de varias comunidades y
explorar las posibles causas.
      31 jóvenes (estudiantes de biología y voluntarios del la Fundación) recibieron entrenamiento en
       metodologías de estudio de campo de comunidades y valoración de la biodiversidad
      97 especies de aves registradas
      20 especies de peces colectados
      34 especies de mariposas documentadas
      6 especies de mamíferos registrados.
      1 Informe en formato publicación sobre la diversidad de peces desarrollado (adjunto)
      1 Informe en formato publicación sobre la diversidad de aves desarrollado (adjunto)
      1 Informe en formato publicación sobre la diversidad de mariposas desarrollado (adjunto)
      Los manejadores de la reserva cuentan con información actualizada sobre los grupos

Se adjuntan los informes realizados y fotografías de la salida de campo.
      Nuestro profundo agradecimiento al Dr. Robert Owen por la oportunidad brindada a los
       estudiantes de la carrera de Biología para desarrollar ensayos de investigación en la Reserva
       Laguna Blanca.
      A la Fundación Para la Tierra, por su apoyo y atenciones recibidas durante nuestra estancia.
      Al IFONA por facilitarnos el traslado.
      A los instructores que participaron en el entrenamiento.
Appendix 8--early opinion survey form, and report of local opinion surveys completed

       Cuestionario Nº:            Fecha:


      . Nombre de la persona
  1.1 entrevistada:

  1.2 Forma de localizarlo:        1.2.1 Direccion:
                                   1.2.2 Telefono:
                                   1.2.3 Email:

  1.3 Edad                         <18


      Categoría de                                         Gran propietario (en
  2.1 propietario:                           a             Has)
                                                           Mediano propietario
                                             b             (Campesino)
                                             c             Indígenas

      Localización de la
  2.2 propiedad (GPS):

      Desde cuando ha
  2.3 vivido en al zona?:

      Desde cuando es
  2.4 propietario/a:

3.1 Conoce Laguna Blanca:

3.2 Con qué frecuencia visita de Laguna Blanca:

    Cuál es su principal razón para visitar Laguna
3.3 Blanca:

    Que es lo que te gusta mas sobre Laguna
3.4 Blanca:

    Que es lo que no te gusta sobre Laguna
3.5 Blanca:

    Sabe usted qué tipos de animales que se
3.6 encuentran en Laguna Blanca?:

3.7 Sabe usted que cerrado/campo natural es?


    Has oído la frase de
4.1 reserva natural?:

    Que crees que
4.2 significa?:
    Cree usted que las reservas naturales son
4.3 una buena idea?

    Cómo cree que le
4.4 afecta?:

    Crees que es importante proteger a los animales y los hábitats en Laguna Blanca
4.5 y por que?:

                               Reports of Surveys Completed

7th February 2011 - Santa Rosa
Target Groups:
Owners of the stalls and salesmen in the bus terminal (campesino)
Family from Santa Barbara living in Loma Pucu (campesino)
Owners of the supermarket in Santa Rosa (land owners)
Owners of other large businesses in Santa Rosa (Brazilian community)
Owners of the other properties surrounding the lake (land owners)
Mennonites – Could not communicate well enough to carry out the questionnaire.

11th February 2011 – Santa Barbara
Target Group:
Members of all families who live on Calle San Fransisco, the road which runs past the front gate
and visitor entrance to the reserve.

9th March 2011 – Santa Barbara
Target Group:
Members of all families who live on Calle San Isido, near to the reserve.
Appendix 9--reports of Evaluation and Planning meetings


                                Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca

Dia 1 (Sabado, 11 Junio )


1. Presentación de participantes

2. Resumen del origen, misión, objetivo y estatus actual de la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca
       (Malvina / Monica)

3. Resumen del origen, misión, objetivo y estatus actual de Para La Tierra (Karina / Paul).

4. Resumen de la donación de USFWS, y su afecto sobre los programas de PLT y RNLB

5. Reporte sobre educación ambiental (RED, FMB, Karina, Jorge, Concepción)

6. Reporte sobre la capacitación de los guardabosques (FMB, Jorge, Concepción)

7. Resultados de la primera encuesta (Karina, Jorge, Concepción)

8. Resultados del primer taller (Karina)

9. Reporte sobre las actividades de los guardaparques (Malvina, Jorge, Concepción)

10. Comentarios de opiniones de los socios y instituciones participantes (FMB, RED, SEAM,
      MNHNP, FACEN)--sus actividades, ideas para el futuro, y observaciones sobre el

11. Discusión

20:00 ASADO

Dia 2 (Domingo)

8:00 Desayuno

9:00-10:30 Caminata por los hábitats y senderos de la Reserva


12. Reporte sobre los estudiantes becarios (Robert, Karina)

13. Mesa redonda--como adelantamos la RNLB como modelo de reserva privada, y como
      avanzamos a PLT como institución investigativa (todos)
14. Comentarios finales--próximos pasos, compromisos, y establecer fecha para la próxima

13:00 Almuerzo.

14:00 Fin de reunión y despedidos

                  Fundación Moises Bertoni (sede central, Asunción)

Hora       Persona(s) o entidad        Presentacion
 9:00                                  Café y bocaditos (proveidos)
                                       Palabras de bienvendios y comentarios sobre el
 9:20     Speranza
 9:30     Owen                         Palabras sobre el orden del reunion
                                       Informes sobre investigaciones de becarios del
                                       Proyecto TTU / USFWS
                                       Calidad de aguas y biotecnologia ambiental con
 9:40     Benitez
                                       microalgas en Laguna Blanca
                                       Ampliacion y actualizacion de los conocimientos
10:00     Cepedes y de Egea            de flora y vegetacion de la Reserva Natural
                                       Laguna Blanca
                                       Diversidad de arañas de la Reserva Natural
10:20     Recalde
                                       Laguna Blanca
10:40     Lopez                        Anfibios de la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca
                                       Caracterizacion espacio temporal de ensamblaje
11:00     Ayala                        de reptiles, asociaciones con formaciones
                                       vegetales y variables climaticas
                                       Sitios prioritarios para la conservacion en
11:20     Benitez
                                       Reserva Laguna Blanca
                                       Curso de evaluacion de la biodiversidad como
11:40     Morales y Benitez            parte practica de la catedra de ecologia de
                                       poblaciones en Rancho Laguna Blanca
                                       Discusion sobre los proyectos de investigacion, y
          RNLB, PLT, FACEN, FMB,
12:00                                  el valor de las investigaciones cientificos en
          GP, BI, becarios, asesores
                                       reservas naturales
12:30                                  Almuerzo (tiempo libre)
                                       Informe sobre intercambios, actividades, y logros
14:00     FMB, PLT, RNLB
                                       de guardabosques
                                       Informe sobre educacion ambiental, talleres de
14:30     PLT
                                       Mesa redonda, sobre el valor de la RNLB, y la
          SEAM, MNHNP, FACEN,
15:00                                  relacion entre la RNLB y las comunidades
          RNLB, PLT, FMB, GP, BI
                                       Informe sobre nuevas propuestas, becas de
15:30     PLT, RNLB
                                       apoyo, y planes de PLT y RNLB
                                       Comentarios y discusion sobre ideas para el
16:00     Todos interesados
                                       futuro, y observaciones sobre el proyecto
17:00                                  Fin de reunion

                         Entidad                   Apellido    Nombre
Texas Tech University                             Owen        Robert
Para La Tierra                                    Atkinson    Karina
                                                  Smith       Paul
Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca                     Duarte      Malvina
                                                  Ayala       Jorge
                                                  Gomez       Concepcion
RED Paraguaya de Conservacion en Tierras
Privadas                                          Macedo      Ana Maria
Fundacion Moises Bertoni                          Speranza    Yan
                                                  Velazquez   Myriam
                                                  Salas       Danilo
Guyra Paraguay                                    Yanosky     Alberto
                                                  Cartes      Pepe
BirdLife International                            Clay        Robert
Secretaria del Ambiente                           Gonzalez    Rafael
                                                  Bauer       Freddy
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay   Valentin    Ma. Teresa
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNA     Franco      Deidy
                                                  Weiler      Andrea
Becarios y consejeros                             Benitez     Cesar
                                                  Owen        Robert
                                                  Morales     Cristina
                                                  Cespedes    Gloria
                                                  De Egea     Juana
                                                  Mereles     Fatima
                                                  Recalde     Fatima
Kochalka   John
Lopez      Johanna
Airaldi    Katia
Ayala      Rodrigo
Perez      Pastor
Appendix 10--Noteworthy faunal records at Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (2010-11)


First Paraguay record of Cabassous unicinctus (armadillo)

Reptiles (snakes)

First Paraguay records of Philodryas nattereri and Rhachidelus brazili

Insects (moths)

First Paraguay records of: Almeidaia aidae and Megaceresa pulchra (Saturniidae), Geyeria
uruguayensis (Castniidae), Manduca leucospila (Sphingidae), Hamadryas laodonia
(Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)

New Paraguay Records of Catharisa cerina (Saturniidae--RNLB is the only known Paraguayan

Insects (Syrphid flies or hoverflies)

Eumerus obliquus--first record for Paraguay

6 species of Ocyptamus-- first records for Paraguay

Trichopsomyia sp.-- first record for Paraguay

3 species of Copestylum-- first records for Paraguay

Myolepta sp.-- first record for Paraguay

Insects (Ulidiid flies or picture-winged flies)

22 species, most probably nearly all of them are new to Paraguay

Insects (Richardiid flies)

Richardia sp.--new to science.
Appendix 11--volunteers, interns, and professionals utilizing the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca

       Name              Country        Stay Type           Dates              Project                       Results
  Matthew Hyde and                                      2nd -26th May                              Produced the first map of the
   Anna Williamson        England       Volunteer x2         2010              Mapping                       reserve
                                                        1st June - 30th
    Allyn Duensing       California      Volunteer       August 2010       Spider Inventory          Collected 200 specimens
  Sophie, Sonam and                                     7th June - 10th
        Meredith          England       Ecotourists       June 2010
                                                        18th June - 20th                        Mark-recapture study of Clyomys
                                                       August 2010, 15th                       laticeps and use of burrow systems
                                                         January - 24th     Cerrado small         in the cerrado. So far we have
   Joseph Sarvary      Masachussettes      Intern          February          mammals                collected 10 months of data
                                                                                                    Drawings of the birds of the
                                                                                                  reserve from live specimens to
 Derek and Rosemary                     Professional   24th June - 20th                             feature in a field guide to be
        Onley           New Zealand        Artist       August 2010           Bird artist           published by Para La Tierra
                                                         8th July - 20th
                                                       August 2010, 28th   Clyomys laitceps,
                                                        December - 15th    habitat study and
    Shane Abinette        Virginia       Volunteer       January 2011       cerrado flowers
                                                                                                     Produced digital map of the
                                                                                                   reserve and a tutorial to teach
  Derek and Victoria    New Zealand                     10th July - 10th                          future volunteers how to use Arc
       Neilson           and China      Volunteer x2        August           GIS mapping                        GIS
                                                        14th July - 18th
         Orla             Sweden         Ecotourist        July 2010
                                                                           Birds and snakes,     Invented his own snake traps.
                                                        17th July - 2nd       student work     Received credit from Bournemouth
    Michael Sears         England        Volunteer     September 2010          placement                   University
     Dr Kim and                                        3rd - 6th August                           Increased inventory of plant
     Colleauges            Korea        Researchers          2010               Botany             species at Laguna Blanca
                                                                                                 Studied relationship of gape width
                                                                                                of 4 species of birds in the cerrado
                                                                                                   and the method the use to eat
 Emma Northcote-                                      8th September -     Birds, student work   endemic fruits, received credit from
     Smith              England         Intern       14th March 2011          placement             the University of Portsmouth
                                                    5th - 7th September
 Robert and Ursula      Germany      Ecotourists            2010
                                                         15th - 19th
   Brian Bishop       USA/Asuncion    Volunteer       September 2010         Photography
                                                     23rd September -
                                                      21st December                                 Studied habitat and range of
  Jonathan Clegg        England         Intern              2011                Snakes               snakes at Laguna Blanca
                                                    10th October - 10th                          Increased inventory of moth and
   Stuart Garner        England       Volunteer       November 2011           Lepidoptera       butterfly species at Laguna Blanca
                                                                                                Studied time budget management,
                                                    26th October - 28th                           comparing Guyra Cuckoos and
    Alex Mead           England         Intern        February 2011              Birds                   Smooth-billed Anis
                                                                                                    Mark and recapture of small
                                                                                                 arboreal mammals comparing 2
                                                     14th November -                             types of forest habitat at Laguna
   Jip Ramakers       Netherlands       Intern      25th February 2011    Arboreal mammals                     Blanca
                                                                                                    Mark and recapture of small
                                                                                                 arboreal mammals comparing 2
                                                     14th November -                             types of forest habitat at Laguna
  Jacob Adebahr         Germany         Intern      25th February 2011     Arboreal mammals                    Blanca
                                                     23rd November -      ArcGIS and Arboreal      Improved map of the reserve,
  Aleisha Keating     New Zealand     Volunteer     6th December 2010          mammals                  adding trap sites etc.
Sophie Richards and    Wales and                     27th November -       Arboreal mammals
Jean-Yves Poujade       France       Volunteer x2   5th December 2010         and snakes             Helped with other projects
                                                                                                 Studied the endoparasites of two
                                                                                                    small mammal species as an
                                                                                                 indicator of environmental fitness
                                                     13th December -      Parasites, masters     comparing burned and unburned
 Joseph Blackman        England         Intern       4th March 2011            project                         habitats
                                                                                                   Increased inventory of the bat
                                                                                                   species of Laguna Blanca and
                                                    22nd December -                              added 2 new species to the Para
  Raphael Kahne         Delaware      Volunteer     3rd February 2011            Bats                    La Tierra museum
                                                                                                    Caught and collected 700 flies
                                                      27th December -                              including one new for Paraguay,
     John Smit        Netherlands     Researcher     4th February 2011            Flies                 common in the cerrado
                                                      28th December -
   Erika Walther       California      Volunteer     15th January 2011            Birds            Burrowing Owl behavioural study
                                                                                                  Comparison of trapping methods of
                                                                                                  small lizards in the cerrado. Work
                                                                                                  placement for credit for Abo
                                                      5th January - 4th   Lizards, student work   Akademi University. Found new
   Anna Kallberg        Finland          Intern          April 2011            placement          species of snake for Paraguay.
 Sean Simeson and                                    20th January - 3rd
Sabrina Brody-Camp      Canada        Volunteer x2     February 2011          Small lizards            Helped with other projects
                                                       3rd Feb - 30th       Water monitorring     Built kit to monitor the water quality
   Richard Hall         England        Volunteer         March 2011         project, parasites               of Laguna Blanca
                                                         11th - 20th
     Loes Smit        Netherlands      Volunteer       February 2011          Small lizards           Helped with other projects
                                                     1st Apr - 30th Apr    Arboreal mammals        Helping with arboreal study and
Aurelien and Sarah       France        Volunteer            2011           and Forest Guards        shadowing the forest guards
                                                      14th May - 22nd                             Helped with mist netting and pitfall
   Pete Hadfield        England        Volunteer            May                   Birds                        trapping
                                                      15th May - 22nd                             Helped with mist netting and pitfall
  Dafna Hirshfield       Israel        Volunteer            May                 Mammals                        trapping
                                                                           Birds, water quality     Bird measurment and set-up of
 Emma Northcote-                                      14th April - 24th     and production of     water quality testing kit. Production
     Smith              England          Intern          June 2011         education materials      of display boards and posters.
                                                      27th May - 23rd       Duet behaviour of     Studied bahaviour of white rumped
 Greg Goodfellow          USA            Intern        August 2011        white-rumped tanagers                tanagers.
                                                      12th June - 10th
 Georgina Snelling      England          Intern          Sept 2011               Plants              Fern distribution and soil type
                                                                                                  Study of small mammal abundance
                                                      13th June - 24th       Help with other         compared with disturbance of
 Claire and Jamie       England       Volunteer x2       July 2011              projects                         habitat.
                                                                                                  Study of small mammal abundance
                                                      16th June - 15th                               compared with disturbance of
   Aimee Oxley          England          Intern           August            Small Mammals                        habitat.
                                                      20th June - 20th    Clyomys laticeps and    Helped with ongoing study of small
    Joe Sarvary      Masachussettes      Intern        August 2011            habitat study            mammals in the cerrado.
                                                    Oct 18th - Nov 16th
   Susie Wood         England        Volunteer             2011                 Flowers                Inventory of plant species.
                                                    Oct 10th - 28th Nov      Helped with all
Michael Kempster      England        Volunteer             2011                projects.
                                                    10th Oct 2011 - 8th                            Intrahabitat study of abundance of
  Becky Graham        England          Intern            Feb 2012           Small Mammals                   2 cerrado species.
                                                                                                    Helped with all projects including
   Aimee Oxley        England        Volunteer      25th Oct - 19th Dec     Small mammals                        museum.
                                                                                                        Identification of museum
                                                      15th Nov - 28th                                  specimens and collection of
  Norman Scott          USA         Researcher             Nov                  Reptiles                 reptiles and amphibians
                                                                                                      Drew the pictures for the PLT
                                                      15th Nov - 28th                               colouring book and painted PLT
    Joan Scott          USA          Volunteer             Nov                Art projects                      house sign.
                                                    23 Nov 2011 - 21
  Gemma Bach          Australia        Intern            Feb 2012                Plants             Plant disease and relationships.
                                                     19th Dec 2011 -
Sabrina and Marion    Germany       Volunteer x 2      2nd Jan 2012       Help with all projects
                                                     4th Jan - 3rd Jun
  Augusta Dorey       England         Assistant            2012             Clyomys laticeps          Assistant on Clyomys study
                                                    4th Jan - 23rd Apr
  Johnny Miller       England        Volunteer             2012            Capuchin Project
                                                     6th Jan - 6th Feb
 Marcela Jimenez      Paraguay       Volunteer             2012               Lepidoptera
                                                    31st Jan - 2nd Apr      Lepidoptera and
Jean-Paul Brouard    South Africa    Volunteer             2012                 reptiles
Appendix 12--manuscripts or theses based on work facilitated or supported by the project,
which have been published, accepted for publication (in press), submitted for publication,
or are nearing submission for publication

Benítez Torres, C. M. 2011. Sitios prioritarios para la conservación en la Reserva Natural
       Laguna Blanca, Departamento de San Pedro, Paraguay. Unpubl. M.S. thesis, Universidad
       Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay.

Cacciali, P., P. Smith, A. Källberg, H. Pheasey, and K. Atkinson. In press. First record of
       Lygophis paucidens Hoge 1952 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Paraguay. Herpetology

Ramakers, J. J. C., J. J. J. L. Adebahr, H. J. Kuipers, R. D. Owen, and M. J. A. Weterrings.
     Vertical stratification and diversity of small non-volant mammals in Atlantic and Dry
     Forest, north-eastern Paraguay. Submitted to Mammalia.

Smith, P., P. Cacciali, K. Atkinson, A. Källberg, and H. Pheasey. 2011. Nuevos registros de
       Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Sauria) en la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca,
       Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay y una clave para las especies Paraguayas. Nótulas
       Faunísticas, Segunda Serie, 81:1-6.

Smith, P., R. D. Owen, K. Atkinson, H. del Castillo, and E. Northcote-Smith. 2011 (publ. 2012).
       First records of the Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo Cabassous unicinctus (Linnaeus,
       1758) (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) in Paraguay. Edentata, 12:53-57.

Smith, P., S. Rios, K. Atkinson, O. Mielke, and M. Casagrande. Almeidaia aidae Mielke &
       Casagrande (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): First record for Paraguay. Submitted to
       Entomological News.

Smith, P., S. Rios, K. Atkinson, O. Mielke, and M. Casagrande. New Paraguayan specimens and
       first confirmed phenological data for Catharisa cerina Jordan 1911 (Lepidoptera:
       Saturniidae). Submitted to Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift.

Smith, P., D. Onley, E. Northcote-Smith, and K. Atkinson. In press. Morphometrics of Cerrado
       birds from Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay. The

Smith, P., N. Scott, P. Cacciali, and K. Atkinson. First records of the Brazilian Bird Snake
       Rhachidelus brazili Boulenger, 1908 (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in Paraguay, with a
       clarification of the correct spelling of the generic name of the species. Nearing
       submission, to South American Journal of Herpetology.

Smith, P., P. Cacciali, K. Atkinson, H. Pheasey, and M. Motte. New records of Anurans for
       Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay (Amphibia: Anura). Nearing submission, to

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