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									     global vehicles

                                          GM Daewoo targets growth
                                          South Korea’s third-largest OEM, General    we are getting more of GM’s engineering
                                          Motors Daewoo Auto & Technology             to Asia.” Yu is also Vice President in
                                          (GM DAT), represents the Korean produc-     charge of GM Daewoo’s Technical Center.
                                          tion base for General Motors and is             Noting the possibility that the number
                                          helping its new parent supply the grow-     of GM engineers in the U.S. would decline
                                          ing automotive market in not only South     gradually, Yu said GM and its Asian units
                                          Korea but also Asia. And after its recent   including GM Daewoo are expected to
                                          acquisition, GM DAT is beginning to work    trade more engineering work in the future
                                          more autonomously for its parent and is     as the two continents develop cars for
                                          becoming a hub of automotive develop-       both regions under GM’s “global architect
                                          ment in the region. To that effect, the     development program.”
                                          automaker said it is benchmarking               Yu said he would take part more
                                          Hyundai and Kia.                            strongly in GM’s Shanghai engineering
                                              “GM Daewoo is working to meet all       operation of the Pan-Asia Technical
                                          requirements such as product develop-       Automotive Center, or PATAC, which is a
                                          ment, marketing, manufacturing and pro-     50-50 joint venture of GM and Shanghai
                                          duction, and external customer satisfac-    Automotive Industry Corp.
                                          tion in South Korea on its own,” said Yu        Because of lower wages in Asian coun-
                                          Ki-Joon, who coordinates GM’s engineer-     tries such as South Korea, China, and
                                          ing operations in Asia. “In other words,    India, Yu said GM’s Asian companies
                                                                                      would take more responsibilities in some
                                                                                      parts such as brackets and heater pipes,
                                                                                      although such important parts as cam-
                                                                                      shafts and pistons still are designed and
                                                                                      released in the U.S. by GM. Along with
                                                                                      Asian engineers taking more corporate
                                                                                      responsibilities, they and North American
                                                                                      engineers are communicating more often
                                                                                      through conference calls and frequent
                                                                                      visits to each other’s operations, Yu said.
                                                                                          Yu said GM Daewoo is taking part in
                                                                                      GM’s development of the redesigned
                                                                                      Saturn Vue, which will be produced in
                                                                                      North America in 2007. GM and Suzuki
                          The Daewoo
                   Statesman features                                                 engineers developed the current Vue for
                    a lightweight, all-                                               North America. Engineers at GM Daewoo
                 aluminum V6 engine                                                   are specifically developing an SUV based
                with double overhead
                   camshafts and four
                                                                                      on GM’s Theta platform, a concept of
                   valves per cylinder.                                               which was shown at the Seoul Motor
                                                                                      Show, for sale in South Korea in 2006.
                                                                                          GM Daewoo officials said the auto-
                                                                                      maker would take more responsibility for
                                                                                      the design of the next-generation Theta
                                                                                      platform under GM’s strategy to give more
                                                                                      engineering responsibility to its Asian units
                                                                                      including GM India, which is producing
                                                                                      GM Daewoo’s Lacetti compact based on
                                                                                      kits from GM Daewoo.
                                                                                          Showing signs that there will be more
                                                                                      engineering cooperation between GM’s
                                                                                      units in Asia, and aided by a fast and
                                                                                      convenient computer communication
                                                                                      system, GM Daewoo is also importing the

8 AUGUST 2005   aei                                                                                           
     global vehicles

                                             have given me complete confidence that        wheelbase gives it a slim, limousine-style
                                             we made the correct choice in making         profile and a spacious cabin. In addition
                                             vehicles here in Korea by GM Daewoo,”        to prestige model cues such as the bright
                                             John G. Middlebrook, GM’s Vice President     chrome accents, GM Daewoo said best-
                                             of Global Sales, Service and Marketing       in-class rear legroom of 1099 mm (43.3
                                             operations, said in Seoul in March. “GM      in) is indicative of the Statesman’s sense
                                             Daewoo’s lineup of affordable, high-qual-    of space.
                                             ity cars gives us a tremendous opportunity       Among the Statesman upgrades for
                                             to grow our business around the world,       Korea are heated front and rear seats for
                                             particularly in the Asia-Pacific region.”     the harshest winter conditions, GM
                                                 “Adding the Statesman to our portfo-     Daewoo said. Other amenities are a fuel
                                             lio completes the GM Daewoo passenger        information (range, economy) display,
                                             car lineup,” said GM Daewoo President        and dual DVD screens in the backs of the
                                             and CEO Nick Reilly. “Our product offer-     Statesman’s front headrests can show
                                             ings now range from mini-cars to large       videos in conjunction with individual
                                             luxury sedans. The Statesman provides us     headphones or the sedan’s 12-speaker
     Yu Ki-Joon, GM’s Asia-Pacific
     Engineering Coordinator, is
                                             an entry into one of the fastest-growing     sound system.
     in charge of overseeing and             segments of the Korean car market.” The          The Statesman’s 3.6-L Alloytec V6 en-
     consolidating the regional              introduction of the Statesman “is an ex-     gine produces 254 hp (189 kW) at 6500
     engineering of GM units in Asia.        cellent demonstration of how GM              rpm and 340 N·m (251 lb·ft) at 2800
                                             Daewoo is leveraging the global resources    rpm, making it the most powerful engine
upgraded Statesman of Holden Ltd.,           of GM to bring new products to the mar-      in its segment in the Korean market. The
GM’s Australian unit, and expects to pro-    ket much faster than we could on our         Statesman will also be offered with a
duce a localized version of that model in    own,” Reilly added.                          2.8-L version of the engine.
coming years.                                    Unlike some of its recently launched         The global V6 family was developed
   “GM Daewoo’s manufacturing and            competitors, the Statesman is a true large   for worldwide application in premium
design facilities, products, and employees   car, Reilly said. A segment-leading long     and high-performance vehicles. The

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                                                                                                                global vehicles

lightweight, all-aluminum, 60° V6 engine       normal mode is supplemented by an ac-          ence of weight from the rear to front axle
features double overhead camshafts and         tive select function that enables the driver   due to braking.
four valves per cylinder. The Alloytec’s       to change gears by a paddle on the steer-          During its three years of development,
cam phasers are continuously variable, an      ing wheel.                                     GM Daewoo said the model underwent
electronically controlled, hydraulically ac-       Like most renowned luxury cars, GM         cold-weather testing in Sweden, hot-
tuated system enabling the camshafts to        Daewoo’s new flagship is rear-wheel             weather testing in the deserts of
rotate relative to the crankshaft. The vary-   drive. This ensures better handling and a      Australia, and altitude testing at Pikes
ing of intake valve timing improves en-        smoother driving experience, along with        Peak in the Colorado. In all, 1.6 million
gine smoothness at idle and optimizes          steering that is freer of any traction influ-   km (1 million mi) of durability testing and
inlet flow dynamics for maximum perfor-         ences than standard front-wheel drive.         a variety of crash tests were carried out to
mance. By closing exhaust valves later         With an automatic leveling suspension,         ensure the Statesman met the highest
than typically the case, the system forces     the Statesman maintains a balanced             levels of quality for safe, trouble-free driv-
the desired amount of exhaust gas back         height regardless of load for an even bet-     ing. In addition, 143 experimental en-
into the combustion chamber for more           ter ride.                                      gines were put through 60 specific tests
complete burning in the next combustion            The Statesman comes with the latest-       and more than 200,000 h of testing, ac-
cycle. In conjunction with its variable in-    generation Bosch ABS, and its ESP stabil-      cording to GM Daewoo.
take manifold, electronic throttle control     ity control features corner brake control          Plans call for the Statesman to offer
(ETC), which eliminates the mechanical         (CBC), which helps maintain optimum            the most extensive VIP warranty and af-
connection between accelerator pedal           vehicle stability through curves and cor-      ter-sales package in the Korean market
and engine, further improves fuel effi-         ners. CBC senses different wheel rotation      among both domestically built and im-
ciency and reduces emissions as well           speeds and coordinates the brakes as           ported cars. Service will be available
as engine vibration and noise. The result      they are applied to the individual wheels.     through GM Daewoo’s nationwide net-
is said to be the best fuel economy            Electronic brake-force distribution (EBD),     work of service centers. The price of the
(8.6 km/L) in the Statesman’s segment.         which also comes standard with ESP,            Statesman will be between KRW 40 mil-
    The Statesman features GM’s latest         transfers brake torque between axles,          lion and 50 million, depending on the
five-speed automatic transmission, also         providing optimized control of rear brake      engine and trim level.
used in Cadillac products. A fuel-efficient     pressure when there is a natural transfer-                                      Peter Chang

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                                                                 Circle 211
     global vehicles

Sonata raises the bar
The mid-size Sonata, the best-selling se-
dan in the Hyundai product line, is now
rolling off the production line at
Hyundai’s all-new manufacturing plant in
Montgomery, AL, in all-new 2006 pro-
duction form. The new car was designed
specifically to meet the needs of the
American consumer and is the product of
three years of intensive collaborative de-
velopment at Hyundai’s global R&D op-
erations, including those in Michigan and
California. Before the engineers started     The Sonata comes with six standard airbags: dual front, front seat-mounted side-impact, and
working on this Sonata, Hyundai began        front and rear passenger side-curtain airbags.
by surveying U.S. consumers in “concept
clinics” held in San Diego, CA, four years       “We are proud of the value equation             The new Sonata comes with six stan-
ago. More than 200 people rated the          we’ve engineered into the all-new                dard airbags (dual front, front-seat-
then-new Sonata against rivals such as       Sonata,” said Bob Cosmai, President and          mounted side-impact, and front and rear
the Toyota Camry, Honda Accord, and          CEO of Hyundai Motor America. The base           passenger side-curtain airbags), standard
Ford Taurus. From that input, the 2006       price for the four-cylinder version starts at    active front head restraints, standard ABS,
Sonata began to take shape.                  $17,895, with the V6 GLS starting at             and for the first time in the midsize sedan
    “We try to make cars from a custom-      $20,895. The top-of-the-range LX version         segment, standard electronic stability
er’s point of view, not from an engi-        has a sticker price of $22,895, and the          control (ESC) with traction control.
neer’s,” said Oh Sung Hwan, Deputy           only option is a higher-power audio pack-        Hyundai Mobis supplies the ESC tech-
General Manager for Production Control       age. The 2.4-L four-cylinder model with          nology in cooperation with Bosch.
at Hyundai. Benchmarking was conduct-        manual transmission is expected to                  “The benefit of electronic stability
ed with the Audi A6 for craftsmanship        achieve 24/34 mpg city/highway. V6 auto-         control in reducing single-vehicle SUV
and the Lexus ES 330 for NVH perfor-         matic models (manuals are not available)         accidents is clear, but our own research
mance.                                       are rated at 20/30 mpg city/highway.             and that done by NHTSA (National

                                                   The new 2006
                                                      Sonata was
                                               designed to meet
                                                the needs of the
                                             American consumer,
                                              and is the product
                                                   of three years
                                                 of collaborative
                                                 development at
                                                Hyundai’s global
                                                 R&D operation.

                                                                      The new 2.4-L G4KC Theta inline four-cylinder engine, standard on the
“We are proud of the value equation we’ve                             Sonata GL and GLS, is manufactured in Korea (shown with Korean-
engineered into the all-new Sonata,” said                             market engine cover).
Bob Cosmai, President and CEO of Hyundai
Motor America.

12 AUGUST 2005   aei                                                                                                   
     global vehicles

The mid-size Sonata’s cabin has 121.7 ft3 (3.45 m3) of total volume, which places it in the government’s “large car” category. The car’s trunk has
16.3 ft3 (0.46 m3) capacity.

Highway Traffic Safety Administration)                  Both engines feature electronic multi-         bar. LX models get 17-in wheels that de-
and IIHS (Insurance Institute for                  port fuel injection, four-jet fuel injectors,      liver a sportier ride character without
Highway Safety) indicate there is also a           and an in-tank fuel pump. Emissions are            changing the suspension tuning.
compelling case for equipping passenger            kept low—all models achieve the ULEV                   The 2006 Sonata is larger than the
cars with this technology,” said John              standard—by a three-way catalyst with              previous version, gaining 2 in (50 mm) in
Krafcik, Vice President of Product                 exhaust gas recirculation.                         length, 2 in (50 mm) in height, and 1 in
Development and Strategic Planning at                  A five-speed M5GF2 manual transmis-             (25 mm) in wheelbase. The new car’s
Hyundai Motor America. Recent NHTSA                sion is standard on Sonata GL models               cabin has 121.7 ft3 (3.45 m3) of total inte-
studies show passenger cars equipped               equipped with the new 2.4-L engine, and            rior volume—a level of spaciousness that
with ESC experience 35% fewer single-              an automatic four-speed F4A42 Shiftronic           places it in the government’s “large car”
vehicle crashes and 30% fewer single-              transmission is optional. V6 Sonata mod-           category. Compared to the previous
vehicle fatalities.                                els are fitted with Hyundai’s all-new five-          Sonata, the new car offers increases in all
    The all-new 2.4-L G4KC Theta inline            speed A5HF1 Shiftronic automatic trans-            categories of legroom, headroom, and
four-cylinder engine, standard on Sonata           mission, which features an overdrive lock-         shoulder room.
GL and Sonata GLS four-cylinder models,            up torque converter to improve fuel                    To improve overall ergonomics, seating
has dual overhead camshafts (DOHC) and             economy at highway speeds.                         comfort, and entry/egress, Sonata’s seat-
is rated at 162 hp (121 kW) and 164 lb·ft              Sonata provides occupants a smooth             ing position height (H-point) has been
(222 N·m). This all-aluminum engine fea-           ride combined with firm handling thanks             increased by 1 in (25 mm). Accessibility
tures a balance shaft for smooth opera-            to four-wheel independent suspension.              and ergonomics are further improved
tion, continuously variable valve timing           The front suspension uses a double wish-           with increased distance between the driv-
(CVVT), durable stainless-steel exhaust            bone design with coil springs and twin-            er and the A-pillar, and more room be-
manifold, and hydraulic motor mounts.              tube gas-filled hydraulic dampers. A front          tween the seat cushion and the headliner.
All four-cylinder engines for the Sonata           antiroll bar on four-cylinder models is                Sonata’s trunk volume has increased
will initially be made in Korea.                   0.98 in (25 mm) in diameter, while on the          16% to 16.3 ft3 (0.46 m3). The design is
    Standard on the Sonata GLS V6 and              V6 models it is increased to 1.02 in               highlighted by an articulating four-bar-
Sonata LX models is a new 3.3-L V6 en-             (26 mm). The L-shaped lower arm design             link hinge mechanism augmented with
gine producing 235 hp (175 kW) and                 is said to reduce vibration while increas-         two assist struts to maximize trunk access
226 lb·ft (306 N·m). This G6DB engine is           ing handling precision. Bushing size has           and ensure that items put in the trunk are
the first member of Hyundai’s new                   been increased to better isolate road im-          not damaged by the trunk-closing hard-
Lambda engine family and has an alumi-             pact and wheel vibration.                          ware.
num cylinder block and cylinder heads,                 The five-link rear suspension features a            Some of the many suppliers on the
DOHC, four valves per cylinder, CVVT,              trailing link, two longitudinal links, and         program are Michelin (tires), Johnson
and a variable intake system. It is fitted to       an upper A-arm. The upper arm has been             Controls (floor consoles and interior
the Sonata front subframe with hydraulic           moved to the lower crossmember to iso-             trim), Lear (seats), PPG Industries
engine mounts for good NVH characteris-            late wheel vibration for improved ride             (glass), and Mando America (brakes,
tics. V6 engines for the North American            quality. The rear suspension also features         steering, and suspension components).
market will be built at Hyundai’s new              twin-tube gas-filled hydraulic dampers                                          David Alexander
manufacturing plant in Montgomery, AL.             and a 0.67-in (17-mm) diameter antiroll
14 AUGUST 2005   aei                                                                                                             
     global vehicles

Consulting nature
The Mercedes-Benz bionic car is a con-              The specialists in Stuttgart took the          and low mass. Transferred to the external
cept vehicle based on a prime example of         boxfish shape and developed it into a              paneling of a car door, this natural con-
engineering in nature. The structure and         wind tunnel model of a realistic car with         struction principle produces a honeycomb
overall shape of the vehicle are based on        a Cd of 0.095, despite flouting some im-           pattern with 40% more rigidity than a
the boxfish, a species that has evolved to        portant principles in automotive aerody-          traditional door design. Configuring the
meet the demands of living in a coral            namics such as scalloping of the sides and        entire body using the SKO method results
reef. The boxfish is streamlined—al-              having a blunt rear end. The driveable            in a mass reduction of about 30% com-
though it may not seem that way at first          concept car that resulted has a Cd of             pared to a typical body, while meeting
look—and agile, with a body that is stiff        0.19, helped by features such as plastic-         stiffness and safety performance targets.
and low in mass. The basic shape is also         shrouded rear wheels, flush-fitting door                The bionic car’s drivetrain features a
well suited to automobile packaging.             handles, and the use of cameras instead           four-cylinder turbocharged diesel mated
   Researchers at DaimlerChrysler ex-            of exterior mirrors.                              to the Autotronic continuously variable
amined the shape of the boxfish in wind              In consultation with bionics experts,          transmission. The 2.0-L engine produces
tunnels and water channels to better un-         DaimlerChrysler researchers developed a           103 kW (138 hp) and 300 N·m
                                                                                                   (221 lb·ft). A particulate filter and selec-
                                                                                                   tive catalytic reduction (SCR) technology
                                                                                                   keep emissions low.
                                                                                                       The SCR system being tested in the
                                                                       The Mercedes-Benz
                                                                       bionic concept car          bionic car benefits from DaimlerChrysler‘s
                                                                       is driven by a four-        experience with commercial vehicles. It
                                                                       cylinder turbocharged       uses an aqueous urea solution called
                                                                       diesel engine mated
                                                                       to the Autotronic           AdBlue that is sprayed into the exhaust
                                                                       continuously variable       system in precisely metered quantities to
                                                                       transmission. A             convert nitrous oxides into harmless nitro-
                                                                       particulate filter and
                                                                                                   gen and water. The AdBlue reservoir is
                                                                       selective catalytic
                                                                       reduction technology        located in the spare wheel well and is
                                                                       keep emissions low.         sufficient for distances corresponding to

DaimlerChrysler engineers used the boxfish
as a basis for the external shape of their new
concept vehicle. The fish evolved to have
self-correcting hydrodynamic stability in the
turbulent currents around coral reefs.
                                                 Based on the “soft kill option” method, the body structure of the Mercedes-Benz bionic car is
derstand its properties. The standard            configured so that material under low loading can be eliminated, while highly stressed areas
“water drop” shape considered the ideal          are reinforced. It is the same principle that governs the growth of bones.
aerodynamic form has a Cd of 0.04 when
exposed to an open flow. An accurate              computer-assisted process for applying            the service interval for a current Mercedes
model of the boxfish shape delivered a            the growth principle used by nature to            diesel car.
Cd of 0.06, with the added revelation            automobile engineering. Based on the                 The Mercedes-Benz bionic car has a
that tiny vortices form along the edges on       SKO (soft kill option) method, body and           top speed of 118 mph (190 km/h), with a
the upper and lower parts of the body            suspension components are configured               0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) time of 7.9 s.
that help to stabilize the fish even in ar-       so that material under low loading can be         Using U.S. Federal Test Procedure FTP-75,
eas of high turbulence. The shape                eliminated, while highly stressed areas are       fuel consumption is approximately
evolved to have self-correcting hydrody-         reinforced. It is the same principle that         70 mpg.
namic stability in the turbulent currents        governs the growth of bones and tree                                          David Alexander
around coral reefs. Under oblique flow,           branches.
the aerodynamic side force is only about             The hexagonal scales of the boxfish
35% of the value of an average car.              have also evolved to deliver high strength

16 AUGUST 2005   aei                                                                                                         

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