Golf balls

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					- Good topic
- Well crafted from the references without plagiarizing
- Way too many grammatical errors. Obviously did not have someone
credible read it before submitting it, as requested.


                                     The Golf Ball

       All golf balls are spherical and are composed of a combination of both

rubber and plastic. However, that is perhaps the extent to the similarity of the

thousands of varying golf balls that exist. Since the invention of the golf ball over

600 years ago, it has evolved from a leather ball stuffed with feathers known as a

“feathery,” to arguably the most researched and advanced piece of technology in

the world of sports. Considering that golf balls entail a core construction design,

varying rates of compression, differing covers, and multiple arrangements of

dimples, it is not hard to believe that over 5000 design patents for golf balls have

been granted in the last ten years and each of them prioritizes between a balls         Comment [JLM1]: ball’s


distance, spin and control. Through this paper, the reader will come to                 Comment [JLM2]: Since you use “their” later in
                                                                                        the sentence, should use “readers” here.

understand the types of construction designs of golf balls, the advantages and

disadvantages of each, and how they may utilize this knowledge to select the

right ball for their style of play and conditions of the course.                        Comment [JLM3]: Good oveview


       The construction of a golf ball is an incredibly important element in

understanding its’ performance. The differing designs dramatically influence a          Comment [JLM4]: Delete apostrophe


balls flights, distance, and feel and can thus substantially alter a players’           Comment [JLM5]: Ball’s
                                                                                        Comment [JLM6]: “flight,” since “distane” and
                                                                                        “feel” are singular.
performance. Each design considers the elements of spin and distance and
                                                                                        Comment [JLM7]: player’s

depends on the golfer’s priorities. Golf balls that are designed for spin prioritize

“workability” and control over distance. These balls provide for increased spin
comma which decreases the amount that they roll comma allowing them to “hold

the green” upon landing. On the other hand, balls that are designed for distance

provide less spin when hit off the tee, and can result in the ball rolling

uncontrollably once it lands. These balls are designed for beginner and

intermediate golfers comma as these players do not yet have the ability to

accurately control the ball comma thus sacrificing little by using balls designed

for distance. Now that the two categories of ball designs have been described, it

is important to understand the additional characteristics that each golf ball

possesses.

       In addition to a balls design offering maximum control or distance, each        Comment [JLM8]: ball’s


ball possesses varying levels of compression and two types of covers. The

compression of the golf ball basically denotes how “hard” a ball feels on contact.

Most measurements of compression levels range from 80 to a 100, 100 being a

light feel and 80 hard. However, there is no correlation between compression and       Comment [JLM9]: No, It’s the other way
                                                                                       around. Re-read your first reference.

distance so this aspect of a balls design lies solely on the players’ preference but

should be noted when making a selection of golf balls. Additionally, each golf ball

is composed of a cover that falls under two main categories, each with their

respective advantages. The first is the surlyn cover and is composed of a solid

core and an “uncut-able” man-made substance. This type of cover is extremely

durable, offers greater distance, prevents scuffing and cutting, and are less

expensive and thus may be recommended to beginners. The second form, the

balata cover, is comprised of a liquid filled core wound with rubber. Due to its’      Comment [JLM10]: According to your
                                                                                       references, these are no longer sold!

rubber core, this type of ball cuts easier and therefore has a shorter lifespan.
These balls are more expensive because they offer increased control and are

primarily used by professionals. Understanding that each ball possesses

components affecting their covers and compression levels, we can now discuss

the elements of the varying types of designs that exist.

       There are four major types of golf ball construction which can be simply

described as a one-piece, two-piece, three-piece, and four-piece design. The

one-piece golf ball is the most basic form of construction and is often used by

beginning golfers and at driving ranges. These balls have a high compression            Comment [JLM11]: According to your first
                                                                                        reference LOW compression balls feel light on
                                                                                        impact. Actually, you are both right. The problem is
rate and thus feel light on impact which detracts from a players’ ability to properly   a high compression number means it compresses
                                                                                        less.

judge the distance that the ball will travel. The two-piece construction is a popular

choice as they are extremely durable and offer maximum distance. It is designed

with a single, solid core and is encased in a plastic cover, most often surlyn. The

three-piece design, composed of balata, offers increased spin allowing more

control over a balls trajectory. It is most often composed of a rubber or liquid

center. For this reason, the three-piece design is often the choice of professional

golf players. The four-piece has recently been introduced to the market and is

still rather uncommon. However, it is composed of four layers that each hold a          Comment [JLM12]: serve


different purpose for the ball’s performance. One layer offers distance, while the

next offers spin, and then varying levels of compression comma and so on. It is

relatively new but could become a strong hold in golf ball designs.

       The inner designs previously described are not visible to the eye and

therefore must be learned. On the outside of the golf ball, the viewer will notice

that the standard size of a golf ball is 1.62 and weighs 1.68 ounces. Additionally,
each golf ball possesses a dimple pattern whose purpose is to aid in flight

performance. Although there are numerous dimple designs, the most common

ones are the isocahedral, dodecahedral, and octahedral designs. The

isocahedral design consists of 20 identical triangular faces, much like a 20 sided

die. The dodecahedral design consists of 12 identical dimples that are of

hexagonal shape. Lastly, the octahedral design can consist of as many as 500

dimples and are based on triangles; similar to the isocahedral. Most commonly

comma however, the amount of dimples on a golf ball ranges from 300 to 450.

The general rule is that the more dimples a ball has, the better flight performance

will result. In addition to the amount of dimples, the size and depth of the dimples

affect the ball’s performance as well. Shallow dimples generate more spin on a

ball comma allowing for increased control; while deep dimples provide for a

lower trajectory and less spin comma thus adding distance to ones shot while           Comment [JLM13]: one’s


sacrificing the accuracy thereof. One can logically deduct that an increase in a       Comment [JLM14]: deduce
                                                                                       Comment [JLM15]: Delete, for “a” is singular,
                                                                                       and “players’” is plural.
players’ skill would necessitate a different ball design to best complement their

ability; beginning with balls designed for distance and moving to ones designed        Comment [JLM16]: comma, not semicolon


for control. In addition to ones ability, the weather conditions of the course may     Comment [JLM17]: one’s


sway a player to use one type of ball over another.

       Through experience, a golfer may improve his or her performance by

selecting the right ball for the conditions on the course of that day. In dry

conditions when the sun has hardened the soil, a ball designed for spin may be

more suitable comma as it will decrease the amount of rolling the ball will do

after landing. When the fairway is rock solid, selecting a ball designed for
distance may be a vital mistake and severely hinder the golfers’ performance.

Conversely, if it has recently rained and the fairway has some “give” to it, a ball

that offers increased rolling and a lower trajectory would likely be more

appropriate. Additionally, a golfer is allowed to change their ball during course       Comment [JLM18]: “golfers are,” if you are
                                                                                        going to use “their”

play so that they may maximize distance off the tee, and have maximum control

as they near the green. Such strategies and decisions only come as a player

gains experience yet may make a drastic difference in their overall performance.

Not all golf balls are designed purely for performance comma however.

       In the golf industry today, were over 850 million golf balls are produced        Comment [JLM19]: where


and shipped annually, a small portion of them are designed solely for the

purposes of personal entertainment which add a little zest to the game. Much like

trick candles on a birthday cake, several golf balls mimic the real thing and are

used solely as a practical joke on the unsuspecting golfer. ‘Break-away’ balls are

hollow and extremely brittle, upon contact they shatter into hundreds of small

pieces. Secondly, the function of exploding balls is given away by the definition.

They consist of a small explosive device that disintegrates the ball upon contact.

“Stallers” are much softer than normal golf balls and provide an extreme amount

of lift and sacrifice distance, if hit correctly they may actually perform a loop and

land where the golfer stands. “Wobblers” have a center of mass that is not in the

middle and therefore, when used for putting, veer of the intended line. Golf balls      Comment [JLM20]: off


such as these are practical gimmicks that just make the overall game a little more

interesting when in an informal setting. Golf balls have also been designed so

that a golfer may practice their shot when not at a driving range or at the course.
Sponge balls allow a golfer to practice in their homes against a piece of wood or

cardboard and are practically harmless when hit and thus avoid property

damage. This type of ball provides a golfer the ability to practice when they are

not able to make it to the course or weather conditions do not allow it.

       All in all, the golf ball has undergone a massive evolution in its’ history and

has now become, next to a golfers’ clubs, the most vital piece of equipment in the

game that can ultimately effect their performance. Understanding the different           Comment [JLM21]: affect


construction designs and the advantages that each of them offer is very                  Comment [JLM22]: offers


important to achieving success on the golf course. The next time that you

purchase a set of golf balls, be sure to analyze its’ features so that you will be

prepared for your on-course experience and will eradicate the element of

surprise, that may ultimately cost you the win at your next tournament.
                                   Bibliography

Electronic Sources

The construction of a golf ball. “Purely Golf: Technology and Equipment”
Accessed May 5th, 2008. http://purelygolf.com/E/BALLS.HTM

Are there different types of golf balls?. “Golf Q and A’s: Golf Today.” Accessed
May 5th, 2008. http://www.golftoday.co.uk/clubhouse/library/qandaballs.html

The basics of golf balls. “Learn about golf.” Accessed May 5th, 2008.
http://www.learnaboutgolf.com/beginner/balltypes.html


Books

New Trends in Golf Balls. Wilson Sporting Goods Co., Golf Division, 1997.

				
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