Rapid Assessment of Existing Social, Economic and Biological Conditions
within the Zone d’Interet Cynégétique de Falemé and Recommendations for
USDA Forest Service International Programs Technical Support to USAID/Sénégal
and the Wula Nafaa Projec
Mission Dates: February 19 – March 3, 2006
Final Report: April 2006
Cover Photo: The assessment team used illustrated books of African wildlife to prompt discussion about hunting
practices, occupied habitat, and to discuss perceived trends in populations and habitat. (Dufour)
Jill A. Dufour Warren G. Montague Susan Gannon
Regional Environmental Wildlife Biologist (Contractor)
Coordinator USDA Forest Service International Resource Group
USDA Forest Service Ouachita National Forest Dakar, Sénégal
Pacific Northwest Region Waldron, Arkansas 72958 + (221) 832-33-55
Portland, Oregon, 97208 (479) 637-4174 firstname.lastname@example.org
(503) 808 -2276 email@example.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Rapid Assessment Method……………………………………..……………………………….......8
Rapid Assessment Findings………………………………………………………………………..10
APPENDIX A – Workshop agenda and transcribed notes (verbatim) for the ZIC workshop,
Kédougou, Sénégal .March 1, 2006……………………………………………………………….24
APPENDIX B – Community profiles of villages that were interviewed by the team using rapid
APPENDIX C – Game species harvest information for the ZIC………………………………….30
APPENDIX D – Summary of anecdotal information from interviewed villages where presence of
chimpanzees, warthogs, or lions was mentioned…………………………………………………..31
APPENDIX E – Scope of Work…………………………………………………………………...32
APPENDIX F – List of Acronyms………………………………………………………………...35
An interdisciplinary team conducted a field evaluation to assist the Wula Nafaa Project and the
Government of Sénégal with an assessment of the 1.3 million ha comprising the Zone d’Interet
Cynégétique de la Falemé (ZIC) in southeastern Sénégal. There were two primary objectives of
the evaluation. The first was to provide an overview of existing forest conditions, of the status of
wildlife resources and their utilization, and of community socioeconomic conditions. This was
accomplished utilizing a rapid assessment protocol to interview residents of villages within the
ZIC. The second objective was to participate in a planning workshop attended by all governmental
and non-governmental agencies and organizations, and businesses having a potential interest in the
future of the ZIC. The intent of the workshop was to discuss the status of the ZIC and to develop a
strategic plan to ensure its conservation.
Rapid assessment findings are reported and are also addressed with specific recommendations.
The workshop provided detailed findings of the team’s field assessments for the following
Bio-physical and technical
Workshop participants then made recommendations for the development of an action plan, and
identified partners responsible for the implementation of the action plan.
Key findings of the assessment team included:
The Decentralization Law and management objectives for the ZIC are not universally
understood, nor are ZIC boundaries clearly identified on-the-ground. Issues of
communication, governance, and revenue-sharing (especially as it relates to such
multiple use activities as hunting, cotton production, and gold mining), prevent local
villages from sharing fully in the potential benefits of sustainable forest management.
There are significant opportunities to implement land management plans, which could
stop the decline of populations of at-risk wildlife species (e.g. chimpanzees, Derby
eland), and the degradation of their habitat as a result of deforestation by means of
poorly timed human-caused wildfires, and agricultural expansion.
Resource extraction (such as gold and iron mining) and agricultural activities (such as
cotton production) present both economic opportunities and environmental concerns.
These multiple uses could involve important partners to improve infrastructure and
village services (e.g. wells, roads, health facilities, schools, employment).
Implementation of the ZIC objectives will continue to be hindered by inadequate
staffing required to communicate, enforce, and conduct day to day routine resource
management activities like poaching control, fire management, and boundary/sign
Key recommendations of the assessment team included:
Adding small game (upland bird) hunting to the ZIC, which would yield an additional
revenue stream to the local villages
Prioritizing poaching enforcement activities
Preparing and implementing a fire management plan, which should consider systems
for planned ignitions at landscape scales and authorize periods when local residents can
burn in the early season.
Considering investment in a long-term wildlife census effort in partnership with
Niokola Koba National Park and Zone Amodiée personnel using a variety of survey
methods applicable to species of concern
Promoting investment in village water sources, which will ease the shortages and
reduce human/wildlife conflicts
Promoting partnerships between the communities and the mining and agriculture-based
companies to address infrastructure and other needs. This should include a transparent
revenue allocation process for development funds
Establishing clear guidelines for benefit sharing between the hunting camp managers
and the local communities and formalizing in a contract the precise actions to be
undertaken by the camp managers at the village level.
Establishing governance and communication practices that are transparent and inclusive
of village residents.
Reviewing all of the laws and policies established to date for the ZIC (including the
sub-regional plans, ZIC legislation, and the Decentralization Law) and developing
options to resolve conflicts.
Developing and implementing a communication strategy that fosters collaboration
between the various levels of government and the publics which have an interest in the
This report presents the findings of a U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (U.S.F.S.)
mission to assist the Wula Nafaa Project and the Government of Sénégal (GOS) with the Zone
d’Intérêts Cynégétiquel de la Falemé (ZIC). This is the product of the second mission in a
continuing series of technical assistance trips. On this mission, a two-member USFS team traveled
to the ZIC to accomplish the following objectives:
OBJECTIVE I: Complete Rapid Assessment of Existing Conditions
Collaboratively with Le Département des Eaux et Forets, the Direction des Eaux, Forets, Chasse et
Conservation des Sols (DEFCCS) and the Wulaa Nafaa Project, complete a rapid assessment of the
ZIC using participatory methods in a sample of communities. This “quick look” will provide an
overview of the existing condition of wildlife, forest condition (including agricultural
encroachment), and community socioeconomic conditions.
OBJECTIVE II: Report to Strategic Planning Workshop
Following this exercise, the team will participate in a strategic planning workshop. The workshop
will include all the main actors interested in the ZIC: CSE, EROS, USAID, USFS, IUCN,
DEFCCS and others including the private sector such as the Australian gold mine company. The
objective of the workshop will be to discuss the present situation of the ZIC of Falemé and
develop a strategic plan to ensure its conservation. The workshop will develop an action plan to
define the studies and resource inventories to be carried out over a period of one year that will lead
to the development of a resource management plan.
Source: USFS Sénégal Mission Statement of Work, 2006
The Study Area
The Zone d’Intérêts Cynégétique de la Falemé (ZIC) was legislated by the GOS as a natural
wildlife area (law 72-11-70, dated 29-09-72 and modified by law 78-506, dated 15-06-78) The
ZIC is comprised of 1,336,000 hectares (3,301,315 acres) in southeastern Sénégal and borders
the countries of Mali and Guinea (Fig. 1). It is intended to provide additional habitat for the
wildlife populations in Niokola Koba National Park by acting as a habitat “buffer zone” between
the park and surrounding areas that are experiencing agricultural development (Baidy Ba, personal
communication 2006). The area is recognized as an area of national conservation priority and
importance by the GOS (Baidy Ba, personal communication 2006), and is critical to the
persistence of a number of small village communities within and adjacent to its border. It is
administered by the DEFCCS.
Fig.1. Vicinity map of Sénégal and the Tambacounda Region in the southeastern corner of the
country. The arrow denotes the general vicinity of the ZIC.
The ZIC is located entirely within the Falemé and Gambia River drainages. Average annual
rainfall is 1,000 mm per year. Ponds and other small standing water sources persist for
approximately nine to ten months of the year. Average annual temperatures vary from 25 degrees
C in January to 34 degrees C in April. There are localized escarpments with some steep relief in
places, and the area is rich in mineral resources (DEFCCS 2006)
Within and adjacent to the ZIC, the people have the right to pursue the following resource-based
Firewood collection, and
Collection of wild fruits and medicinal plants.
Fig. 2. Map of the ZIC showing major villages and the Falemé River forming the eastern
boundary with Mali. (Disregard shaded area and bold interior line.)
Recent Habitat Trends
Interpretation of aerial photographs taken in 2004 (USGS/Wulaa Nafaa 2004) indicated that at that
time much of the area was intact. The photographs also showed evidence of deforestation from
expansion of agricultural activities into the ZIC. Anecdotal information regarding wildlife
populations (safari operators, village interviews collected during this assessment, 2006) indicates
that a number of big game species have completely disappeared (elephants, giraffes) and other big
game appear to be seriously declining (antelopes, buffalo). No current ground-based field
inventory existed until this rapid assessment was completed due to a lack of a simple wildlife
Hunting in the ZIC
Resource management policy for the ZIC directs for the conservation and exploitation of large
game. Wildlife fauna represents an economic, cultural, educational and scientific resource to the
people of Sénégal and the ZIC region. A few of the villages visited in this assessment also used
wildlife species as a source of meat or in the conduct of rituals. Many of the villagers noted in the
interviews that they did not eat hunted meat. Only meat that is slaughtered in keeping with Islamic
law (“halaal”) is permitted, and hunted meat does not comply. This is confirmed by data collected
by Marks (2004/5) from households in the Tambacounda region that suggest that few local
residents consume meat hunted from the surrounding forests.
The ZIC includes nine State-owned camps where management is conferred to large game
hunter/managers following a protocol which stipulates ecosystem protection and is administered
through an annual harvest plan (Davidson 2005). Recent hunting quotas (authorized and actual
“take”) have not been achieved (Appendix C).
II. RAPID ASSESSMENT METHOD
The team developed the rapid assessment protocol summarized below to interview residents of
villages within the ZIC for the purpose of collecting faunal and socioeconomic information in the
short time allotted for the mission. Using the rapid assessment, the team was able to collect
anecdotal information regarding species presence, absence, and population trend which could then
be compared against species lists from big game harvest and Niokola Koba National Park
inventories. In this way, a quick assessment of the existing condition of the study area could be
Communities throughout the ZIC were selected by the DEFCCS. A multi-disciplinary and
multiagency team composed of USDA Forest Service (Montague/Wildlife Biologist,
Dufour/Forest Planner/Biologist); representatives from the DEFCCS, the Wula Nafaa Project and a
private contractor (Gannon, socioeconomic assessment) traversed the ZIC visiting the sample
communities and hunting camps (Table 1).
Table 1. Summary of the travel itinerary of the rapid assessment team, including the
communities/hunting camps that were visited.
Date Location Activity
19/02/06 Dakar USFS arrival in Sénégal
20/02/06 Dakar - Tambacounda Administrative meetings DEFCCS, USAID, USFS
21/02/06 Tambacounda - Kédougou Travel to Kédougou
22/02/06 Dalafing, Dimboli Field interviews (overnight @ Kédougou)
23/02/06 Missirah, Saenssoutou Field interviews (overnight @ Kédougou)
24/02/06 Moussala Field interviews (overnight @ Gareboureya)
25/02/06 Garebouréya Field interviews (overnight @ Kédougou)
26/02/06 Kayan, Sabodalla Field interviews (overnight @ Kayan)
27/02/06 Kanoumery Field interviews (overnight @ Kédougou)
28/02/06 Kédougou Preparation for workshop
01/03/06 Kédougou Workshop
02/03/06 Kédougou - Tambacounda Return travel & mission report prep.
03/03/06 Tambacounda - Dakar Return travel & mission report prep.
04/03/06 Dakar USFS depart Sénégal
In almost all cases1, the team applied a purposive rapid assessment method which is summarized
2) Introduction to the President of the Rural Councils for the area.
3) Travel to the village site (including drive-through assessment of forest conditions along the
4) Introductions to village representatives, including the village chief and other members.
5) Statement of the objectives of the meeting by the Mission Leader (with emphasis on intent
to learn from the community and gather information in a non-judgemental manner).
6) Community leaders were requested to draw a map on the ground (in sand or with charcoal)
Agricultural lands and crops
Livestock grazing areas
Major geographic features (notably rivers and ponds), and
Other communities in the area
In addition, the map was then used to show any other information that was important to
them, including wildlife distribution patterns, hunting information, and other observations
7) Meetings were held with village representatives to gather socioeconomic information.
These discussions included:
Crops, livestock, forest products and changes over time
village size/growth trend
After the first two village visits, the team adjusted the methodology to include a collaborative mapping exercise
(described above) to facilitate communication with the communities. The first two villages were surveyed using only
III. RAPID ASSESSMENT FINDINGS
Rapid assessment findings are summarized below as Major Findings (a synthesis of the primary
concerns that emerged from field visits) followed by more detailed presentations of Biophysical
and Technical, Socioeconomic, and Legal/Administrative Findings, and with respective
The Decentralization Law and the objectives for management of the ZIC are not
universally understood. Villagers did not know the significance of the ZIC land
allocation, and those interviewed had different perceptions of the objectives for land
management within the area.
There are significant opportunities to establish land management plans to protect or
restore remaining migratory corridors for between the ZIC and Niokolo Koba National
Park, and within the ZIC itself, to stop the decline of populations and degradation of
habitat of at-risk species (e.g.chimpanzees, migratory ungulates).
Issues of communication, governance, and revenue-sharing prevent local villages from
sharing fully in the potential benefits of sustainable forest management, including
Deforestation of the ZIC through human-caused wildfires and agricultural expansion
along the Falemé (primarily for cotton) are fragmenting forests and threatening the
viability of wildlife populations. Elephants and giraffe are no longer present in the
ecosystem and large ungulates, like buffalo and antelope are in decline (field
Protected land allocations, like the ZIC, do not have well-defined “on the ground”
boundaries. Lack of knowledge of location prevents execution of land management
direction by local residents.
Gold mining operations in the ZIC, including the large Sabodala operation, present
possible opportunities and issues. They could become important partners to improve
infrastructure and provide critical village services (e.g. wells, roads, health facilities,
schools, employment). They also are a source of environmental concern for the ZIC,
contributing to deforestation, fragmentation, and possible environmental contamination
if there is no long-term commitment to reclamation and containment of the pollutants.
The Government of Sénégal is currently reviewing and revising the laws pertaining to
hunting. This presents an important opportunity to shift more hunting revenues to
improve the infrastructure and well-being of local villages in the ZIC; thereby allowing
them to see increased benefits from the forest (in keeping with the intent of Wula
Staffing shortages present a significant barrier to successful implementation of the ZIC
objectives. All aspects of management are hampered by inadequate staffing to
communicate, enforce, and conduct day to day routine resource management activities
like fire control, boundary/sign maintenance, and patrols. At the time of this
assessment, two foresters were assigned to over 1.3 million hectares.
ii. Biophysical and Technical
The following issues pertaining to the biophysical environment emerged from field visits to the
ZIC by the team:
The ZIC is experiencing deforestation due to wood cutting and human-caused bushfires.
Interviews with villagers indicated that wood removal is primarily for the purposes of agricultural
land clearing, fuel, and building materials. Bushfires are set by livestock owners in the villages
and nomadic herders to increase forage production for cattle, sheep, and goats. There appears to
be considerable impacts from escaped fires from agricultural clearing, since once the trees are cut
and brush is piled, the fields are burned. Annual brush clearing and burning on agricultural fields
often takes place just before the onset of the rains (April/May), when the forest is very dry and
fires become extremely hot.
Fig. 3. Bushfires set by livestock
herders during the dry season often kill
larger trees, contributing to
The cumulative effects of deforestation over time and space are resulting in:
fragmentation of habitat for wildlife species,
increasing conflict between nomadic livestock herders and village herders for forage and
a strong perception in almost all of the villages interviewed that the species richness of
large game species is decreasing.
These trends are confirmed by declining diversity in big game harvest statistics (Appendix C).
Properly applied, prescribed fire could be a valuable tool to improve forage for wildlife and
domestic livestock. It could also be used to protect villages from damaging wildland fire.
Decreasing habitat is contributing to increased conflict between humans and wildlife. All of the
villages noted that crop consumption by wildlife species is a major issue in the ZIC; particularly
warthog and francolin. Villagers all told of predator attacks on domestic animals; specifically,
lions and hyenas are reported to kill cattle, sheep and goats, while caracals reportedly were taking
chickens. Wildlife damage agricultural crops in all of the villages (warthogs dig up groundnuts,
hippos trample rice and vegetable plots, and wild birds eat newly planted seeds and young cereal
plants). Chimpanzees have made substantial behavioral changes (long night migrations and
changing their home territories to avoid riparian gallery forests and stay in caves) to avoid water
sources near villages. Residents of Dimboli noted conflicts between people seeking water in the
area south of Dimboli (just outside the boundary of the ZIC) and the chimpanzees.
Fig. 4. Villagers throughout the ZIC
frequently complained that large predators,
including lions, were taking animals from
their herds. The team visited this recent lion
kill (a steer) near the village of Dalifing.
An important piece of anecdotal information that was noted by the DEFCCS (personal
communication, 2006) was that there may be large mammal species in the ZIC that use a migratory
corridor extending from Niokolo Koba National Park (NKNP) into and through the ZIC,
approximately from Kamoumeri to Barabiry, Dalafing, and then to Madina Baffe. No documented
research, specific to the ZIC, could be found to verify these claims for any of the big game species
listed in Appendix C. However, it is not unusual for long distance seasonal movements to occur
with some African wildlife species.
Two “at risk” wildlife species deserve special consideration. Derby eland were mentioned in
several village meetings as having only recently disappeared from the ZIC. Recent sightings of
this species were not reported from any village visited. The team received anecdotal information
that a remnant population still exists at NKNP, but was not able to verify that claim. It is a species
which could have exhibited migratory behavior between NKNP and the ZIC. If a source
population of the species does in fact still exist in NKNP, the ZIC could become a very important
habitat in any attempt to rebuild that population.
Chimpanzee populations were reported to exist near 4 of the villages visited (see Appendix D).
Numbers of this species are reported to be in steep decline. Chimpanzees are very sensitive to
conflicts with humans around water sources (Janice Carter, personal communication 2006), to
disturbance by poachers (Tutin and Fernandez, 1984), or even by unregulated tourism.
Populations of chimps in Sénégal , which rely on remnant patches of gallery forest, have been
observed to move long distances between bedding, feeding, and watering areas (J. Carter, personal
Hunting Issues in the ZIC
Declining big game harvest numbers and populations, especially buffalo, kob, reedbuck, and roan
antelope, have prompted discussion of three hunting-related topics in the ZIC:
Whether hunting should be permitted (and which species),
Whether there is a need to decentralize resource management and increase revenue sharing,
Wildlife inventory and census needs.
Hunting and the income that it generates has potential to contribute revenue to local communities
and the conservation and management of the ZIC. Poaching patrols, population inventories, water
developments, and prescribed burning to improve forage production could benefit from a well-
managed hunting program with a governance system that emphasizes returns to local communities.
Fire Management in the ZIC
An excellent discussion of fire as an ecological force in the ZIC region of southeastern Sénégal
was included in Marks’ report of 2004/2005 (pp 87-92), so that discussion will not be repeated
here. What should be emphasized is the fact that fire does have the potential to play a major
beneficial role in the overall management of the ZIC, and that fire’s potential to influence the lives
of the human and wild inhabitants of the zone is without equal. Improved resource management of
a massive area the size of the ZIC will, out of necessity, require the application of a relatively
inexpensive tool on a landscape scale. Prudent use of prescribed fire is that tool.
The predominant occurrence of wildfires in the ZIC tends to be during the extremes of the dry
season, when damage to the soils and vegetation are most severe. For this reason the fire
management strategy in the zone should be one of pre-emption. That is, scarce fire suppression
resources should be focused away from suppression activities and towards planned ignitions at
landscape scales as soon after the rainy season as is possible. Emphasis should also be placed on
prescribed burning in close proximity to villages and hunting camps where most wildland fires
tend to originate. Such a strategy would put fire on the land in a more appropriate season and in
places where wildfires now originate most frequently. This would have the beneficial effect of
creating a fuel load mosaic less prone to burning or reburning during the dry season. Such early
season prescribed burning activities could be coordinated and implemented by the same Eaux et
Forets personnel assigned to conduct wildlife inventory and anti-poaching activities later in the dry
One legal aspect of this fire issue, which could help to shift the occurrence of intentional burning
away from late dry season fires to early season fires, would be to provide a lawful means for the
local population to conduct early season burns, while continuing to restrict late season burns. This
might help frame the debate about fire use in a way that distinguishes “good” fires from potentially
“bad” fires in the eyes of the general public.
Mining in the ZIC
Two major gold mining operations (Sabodala and Rand Gold) and one iron mining operation
(between Moussala and Gareboureya) exist within the ZIC. Also, some villages (e.g. Saenssoutou)
have their own gold mining businesses. Each of these operations has environmental impacts that
have consequences for wildlife, water quality, and human health. Each of these operations also
presents an economic opportunity for employment and infrastructure development. The rapid
assessment team did not conduct an impact assessment of these mining operations other than
cursory site visits.
Temporarily suspend large game hunting in the ZIC (i.e. buffalo, kob, reedbuck, and roan
antelope) and add small game (upland bird) hunting opportunities. Small game hunting
would provide an opportunity for villages to generate revenue.
Prioritize poaching enforcement activities (due to limited DEFCCS resources) to increase
patrols during the dry season. Enforcement officers should emphasize known water
sources and occupied hunting camps in their field visits.
Collect, interpret, and report on regular (annual if money is available) low-level aerial
photograph overviews of the ZIC to more accurately assess trends in vegetation condition.
Interpretation should be focused on key vegetation types that provide habitat for at-risk
Verify and map key migratory corridors between the ZIC and adjacent lands that provide
habitats for species at risk (particularly chimpanzees and migratory large game species).
Develop a comprehensive management plan for the ZIC that includes provisions to protect
key migratory corridors from fragmentation and restores chimpanzee habitats (migatory
corridors and riparian gallery forests in and adjacent to occupied habitat).
Review the subregional plans to determine opportunities to protect key migratory corridors.
Include a fire management plan as part of the comprehensive plan in item (a) that meets
forage needs for residential and transitory domestic livestock, and wildlife species.
Explore livestock management techniques that increase herding/guarding and better forage
Continue to collect and maintain the excellent records (DEFCCS, personal communication)
of game harvest in the ZIC.
Consider investing in a long-term wildlife census effort where Niokola Koba National
Park, DEFCCS, and Zone Amodiee personnel work in partnership to coordinate and
implement inventories. ZIC and National Park officials are knowledgeable about census
methods, and could implement their choice of a variety of survey methods which would be
applicable to the species of concern in the ZIC (e.g. line transect analysis (Lannoy et al.,
2003), strip census (Hirst, 1969), King method (Leopold, 1933), kilometric index (Vincent
et al., 1991 and Maillard et al., 2001)).
Promote investment in village water sources (borehole wells), which will ease the shortages
and reduce competition between wildlife (particularly chimpanzees) and humans.
In general, the villages that the team visited were isolated. Isolation has contributed to poor
communication regarding the purpose of the ZIC. Isolation has also made these communities low
in the national priorities for investment in community infrastructure (such as health facilities,
schools, roads, wells, etc.).
Changes are occurring in the villages’ agricultural economy. Specifically, villages are devoting
more resources to cotton and less to groundnuts (a reduction in groundnut production of 47% from
2000 over 2005) and have slightly increased the area cultivated (about 10%) in maize, sorghum
and rice, while fonio has increased by approximately 60% from 2000 to 2005 (Direction Regional
de Developpement Rural, Kédougou, February 2006). Land clearing for agricultural purposes
seems to be greater in the area near the Falemé River than in the north and western parts of the
ZIC. Cotton cultivation requires more acreage than groundnuts, and anecdotal information
suggests that 16,000 hectares have been cleared in the ZIC for cotton fields in the last four years.
Although there are hunting camps operating throughout the ZIC, the local populations receive few
economic benefits from them. There are few villagers employed in the camps and no formal
protocol for benefit sharing. Currently, contributions to local communities from these hunting
camps are inconsistent and depend on the good will of the camp managers. The contributions that
were noted in interviews with the villages were relatively small and would likely represent only a
small fraction of the net income for the hunting camps. For example, in Mousala Mahinamina,
villagers noted that they had received small amounts of school supplies (Dufour field notes 2006).
In surveys of households throughout the Tambacounda region, Marks (2004/5) noted that the large
majority of village residents had no knowledge of how business was conducted in the leased
hunting zones and could not express an opinion regarding whether or not they agreed or disagreed
with how revenues were managed from those businesses.
Fig. 5. A hunting party returns to the camp with a warthog near the village of Dalafing.
Initiate a discussion with SODEFITEX on increasing the productivity of existing cotton
fields (to reduce the need for short rotations and increased areas under cultivation).
Propose the cultivation of organic cotton in the ZIC.
Diversify revenue to decrease the current dependence on cotton and groundnuts by
promoting forest product exploitation (Karaya gum) and improved marketing of alternative
crops such as fonio.
Encourage the use of organic matter (manure, composting) to improve soil fertility for all
crops to reduce the risk of polluting water sources with chemical fertilizers.
Under the existing system of agreements between the GOS/EF and the camp managers,
encourage managers to increase their contributions to improving the surrounding
communities through such projects as well development, improved roads, health
Promote partnerships between the communities and the mining companies for
infrastructure and other needs. This should include a transparent revenue allocation
process for development funds from Sabodala Mining.
Establish clear guidelines for benefit sharing between the hunting camp managers and the
local communities and formalize in a contract the precise actions to be undertaken by the
camp managers at the village level. Establish governance and communication practices
that are transparent and inclusive of village residents.
Encourage livestock herding and guarding in the dry season.
Fire management specialists (and soil scientists familiar with fire effects on ZIC soil types)
could design a prescribed fire plan for the ZIC. Such a plan should consider systems for
planned ignitions at landscape scales as soon after the rainy season as is possible.
Consider authorizing periods when local residents can burn in the early season.
Provide information to communities on their rights and responsibilities.
Consider conferring ownership of the camps to the Rural Councils.
Fig. 5. Cotton being harvested within the ZIC.
The most significant finding made by the team regarding the legal and administrative existing
condition in the ZIC is that none of the villages know about the legal status and land management
objectives of the ZIC. There appears to be a contradiction between the Decentralization Law
(which mandates local participation in land management decisions) and the statute that established
the ZIC. This has resulted in the following issues:
Lack of ownership in subregional land management planning decisions (Conventions
Locales) by the local populations.
Lack of a land use management perspective in the subregional plans.
Lack of mutual understanding between the Waters & Forests Service and the rural
communities regarding decisions made in the subregional plans.
Legal status of the ZIC (1972) is out of date with laws of decentralization (1996), new
forestry code (1998), and the revised hunting code (not yet legally adopted).
Review all of the laws and policies established to date for the ZIC (including the
subregional plans, ZIC legislation, and Decentralization Law) and develop options to
resolve conflicts (if they exist).
Develop and implement a communication strategy that fosters collaboration between the
various levels of government and population with interest in the ZIC.
V. ZIC WORKSHOP
The second objective for the mission was accomplished when a workshop was held for all of the
major parties involved in the ZIC on March 1, 2006 in Kédougou, Tambacounda Region. The
workshop objectives were stated as follows:
Kédougou Workshop Objectives (March 1, 2006)
1. Present the detailed findings of the team’s field assessments of the following
conditions in the ZIC:
Bio-physical and technical; and,
2. Make recommendations for the development of an action plan; and,
3. Identify partners responsible for the development and implementation of the action
Fig. 6. Participants in the Kédougou workshop, March 1, 2006.
A detailed agenda and transcribed notes from the workshop are included in Appendix A.
The meeting was well-facilitated and well attended by all of the major parties, and resulted in the
following consensus recommendations from all in attendance:
Workshop Recommendations (Consensus):
1. Raise awareness of the general population about future management plans for the ZIC.
2. Delimit development zones (agricultural and residential) and decide the area for the
3. Encourage the use of organic matter to increase soil fertility.
4. Open a dialogue with SODEFITEX about intensification of cotton culture and options for
growing organic cotton;
5. Encourage private investment in the ZIC.
6. Encourage hunting camp managers to invest in local communities.
7. Develop maps of the ZIC.
8. Restore wildlife habitat.
9. Consider opening the ZIC to small game hunting (birds).
10. Dig wells in settlement areas to reduce the competition with wildlife for scarce water
11. Involve the population in the planning process.
12. Bring the mining companies into partnership with the Rural Councils.
13. Develop a communication strategy to relay messages about actions taken to the population
and to decision makers.
14. Return the Night Tax from the camps to the Rural Councils.
15. Organize traditional mining and train miners in the safe and proper use of chemicals.
16. Include bush fire management in the formulation of Local Conventions.
17. Inform the decentralized technical services of the agreements between the mining
companies and the government.
18. Strengthen logistical and human resources for the decentralized technical services.
All parties in attendance at the workshop agreed on the following “Next Steps”:
NEXT STEPS ACTORS/PARTNERS
1. Finalize and disseminate workshop Wula Nafaa
results (2 weeks) USFS
2. Establish a DEFCCS monitoring MEPN/DEFCCS
committee for the development of an IUCN
action plan (May 2006) Wula Nafaa
Representatives of Rural Councils
Agence Régional de Développement
Anderson, Jon et al. 2002. Nature, wealth and power; emerging best practice for revitalizing
rural Africa. IRG.
Bosch, M. N. Dieng and O. Dia. 1990. Plan d’action forestier du Sénégal: consultation en
matiere de ressources fauniques. UNFAO Project SEN/89/002. 56 p.
Davidson, A. 2005. Evaluation of the potential for Wula Nafaa to support tourism in the
Tambacounda Region, Sénégal. USAID Publication. Sénégal Tourism Report #41. 42p.
DEFCCS 2006. Report to the ZIC workshop, March 1, 2006. Kédougou, Sénégal.
Hirst, S.M. 1969. Road-strip census techniques for wild ungulates in African woodlands. J.
Wildl. Manage. 33, 40-48.
Lannoy, L., N. Gaidet, P. Chardonnet, and M. Fanguinoveny. 2003. Abundance estimates of
duikers through direct counts in a rain forest, Gabon. Afr. J. Ecol. 41, 108-110.
Leopold, A. 1933. Game Management. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.
Maillard, D., C. Calenge, T. Jacobs, J.M. Gaillard, & L. Merlot. 2001. The kilometric index
as a monitoring tool for populations of large terrestrial animals: a feasibility test in Zakouma
National Park, Chad. Afr. J. Ecol. 39, 306-309.
Marks, M. 2004/2005. Système de Suivi, Evaluation, Restitution et Analyse : Analyse des
questionnaires de Ménages Dans la Région de Tambacounda.
Republic du Sénégal. 2001. Bilan de la campagne Cynégétiquel 2000-2001. Ministere la
Jeunesse, de l’Environnment et l’Hygiene Publique. Direction des Eaux, Forets, Chasses et de
la Conservation des Sols. Dakar.
Republic du Sénégal. 2003. Bilan de la campagne Cynégétiquel 2002-2003. Ministere de
l’Environnment et de l’Assainissement. Direction des Eaux, Forets, Chasses et de la
Conservation des Sols. Dakar.
Tutin, C.E.G., & M. Fernandez. 1984. Nation-wide census of gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and
chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) in Gabon. Am. J. Primatol. 6, 313-336.
Vincent, J.P., J.M. Gaillard, & E. Bideau. 1991. Kilometric index as biological indicator for
monitoring forest roe deer populations. Acta Theriol. 36, 315-328.
APPENDIX A:Workshop agenda and transcribed notes (verbatim)
for the Zone d’Interet Cynégétiquel de Falemé Workshop,
Kédougou, Sénégal. Mar. 1, 2006.
I. WORKSHOP AGENDA
Welcome from the COP/Wula Nafaa
Welcome from the DEFCCS representative
Official Opening by the Prefet;
Objectives of the Workshop and Agenda
Presentation and Discussion of the Mission Results
Socio-economic Characteristics; and,
Legislative and Administrative Characteristics
Identification of Partners for the Development and Implementation of the Action Plan
II. GENERAL PUBLIC QUESTIONS/COMMENTS (Regarding the ZIC):
1. Does the ZIC have a reason for being?
2. What means should be used to stop the degradation of the ZIC?
3. Evolution context – evolve toward another legal status for the ZIC; go to a new
management plan which defines the modalities of area use;
4. Study the impact of the mining companies and restitute the findings back to the population;
5. The IREF is not aware of the agreement between the mining companies and government;
6. Develop a communication strategy to inform decision makers (deputies, etc) about
activities in the ZIC;
7. Review the status of the ZIC and adapt it to the current decentralization laws;
8. Proceed quickly toward the development of a ZIC management plan;
9. Produce a multi-date (?) map to have a clearer vision of the biophysical characteristics of
10. The population of the ZIC is not aware of the constraints linked to the status of the ZIC;
11. There were no observations of the potential of the ZIC (?);
12. How can the management of fauna be included in the land use management plan?
III. PUBLIC COMMENTS ON LEGAL/ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS OF THE ZIC:
Take into consideration the land use management in the local conventions;
Evaluation the existing local conventions;
The terms of the hunting agreements between the government and the camp managers are not
given to the Rural Councils;
There is no standard agreement in the ZIC (as compared the leased zones), but rather protocols;
The hunting law is not consistent with the decentralization laws;
The co-management option is irreversible;
The Local conventions must have a larger vision;
Article 2 U provides for leasing in the ZIC, with the Regional Councils having the power to
The ZIC needs an adaptive approach to development;
Must involve the population and the private sector in discussions of the ZIC’s future;
Develop a management plan for the ZIC, but do not suspend large game hunting.
IV. PUBLIC COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE
BIOPHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE ZIC:
Biophysical Observations Recommendations
There is no management plan for the ZIC Develop a management plan
It is a zone for transhumance Raise awareness and elaborate local
conventions, organize a forum to
Mining companies are exploring and Involve the various ministries concerned
setting up exploitation sites
There is traditional gold mining Study the environmental impact
There are bush fires Organize traditional gold mining and
provide training in the use of chemicals
Raise awareness of fire and take fires into
Land clearing account in the local conventions
Initiate a framework for discussion with
Poaching SODEFITEX and others intervening in
Raise awareness among the population of
Insufficient technical staff the need to fight against the circulation
of light arms
Permeable borders Establish more border control posts
Increase logistical and human resources in
Lack of communication infrastructure the ZIC
Lack of information flow Install communication infrastructure
Regression and threats to numbers of large Suspend large game hunting until a
faun (disappearance of elephants, management plan is developed
girafe, Elan de Derby, bubales, Cob de
Fassa, Cob de Buffon, Cob Redunca,
Lack of a land use map Delimit the ZIC
Put up signs marking the ZIC
APPENDIX B: Community profiles of villages that were interviewed
by the team using rapid assessment protocol.
Dalafing is approximately 7 km from Saraya. The economy of the village is agriculturally based,
with cotton as the main source of agricultural revenue, followed by groundnuts. In addition,
community members derive income from various forest products, such as bamboo, tamarind,
baobab and kaba. The women also have a small vegetable garden. There is a small hunting camp
that is open from January through April. The camp has a well and the surrounding population is
allowed to use it. In addition, the camp manager provides material assistance to the school by
donating text books, notebooks and pens. The camp manager has also provided transportation for
medical evacuations to Saraya.
When asked to describe the wildlife resources present in the area, the village chief said there were
lions, which had recently killed four cows on the outskirts of the village, kob, buffalo and
bushbuck. He also described how in the past there were far more animals, including several types
The team held a meeting with approximately 10 women and 10 men from the community, which is
located approximately 30 km from Kédougou, on the southern border of the ZIC. Until recently,
the village has been relatively isolated due to bad road conditions. However, the main road from
Kédougou has been repaired and access to Dimboli is now much easier.
It was very clear that the residents of the area are not aware of the ZIC classification but they do
know that they live in a hunting area. They described how hunters kill mostly warthogs and
francolins in the area surrounding the village. The villagers complained that various wild animals
kill their domestic livestock. In particular, they mentioned lions, panthers and hyenas as the most
dangerous for their animals. They also said that in the past year, the hyenas were particularly
numerous and posed threats to the livestock, estimating that approximately 10% of their animals
were lost to wild animals this year. They also believe that baboons and warthogs are killing sheep
and goats in the area. They explained that the domestic animals must leave the habitation area to
find water, and this increases their vulnerability to the wild animals.
The village members listed 15 different species of wild birds and several other types of animals,
including chimps, antelope, duikers, and rabbits.
Missirah is home to a hunting camp, and is situated approximately 30 km north of Saraya. The
community derives its livelihood from a diverse agricultural base, where cotton is the main income
generating crop. Cotton is a relatively new crop in the area (introduced in 2001) and has replaced
groundnuts as the most important economic crop. Farmers estimated that they allocate about five
times more area to cotton cultivation that they do to groundnuts because cotton is easier to sell.
Community members also grow groundnuts, rice, millet, sorghum, fonio, maize, cassava, beans
and sweet potatoes. In addition to groundnuts and rice, women raise tomatoes, onions and other
vegetable crops. The community also benefits from the collection and sale of various forest
products, such as tamarind, locust bean, kaba and baobab fruit.
While community members listed many wildlife species present in their surrounding forests, they
were also quick to point out that such resources have greatly diminished over the last 20 years.
The farmers also complained about damage to crops from wildlife, in particular warthogs, and said
that lions kill domestic animals.
This village is located on the banks of the Falemé. The economy of the village is based on fishing,
agriculture and artisinal gold mining. Residents complain that the water levels were much higher
in the past and there were more fish and wild animals, including hippos and large lizards. There
are still hippos today and they are considered pests in the riverside garden areas. Farmers grow
groundnuts, maize and fonio as their major cash crops and a wide variety of vegetables.
There is a small hunting camp here but there were no hunters in it when the mission passed by.
The community members could not list any benefits received from the camp manager expect a few
jobs for young men as trackers. The community members were also unaware of the ZIC
designation and what it meant for their community.
The discussion in this village ended prematurely, when the death of a child in an adjacent village
was announced to those in attendance.
This small village is located on the bank of the Falemé River, where shallow water and a flat
rocky river bottom allow for easy passage by vehicles between Sénégal and Mali, less than 100
meters across the river. There is a police post and a three-class school in the town but no other
government infrastructure. The economy is based on agriculture, with, groundnuts, millet, cotton,
sorghum, fonio, maize, sesame, beans, cassava, squash, bissap and a large variety of vegetable
crops grown along the river. In terms of economic importance, millet farmers met considered the
number one crop, followed by cotton and groundnuts. According to those present at the meeting,
most products are marketed across the river in Mali.
The community also uses and sells various forest products, such as shea nuts and butter, bamboo,
kaba, tamarind, baobab fruit among others. Community members met by the mission explained
that there were many more wild animals in the past than are found today due to poaching by
Malians, who can easily cross the river virtually unseen. They also complained that the river water
is more polluted today and attributed this the fertilizer and pesticide use as well as a dam
downstream, which they believe leads to a certain amount of backwash of polluted water. While
the only dam on the Falemé is about 70 km downstream from Moussala and therefore not likely to
be impacting on water quality, the perception of the community members is that their main water
source is less abundant and increasingly polluted.
The hunting camp was not occupied at the time of this mission (Feb. 2006), but they did have
several hunters this year. Community members met described how the camp does provide a few
jobs for youth, such as trackers and cleaning jobs. The camp manager provides small contributions
to the school, such as notebooks and pens, and gave prayer mats to the village elders this year. In
addition, the manager donates medicine (quantity and relevance are not known) and has also
provided emergency transportation to community members.
Garaboureya is a large village located on the Falem. In terms of infrastructure, it has a three-class
school. This village appeared to be more organized than the previous ones visited and residents
talked frequently about their commercial and social relationships with Mali, including for health
services. As in the other communities on the Falemé, the economy is agriculturally based with
marketing of produce in both Mali and Sénégal . The main crops grown are cotton, groundnuts,
millet, maize, beans, cassava and rice.
During the discussion, community members described nine distinct ecological zones within their
territory and then listed the various resources and activities within each zone. The discussion
participants listed many resources still present in their forests, including antelopes, jackals and
lions. The river is reported to have hippos and crocodiles. Community members are keenly aware
of the degradation taking place in the forests and the effects this is having on wildlife. They
explained that part of the problem is due to the expansion of the settlement area, with an average of
two new households per year moving in and requiring land for agricultural purposes. They believe
that this new land clearing is contributing to more fires and fire damage. They also described how
hunting large game, and the need for clear areas to see the game leads to the use of fire to clear
large tracts of land. They also listed herding as another source of degradation to the wildlife
habitats because the tree cutting and burning that they claim the herders do when passing through
There is a hunting camp situated right on the Falemé that appeared well kept. There were no
hunters present when the mission passed, but there had been groups of hunters there this year. The
camp manager has provided various donations, including sports (soccer) shirts for the children, and
at least five young people from the village are employed there. However, community members
stated that due to the decreasing size of the forest, there are fewer animals to hunt. They also listed
increased competition with other hunting camps as a problem in attracting hunters to Garaboureya.
Kanyan is located on the western border of the ZIC approximately 30 km north of the Sabodala
mining operation and 45 km east of Mako. The community is predominantly Fulani but there are
also Mandinkas. There is a school attended by 80 children (three classes) but no health
The village economy is based on agriculture and livestock production. There are several wells in
the community and numerous water sources surrounding the village, which facilitates the keeping
of livestock and also vegetable gardening in the dry season. In terms of cash crop production,
maize is ranked as the most important, followed by cotton, groundnuts, rice, millet, onions and
pumpkin. Cassava is also grown as are a variety of vegetables, including lettuce, tomatoes, carrots,
okra, bitter tomato and hot pepper.
As in all of the other communities visited, community members described a reduction in all
resources such as water, forest cover and animal populations. They attributed this to drought,
especially the large droughts of the mid 70's and mid 80's. They believe that the general
environment has never recovered from those traumatic shocks. Community members also
mentioned that current fires are a problem, but explained how they are not in favor of any kind of
early burning because their animals feed on the crop residue left in their fields, which are only
burned right before the rains arrive in May.
The mission also heard that a lion reportedly attacked and killed a cow approximately nine km
from the village in early February. The attacks by lions and hyenas are not common but they do
occur. Once again, villagers stated how the degradation of the forest resources meant that wild
animals were more frequent in the settlement areas and how domestic animals were falling prey to
the wild animals.
There is a hunting camp in the village and there were at least 10 hunters staying in the camp when
the team visited. The hunters were hunting mostly warthogs and francolin, which were reported to
be abundant in the areas near the village, and which are considered pests. The camp employs two
women as cleaners and 10 young men as trackers and guides. The camp manager provides books
and pens to school children, medicine to the village and has provided emergency transportation to
community members. He has also contributed to fixing the bore hole well.
Kanoumery is located on the western border of the ZIC north of Mako, in the CR of
Tomboronkoto. The village is predominantly Fulani, with only four non-Fulani families living
there. The community members derive their livelihoods from a mix of farming and livestock
production. There is a bore hole well in the village which is used for community owned livestock
and nomadic herders alike.
In terms of crops grown, the community members met described growing millet, groundnuts,
maize, rice, beans and assorted vegetables. In previous years, cotton was the most important
economic crop, but it was not grown in the village this year due to a misunderstanding with
SODEFITEX. They are hoping to resume cotton production next year, under Fair Trade
In terms of wildlife, community members listed numerous species still present in the surrounding
forests. They claimed that lions and hyenas were pests, and that a lion had killed a cow in early
February, and that lions claimed the lives of at least five cows in the previous year. The
community also complained about damage from birds, such as francolins, which consume cereal
seeds and young plants.
This village is located in close proximity to a Rand Gold exploration site. To date, Rand Gold has
provided US$900 to the community health hut and has donated books for the school. The presence
of the gold exploration has meant the community is beginning to expand, as people move in to find
work with the mining company, which is putting additional pressure on the land and increasing
land clearing for agriculture and settlement. This was evident to the mission while driving just
outside the village, where fires were burning across newly cleared agricultural land. The
community members attributed the increased number of fires in the area and the noise from
exploration activities as the main reasons for the decrease in wild life in their area.
APPENDIX C: Game Species Harvest Information for the ZIC (# of animals taken per calendar
year). (English/French species common names.)
Species (E/F) 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 ** 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Bubal 4 7 0 0 7 5 3 0 3 0 1 0 2 1 6 1 0
Buffalo/Buffle 7 7 9 12 14 6 2 4 4 4 (3) 1 0 0 (2) 4 0 0 0
Roan Antelope 8 7 13 12 12 5 3 5 9 6 (7) 4 3 7 4 3 6 4
Waterbuck / 4 3 2 0 1 2 1 1 5 * * * * * * * *
Oribi / Ourebi 3 2 3 1 2 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 2 1 2 0 0
Bushbuck / 5 1 5 5 0 2 4 2 7 4 (5) 2 3 6 6 4 4 1
Duiker / 7 3 1 5 9 2 1 0 5 4 3 3 7 4 5 3 5
Kob / Cobe de 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 * * * * * * * *
Reedbuck / 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0
Lion / Lion 0 6 0 0 1 1 4 0 0 0 (2) 2 0 (2) 0 0 0 0 0
* No data because hunting licenses are no longer issued for these species. Data for ‘81-‘89 from Bosch, (1990); data for ’98-’03 from
Republic du Sénégal (2001, 2003); (#) indicates unexplained discrepancy between ’01 and ‘03 report data and is the harvest number reported
in the 2001 report. Data for ’04-’05 from Secteur Department of Kedouguou (personal communication 2006).
** No harvest data available 1990-97.
APPENDIX D: Summary of anecdotal information from interviewed villages where presence of chimpanzees, warthogs, or lions
was mentioned. (Note: The fact that populations of a given species are not indicated for a given village does not necessarily mean that
the species is not present in that area, only that it was not mentioned by the villagers during the interview.)
Village / Campement Date of Chimp populations Warthog damage Lion populations reported
Name visit reported reported
Dalafing 22/02/06 Y (observed lion kill of cow)
Dimboli 22/02/06 Y Y Y (#1 livestock predator)
Missirah 23/02/06 Y Y Y
Gareboureya 25/02/06 Y
Kayan 26/02/06 Y Y Y
Kamoumeri 27/02/06 Y Y
Scope of Work
USDA Forest Service International Programs Technical Support to USAID/ Sénégal and
the Wula-Nafaa Project
Assessments and Recommendations Exercise for Wildlife Management (Zone d’Interet
Cynégétiquel or ZIC of Falemé)
USAID/ Sénégal has funded the AG/NRM program, locally known as “Wula Nafaa” (WN),
for a period of five years to achieve an ambitious set of results related to improved natural
resource management. The innovative approach employed by WN recognizes inherent
synergies between resource management (Nature), economic benefits (Wealth) and the need
for enabling policies and laws (Power). One of the areas of focus of the AG/NRM program is
community-based natural forest management whereby the program aspires to develop
management plans for 6 forests in three regions covering thousands of hectares. WN will
achieve this goal by facilitating the adoption of formal agreements for forest resource use
between the Sénégal ese Forest Service (SFS) and local community-based organizations.
Under these agreements, the communities will work jointly with the SFS to implement legally-
recognized forest management plans to maintain the ecological integrity of the forest and
provide increased economic benefits to local communities and private companies involved in
To facilitate this process, USFS has entered into a one-year interagency agreement with
USAID/ Sénégal to provide short-term technical assistance in support to the Government of
Sénégal through the International Resource Group (IRG), USAID’s lead program
implementer. The USFS participation in WN will address selected issues that are critical to
achieving the overall program objective. The issues identified include wildlife management,
forest co-management and collaborating with forest service in neighboring countries to
understand best practices in forest co-management thru a study-tour. This first mission will
assess problems associated with wildlife management in the Zone d’Interet Cynégétiquel in the
southeastern part of Sénégal.
Wildlife Management (Zone d’Interet Cynégétiquel or ZIC of Falemé):
The ZIC of Falemé is a natural wildlife area covering over a million hectares in southeastern
Sénégal acting as a buffer zone to the Niokolo Koba National Park. The photomosaic of the
area composed by USGS in 2004 for Wula Nafaa shows that the area is still more or less intact;
however, there is evidence of deforestation resulting from the recent expansion of agriculture.
Although verbal reports suggest that the wildlife of the ZIC is still rich, a proper inventory has
not been carried out nor has a management plan been developed. However, before any of the
stakeholders invest in a management plan, there must be a long-term vision and strategy on the
sustainability of the zone and an assurance that the partners are prepared to implement such a
plan. In this context, the USFS will work with in-country Sénégal ese partners to assess the
current management structure of the ZIC, its impact on local communities and wildlife
populations, and propose alternatives that would improve wildlife conservation, local resource
management and the wealth of communities living in the ZIC. This will inform the
development of a simplified, adaptive management plan for ZIC.
Additionally, in areas immediately adjacent to the ZIC there are several hunting concessions.
A new concession is being considered within the ZIC itself. There is no simple wildlife
inventory methodology available, nor the capacity to carry out such inventories. USFS will
work with local partners, including the Forestry Department, to develop a methodology for
wildlife inventories that are cost effective. Ideally, such inventories could be carried out by
the communities involved with a minimum of technical assistance and monitoring by the
The objective of this technical assistance is to assess the current management structure of the
ZIC, its impact on local communities and wildlife populations, and propose alternatives that
would improve wildlife conservation, local resource management and the wealth of
communities living in the ZIC. In addition, the team will propose a methodology for wildlife
inventories within the area that considers management objectives and cost containment.
The team will visit the ZIC of Falemé and in collaboration with the Direction of Wildlife,
conduct a rapid assessment of the ZIC using rapid participatory tools in a random sample of
communities. Along with participatory tools, aerial photos and satellite images will be used for
the identification of critical areas and perhaps facilitate the analyses and estimation of wildlife
populations within ZIC. The team will assess the level of communities’ knowledge of the ZIC
and their perception on the advantages and disadvantages of the zone to their community. The
team will make inquires among the communities about wildlife populations in the area
including relative abundance of the years.
The USFS technical assistant team will prepare and implement a one-day working session
with key partners interested in the development of the ZIC. Partners will include government
officials, representatives from conservation NGOs, and private sector representatives in the
tourism and hunting industries as well as major investors in the area. The main actors
currently interested in the ZIC include: Center the Suivi (CSE) Earth Resource Observation
Satellite (EROS), USAID, USFS, World Conservation Union (IUCN), Direction des Eaux et
Forêts, Chasee et Conservation des Sols (DEFCCS) and local gold mining companies. The
objective of the workshop will be to discuss the present situation of the ZIC of Falemé and
develop a strategic plan to ensure its conservation. The workshop will develop an action plan
to define the studies and resource inventories to be carried out over a period of one year that
will eventually lead to the development of a resource management plan.
Composition of USFS Team
Two USFS employees:
A Protected Area Management Planner
A Wildlife Biologist
Report on the rapid appraisal including an analysis of the biological and socio-economic status
of the area, along with recommendations to improve the management of the zone. The report
will include the results of the one-day workshop and include an action plan of the partners for
the next year that will lead to the development of a strategic resource plan for the zone.
All costs incurred during this detail will be covered by the US Forest Service International
Programs, except ground transportation in Sénégal and workshop costs, which will be funded
All logistics will be coordinated by the USFS/IP Africa Program Specialist and the IRG/
APPENDIX F: List of Acronyms
ARD Agence Régional de Développement
CSE Centre de Suivi Ecologique
DEFCCS Direction des Eaux, Forets, Chasse et Conservation des Sols
EF Eaux et Forets
EROS Earth Resources Observation Satellite
GOS Government of Sénégal
IRG International Resources Group
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MEPN Ministère de l’Environement et de la Protection de Nature
NKNP Niokolo Koba National Park
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
USFS United States Forest Service
USGS United States Geological Service
ZIC Zone d’intérêts Cynégétiquel (de la Falémé)