UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING WORKPLACE VIOLENCE by ewghwehws

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									UNDERSTANDING AND
PREVENTING VIOLENCE
     at UC Davis

     Beth Cohen, Academic & Staff Assistance Program
Emil Rodolfa, Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS)
          Jeanne Wilson, Student Judicial Affairs
           Matt Carmichael, UC Davis Police Dept


                                                             1
What is our goal?


   UC Davis Violence Prevention Systems
   Threatening/Disruptive Behaviors
   Campus Safety Strategies
   When and How to Access Campus VP
    Systems

                                           2
Can We Predict
  Violence?



      ?
                 3
Violence Prevention
at UC Davis

   Staff & Faculty Crisis Response Team

   Student Crisis Response Team

   UC Davis Police

                                           4
Staff and Faculty
Crisis Response Team
   Police
    – 754-1230 or 911
   Academic and Staff Assistance Program (ASAP)
    – 752-2727
   Employee & Labor Relations
    – 754-8892
   Employee Health/Worker’s Comp
    – 757-3262
   Faculty Relations
    – 752-0963
   Other University resources (i.e., Legal Counsel)

                                                       5
Student Crisis Response Team

   Student Judicial Affairs (SJA)
     – 752-1128         sja@ucdavis.edu
   Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS)
     – 752-0872
   UC Davis Police
     – 752-3278 or 754-1230 or 911
   Student Housing
     – 752-1736
   Other University resources (i.e., Legal Counsel, ASAP,
    Student Disability Center, Campus Violence Prevention)
                                                       6
Student Crisis Response Team
Established in 1992, the Student Crisis Response Team
(SCRT) combines the expertise of several campus units
to manage crisis situations involving students. Contact
the Team if you have concerns about a student who
 – Appears to pose a threat to him/herself or to
   others;
 – Makes implicit or explicit threats of harm
 – Engages in disruptive, bizarre, or bullying
   behavior
 – Otherwise causes you concern for his/her welfare
   or that of others
                                                     7
UC Davis Policies

PPM 290-09 II Definitions


   "Workplace violence," as used in this
    section, includes both violence and
    disruptive or threatening acts that can lead
    to violence.

   Zero Tolerance
                                                   8
Warning Signs that
Increase or Decrease Risk
   Threatening/Disruptive/Violent Behavior
   Substance Abuse
   Irrational Behavior/Paranoia
   Fascination/Owns Weapons/Violence History
   Situational Factors (personal & professional)
   Emotional Instability
   Defiance/Demands/Intimidation
   Threats to harm self, other, or property
   Others express FEAR and CONCERN
                                                9
Other Prohibited Behavior

Includes:
   Bullying
   Threats or obscene phone calls
   Harassment of any nature
   Following someone/stalking
   Swearing/shouting at someone


                                     10
Counseling and Psychological
Services (CAPS)
   LOCATION
     –   2nd Floor-North Hall
   WEBSITE
    www.caps.ucdavis.edu/resources/staff/index.htm
   COUNSELING SERVICES
     – Crisis Assessment & Intervention
     – Individual and Group Counseling
   WORKSHOPS & PROGRAMS
   CONSULTATION
   STAFFING
   ELIGIBILITY
   CONFIDENTIALITY

                                                     11
College Student Stressors:
ACHA UC Davis Survey

Random Sample, survey, 836 respondents
Affected Academic Performance
   Cold/flu             38.2%
   Stress               36.6%
   Sleep                29.2%
   Internet/computer    25.5%
   Concern for friend   24.0%
   Relationship         18.4%
   Depression/Anxiety   16.1%
                                         12
                             0
                             5
                            10
                            15
                            20
                            25
                            30
                            35
                            40
                            45
      Co Anx
          nt        ie
     In      ro        ty
       ti       l
         m Em
           at          ot
               e
                  R
                    el
                       at
       Sa Sc
          d/ ho
             D         o
       Se       ep l
          ns re
             e         s
                of s
                    Se
                        l
               Fa f
        Ad         m
            ju        ily
                                      UC Davis Student




               st
                  m
                     en
               Ca t
          G        re
           ri
              ef er
                  /L
                     os
                        s
                                      Mental Health: CAPS Data



                            Student




13
 College
 Student
 Challenges
Three basic questions:                     Three basic activities:
    Who am I?                                       Study
    Who will I be with?                             Socialize
    What am I going to do?                          Sleep




                                                 Self
Cognitive Triad = Negative/distorted feelings
about self
about environment
about the future


                         Environment                                 Future
                                                                       14
                                      A Word about Suicide
                                      Problem-solving, Manipulative, Impulsive

   8
   7
   6
   5
   4                                                                                                                  TOTAL
   3                                                                                                                  Davis

   2
   1
   0
          2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
NOTE: These data represent suicides as determined by the coroner and reported to UC officials. They do not
reflect attempted suicides, deaths not specifically confirmed as suicide by the coroner, or suicides of individuals
who were not registered at UC at the time of their death. Ref: UC Student Mental Health Report, September 2006           15
A Word about Danger to Others

1966 -- University of Texas


2007 -- Virginia Tech

                                           Anxiety
                                              Fear
                                          Caution
                                       Frustration
                              Attempt to see signs
                                   No real profile
                                    Tell someone
                                                     16
Emergencies

Clear and Imminent Danger
  •   Notify UC Davis Police - on campus call 911
  •   Stay Calm
  •   Know you and the student are not alone
  •   Notify supervisor
  •   Can Consult with CAPS if Needed
  •   UC Davis Student Affairs Crisis Team will discuss
      as appropriate

                                                      17
Emergencies
(continued)

Ambiguous or Unclear Danger (cry for help)
  Discuss with Supervisor/Department Chair/Dean
  Contact CAPS to consult and develop a plan to
   intervene
    •   Assist faculty/staff to discuss the concern with the student
    •   Plan for future contact with the student
    •   Involve other campus units (residence life, judicial affairs)
    •   Initiate a welfare check on the student
    •   Contact the student directly to conduct an assessment
  Call police (campus or city)
  Call Community Mental Health After Hours Crisis Line
  Wait until 8 a.m. and contact CAPS
                                                                        18
Tips for Responding to
Distressed or Distressing Students

   Pay attention to what you see
   Initiate contact
   Listen objectively
   Offer support and assistance
   Help problem solve
   Clarify your role
   Know your limits
   Refer when needed
                                     19
Tips for Responding to Distressed or
Distressing Students (continued)

Offer Support and Assistance
 Among the most important helping tools are interest, concern,
  and attentive listening
 Avoid criticism or judgmental comments
 Summarize the essence of what the student has told you as a
  way to clarify the situation
 Encourage positive action by helping the student define the
  problem and generate coping strategies
 Suggest other resources that the student has: friends, family
  clergy, or professionals on campus

                                                                  20
Tips for Responding to Distressed or
Distressing Students (continued)

Help Develop Support Systems

 Inquire about friends/contact friends
 Regular contact daily if needed
 Help the student get active
 Attach them to things to live for
 Referral for medicine/therapy

                                          21
 Tips for Responding to Distressed or
 Distressing Students (continued)

Solving Problems

 Listen to total communication and point out positives
 Reflect feelings first before problem solving
 Point out masteries/coping skills
 Focus on motivation and assess alternatives (what other way
  can you.....)
 Make a plan to work on problem
 Make a plan to relieve difficult times (nights/when alone)
 Offer hope
                                                               22
Responding to Students Who Act Out

   Breathe
   Don’t ignore the situation
   Set Limits - don’t get distracted
   Focus on the student’s behavior; don’t press for
    explanations for their behavior
   Don’t respond to personal attacks
   Don’t get into an argument or shouting match.
   Don’t touch the student
   Listen, respond to student’s feelings focusing on behavior
   Reduce stimulation: but stay and feel safe
   Be direct, honest, genuine
   Problem solve if appropriate
   Balance student needs with class needs
   Offer hope
                                                                 23
Tips for Writing in the Margins
(When Students Self-Disclose)

Responding to comments
 Use reflective statements: That must have been difficult
 Don’t just focus on the assignment: Good organization of ideas
 Open the door to discussing: How can you gain control? See
  me
 Suggest resources
 Know your limits


A General Framework:
 Assume Nothing: Ask Questions
   – What would you like me to do with this information
 Don’t Keep It a Secret
 Keep Professional Distance and Set Limits
 Make a Contract for Academic Work: Clarify responsibilities
                                                                24
     Signs that Suggest Referral
     May Be Warranted

 You feel responsible for the student
 You feel pressure to solve their problem
 You are over-extending yourself to help the student
 You see a behavioral pattern in your interactions with
  the student
 The problems a student brings to you are more than
  you can handle
 You feel anxious when the student approaches you
                                                        25
      Take Care of Yourself

 Consult: share the responsibility
   • Staff and Faculty Crisis Response Team
   • Student Crisis Response Team
 Be aware of your own response
 Know when to refer
 Know who to refer to - many campus resources
 Know limits of confidentiality
 Don’t promise something you can’t deliver!

                                                 26
The Angry Client

 Observe: when there are outward signs of
  intoxication, hallucinations, or bizarre speech,
  contact the Police Department immediately. After
  doing so, simply listen to the complaint until
  assistance arrives.
 Listen: Listen to the client’s complaint. They need
  to know not only that you are willing to help them,
  but that they are top priority to you.
 Avoid defensiveness: Do not defend the action of
  your department when the client complains.
                                                    27
The Angry Client continued

 Acknowledge their emotions through support: This
  will reduce the client’s fear and hostility. For example, say “I
  can understand how you would be upset. Please tell me
  how we can help you.” Non-support will only fuel their
  emotions.
 Speak slowly, softly, and clearly: It will help to reduce
  their anxiety.
 Ask questions: Ask questions that are relevant to the
  client’s problem and repeat what you hear so they know
  they are being understood. “Mr. Jones, I can understand
  why you feel angry. How can we best help you?”
 State consequences: If the person persists with threats,
  inform them that you will notify the police department
  unless they calm down.                                      28
Additional Tips

 Do not allow the person to sit between you and the door.
  You must have ability to exit first and last.
 Remain seated 2-3 arm lengths away. This gives
  adequate distance from the person, yet provides for
  effective communication. Don’t turn your back to the
  person.
 Don’t have scissors or sharp or unsecured heavy objects
  on your desk or within reach during the incident; these
  could potentially be used as weapons.
 If possible, have another person of the opposite sex in
  the room when speaking with the client. Two males may
  create a “macho” atmosphere. The third person can also
  provide solutions or alternatives to the problem.
                                                         29
If the Client
Doesn’t Calm Down

 Describe the consequences of violent behavior.
  For example, “I understand that you are angry,
  but violence will only lead to jail.”
 If you feel you are in danger, alert the police
  department immediately. Human resources
  should then be notified as soon as it is safe to do
  so.
 If you see a weapon, immediately call 9-1-1 and
  then leave the area as soon as it is safe for you to
  do so.
                                                         30
How to Contact the Police

   Sergeant Paul Henoch (Student Crisis Response Team)
     – 530-752-3278
   Non-emergency calls/security concerns
     – 530-752-1230
   Emergency/crimes in progress
     – 9-1-1
   Crime Prevention
     – 530-752-6589
   Campus Violence Prevention Program
     – 530-752-3299

                                                          31
When in Doubt …
Consult, Consult, Consult!
    If you have concerns, tell someone – make sure others know about
    problem behaviors. Most situations can be handled without Crisis
    Team involvement, but some cases
   may demand urgent action and a coordinated response
   require gathering information and developing immediate and ongoing
    response strategies to deal with safety concerns and complex legal, policy,
    and strategic issues
   require continued monitoring and repeated interventions by a variety of
    campus resources
   are emotionally charged; reporting parties and others may need guidance,
    support, counseling (e.g., ASAP) and reassurance (witnesses often fear
    going “on the record”)
   may pose a risk of harm to the individual him/herself and/or others
Go to website: www.hr.ucdavis.edu/Elr/Violence/Brochure
                                                                          32
SJA & the Student Conduct Process

    As a public institution, UC Davis must provide a fair process
     (must give notice of the charges and an opportunity to be
     heard) and must follow its own procedures.
    Student Judicial Affairs administers the student conduct process
    Ignorance of the rules is not a defense
    In addition to on-campus violations, UC Davis has jurisdiction
     over off-campus conduct that threatens safety or security
    Students who commit crimes are subject to both student
     discipline and criminal prosecution
    Unlike criminal courts, the student conduct process is
     confidential; it uses different rules of evidence and a lower
     burden of proof
    A health condition does not excuse misconduct
                                                                     33
Kinds of Student Misconduct --
Social (in order of most frequent to least frequent)
   Misuse of electronic communications (infringing copyright by illegally
    downloading/distributing music, movies, games, or software)
   Use/possession of alcohol (or drugs)
    Disruption (e.g., dorm noise violations)
    Theft, misuse of ID or documents, unauthorized entry
    Providing false information
   Failure to comply with directions of staff or faculty
   Conduct that threatens health or safety of the student or others;
    includes threats
   Stalking
   Harassment and/or sexual harassment
   Weapons possession
   Physical assault

                                                                         34
Reporting Student Misconduct

   For questions or to report concerns, contact Student
    Judicial Affairs
        3200 Dutton Hall
        (530) 752-1128 (phone) (530) 754-6195 (fax)
        sja@ucdavis.edu

   Submit a brief written report (form on SJA website)
    including
      name and contact information of the reporting party,
      accused student's name and other identifying information,
      description of the suspected incident of misconduct (including date,
       location, and names of witnesses, if available)
      enclose originals or copies of relevant documents (e.g., test paper)
      Retain a copy of documents sent to SJA in a secure location

   Requests for advice/reports of misconduct may be
    made confidentially                                                 35
The Student Conduct Process

   SJA contacts the student who meets with SJA staff
   Students have the right to a fair process: notice of
    charges and an opportunity to be heard
   If a student admits responsibility, options are
    discussed with the student and the referring party
   Most cases are resolved informally (no formal
    hearing)
   Students usually sign a contract admitting a violation
    and accepting sanctions and educational assignments
   If no agreement can be reached, a formal fact-
    finding hearing is held
                                                        36
Disruption
   Definition: Disturbing, interfering with or preventing normal
   campus functions or activities (teaching, administrative
   operations, or research); refusing/failing to follow directions of
   campus officials
Disruptive behavior in class:
   Reading, sleeping, inattention
   Failing to turn off cell phones or other devices, listening to iPod
   Talking, interrupting, moving around
   Arguing, swearing, intimidating, bullying, threatening
Other disruptive behavior:
   Unauthorized entry to/use of facilities
   Refusal to follow directions of campus officials
   Demands for immediate response, action or appointment
   Creating a commotion (including arguing, intimidation, etc.)
   Excessive emails, phone calls, etc. interfering with normal
    functions and unfairly consume resources                         37
Responding to Minor Disruption

   Define conduct standards
   Remind students of their responsibilities
   If students repeatedly disrupt, talk to them
    individually and warn of possible discipline
   Do intervene, but avoid disturbing others or
    making a scene
   Quietly ask student to stop
   ALWAYS treat students with respect -- even if
    they act inappropriately toward you

                                                    38
Responding to Serious Disruption

   For intimidation/bullying, quietly ask the student to stop -- Do
    not raise your voice or escalate conflict
   If behavior interferes with safety or ability to work, ask the
    student to leave, or excuse yourself and get help
   Afterwards, consult your supervisor or SJA -- check to see if
    the student has a prior history
   If you find the incident disturbing, call ASAP for assistance, and
    consult with CAPS, SJA, the police and/or the SCRT for advice
    about dealing with the student should he/she return
   If a student's behavior concerns you, alert SJA, CAPS, the
    police, and/or the SCRT, depending on the nature of the
    incident – if you believe there is a present/imminent threat of
    physical harm to you, the student, or others, call the police
   Students who cause serious disruption or make threats can be
    subject to discipline, which may include interim Suspension
                                                                      39
Disabilities and Student Conduct

   Disabled students are held to the same behavioral
    standards as other students
   Disruptive, threatening, violent behavior may be
    disciplined, even if related to disability
   Accommodations are appropriate to ensure that
    “otherwise qualified” individuals have a fair
    opportunity to pursue their education
   Students must be informed of where they can
    receive accommodations for disabilities, and of
    campus grievance processes
   Contact the Student Disability Center, 752-3184, for
    questions re: academic accommodations for students 40
Student Mental Health and SJA
Why does SJA play such a prominent role?

   Mental health professionals do not have the authority to
    compel compliance – and counseling is of little benefit to
    those who don’t want it
   Usually, no crime has been committed, so police can’t arrest
   Involuntary 5150 evaluation occurs only if student poses
    an imminent threat to self or others or is unable to care for
    him/herself – this is a difficult standard to meet
   Academic “consequences” -- failing grades or dismissal
    from college based on poor performance -- don’t address
    crises or immediate concerns
   Generally, discipline is a flexible and effective tool for
    addressing behaviors that violate conduct standards, and
    may provide leverage to get student to seek help
                                                             41
A Note About Confidentiality …
    Student records may be disclosed as necessary to facilitate
    students’ education, provide student services, and protect safety
   Student records may be disclosed without prior consent to
    “campus officials” having a “legitimate educational interest,” if
    the information is relevant/necessary to
     – perform a task or make a determination within his/her duties or
       responsibilities (e.g., to campus police investigating crime);
     – perform a task specifically related to his/her participation in the
       student's education (e.g., a faculty advisor)
     – perform task related to the discipline of the student; or
     – provide a service or benefit relating to the student or student's
       family, such as health care, counseling, or job placement
   In an emergency, student records may be disclosed to
    appropriate parties, including outside parties (e.g., the student’s
    parents), if knowledge of the information is necessary to protect
    the health and safety of the student or others                   42
          CONCLUSION

   You are not expected to assess threat
   When in doubt, CONSULT
   When it comes to threats, no question
    is silly
   You are not alone!

                                            43

								
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