Chapter Two: Research Methods – Notes Summary Lesson One Why is replication of research important in psychology? Create a “word problem” and select both the Independent variable and dependent variable in your example. Example: IV: DV: What is a good way to remember the difference between IV and DV? Population: Sample Population: Why is random selection important in research? Why is it important to have both an experimental and a control group? How can confounding variables decrease the effectiveness of your research? Lesson Two: Types of Experimentation: Types of Description / Examples Positives Negatives Experimentation Naturalistic Observation Surveys/Tests Controlled Experiment Case Study What is the difference between: Reliability – Validity - Why are none of the above types of experimentation the same as a controlled experiment? Lesson Three: Ways to Eliminate Confounding Variables: Way to Eliminate BIG IDEA Confounding Variables: Single-Blind Procedure Double-Blind Procedure Placebo Counterbalancing Do you think the placebo effect happens to people on a regular basis? List and describe several examples: 1. 2. 3. Lesson Four: Studies that lead to APA Ethical Guideline Practices: Research Study Why it Would be Considered Unethical Today Harlow’s Attachment Study Stanford Prison Experiment Milgram’s Obedience Research APA’s Rules for Animal Research: 1. 2. 3. APA’s Rules for Human Research: 1. 2. 3. 4. Why do you think it is important for the APA to have rules regarding animal and human research? What is your view on animal research? What is the job of the Institutional Review Board? Lesson Five: What is the difference between: Quantitative Research – Qualitative Research – Types of Scales: Type of Scale: Description: Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio: Ways to View Descriptive Statistics: Way to View What it Looks Like: Descriptive Statistics: Frequency Distribution Histogram Frequency Polygon Measures of Central Tendency and Variability: Measure of Description: Central Tendency: Mode Median Mean Range Standard Deviation Chart: If the above chart was a representation of a test that was taken in class, what assumptions could you make? Why is the phrase “correlation does not imply causation” important to follow when doing statistical research? Which of the following shows a stronger rate of correlation: (-.34, -.44, .44, .97, -.97) – Why?
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