The gross and microscopic lesion of most types of pneumonia in this study by Bj84Hy8l

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									     J.Thi-Qar Sci.                       Vol.1 (1)                           March /2008
ISSN 1991- 8690                                                    1661 - 0968 ‫الترقيم الدولي‬




        Histopathological study on some form of bovine pneumonia


                               MAHDI M .THWENI
         Department of pathology, Collage of medicine, Thi-Qar University,
                                     thiqaruni.org

                                      Abstract
           A total of 1234 cow lungs were examined grossly from
       apparently healthy adults     cows slaughtered at Basra during the
       period from January 2005 to June 2005.
           Tissue from pneumonia lungs were collected processed
       sectioned at5- 6µ and stained for histopathological study conducted
       on 127 consolidated lungs of adult cows.
           Pneumonia has been classified according to the type of
       inflammatory and pulmonary reaction as well as the lesion
       duration. Pneumonia in the descending order of prevalence were
       chronic    interstitial     pneumonia,         fibrinous    pneumonia,
       fibrinopurulent   pneumonia,      acute       suppurative   pneumonia,
       lymphoid pneumonia and chronic pneumonia .
           The prevalence of pneumonia in adult cows on the basis of
       histopathological examination in this study was 9.5%, the role of
       the such lesion in cows were discussed.
 J.Thi-Qar Sci.                              Vol.1 (1)                          March /2008

                             Introduction      (H&E),and others special stains
       Cows are the most important milk        whenever required .
production and meat producing                      The histopathological sections
domestic animals in Iraq .and play             mode and examined according to
important role in the rural economic of        manual of histopathological of special
various countries. Pneumonia is known          technique by (13, 22)..
to occur as either a primary or
secondary condition, or some earlier           Results
workers (7) regarded pneumonia has                   The      recorded       pathological
always been problem for the livestock          conditions in this study are mentioned
owner and veterinarian because of the          in the ( table1.)out of 1234 pairs of cow
unsatisfactory knowledge of its cause          lungs were examined ,127(9,54%)were
,modes of dissemination and treatment          founded to be positive for pneumonia .
.                                              the gross and histopathologcal changes
 In a previous report ,studied on              of pneumonia in the consolidated lungs
 pathology       of    pneumonia      and      of the cows were ; suppurative
 associated pulmonary lesion discussed         pneumonia 45 cows, non-suppurative
 of cattle and buffaloes (9,11).while          pneumonia 32 cases, are the remain 50
 others studied the etiology and               cases were showing chronic changes.
 pathology of pneumonia in cows as             the 45 cases of suppurative pneumonia
 well as pneumonia in the most                 include      ;21     of     them      were
 frequent       respiratory     infectious     fibrinopurulent pneumonia ,12 cows
 (18,16)
         ,moreover,     other      worker      acute suppurative pneumonia, 7 cases
 considered one its etiology the virus         acute bronchopneumonia and 5 cases
 complicated with bacteria were the            aspiration pneumonia, while in 32
 most frequent causative agents(1,24)6         cases         of         non-suppurative
      This study was an attempt to find        pneumonia;24          cases      fibrinous
out some form of pneumonia in cows             pneumonia , 5 cases lymphoid
slaughtered for meat production in             pneumoia and 3 cases were acute
the abattoir of Basra ,pathological            hemorrhagic        pneumonia       ,   and
lesion were detected in the lungs of 127       eventually the last types of pneumonia
slaughtered cows ,they were subjected          included ; 31cases chronic interstitial
to histopathological examination .             pneumonia , 10 cases chronic
                                               granulomatous pneumonia ,6 cases
        Materials and methods                  chronic pneumonia and chronic
     Pneumonia lungs from 127 adults           bronchopneumonia was observed in 3
cows with gross lesions were collected         cases only . all cases were classified
from Basra abattoir through the                depend on the type of exudates and its
examination of 1324 lungs, portions of         exist , type of lung response as well as
gross lung lesions were collected in           the lesion duration .
10%neutral         phosphate-buffered              The gross and microscopic lesion of
formalin solution for histopathologic          most types of pneumonia in this study
examination after fixation , tissues           confirmed the typical pattern, as
were processed routinely for paraffin          recorded in standard text books.
embedding and 5-6µ sections were                    In      chronic      granulomatous
stained with hematoxylin and eosin             pneumonia        ,    2     cases     were
 J.Thi-Qar Sci.                            Vol.1 (1)                           March /2008

actinomycotic type pneumonia; the            and        interlobular      space      and
center of lesion is contain caseous          proliferation of the mononuclear cells
necrotic mass with mixed necrotic            chiefly lymphocytes and macrophages
debri and rosette shape eosinophilia         (fig.4) . fibroblastic proliferation in the
type bacterial colony by using brown         interstitial tissue was also present ,in
& brenn stain ,with variable size            some cases in a milder form, in general
embedded in degeneration neutrophilic        air ways normal except a few bronchi
cellular infiltration surrounded by          showed desquamation of epithelial
focal extensive and tremendous               layers and contained catarrhal
reticulo-endothelial granulation tissue      exudates in the lumen ,alveoli had
with infiltration of macrophages,            collapsed         and        compensatory
lymphocyte (fig,1).                          emphysema was a common feature in
     Acute and bronchopneumonia              almost all the cases.
,these were recorded in 7(5,51%)and               Lymphoid         pneumonia        were
3(2,36%) respectively .they were             recorded in 5(3,94%) cases of
showeded suppurative exudates along          pneumonia , grossly the affected lobes
with neutrophilic aggregation in             were showed red and smaller in
bronchi as well as alveoli , in some         volume and almost confined to atypical
cases ,mononuclear cells (lymphocytes        and cardiac lobes.histopathologically
, macrophages )were showed mixed             changes                  were extended
with neutrophile (fig,2). Such lesion        peribronchiolly                  ,bronchial
could indicate bacterial infection.          degeneration        ,    infiltration    of
     Acute suppurative pneumonia was         mononuclear cells in bronchial
observed in 12(9,45%);the lesion             submucosa , the alveolar septae were
involve both lungs ,it is showed             thickened due to dilation of lymphatic
suppurative areas surrounded by              vessels, infiltration of mononuclear
congestion     and    consolidation    ,     cells     and     congestion      ,however,
emphysema was also present . in two          lymphoid        producing       progressive
cases ,microscopic picture was typical       collapse of the lumen and the
of suppurative inflammation , some           surrounding        alveoli    and     hence
alveoli showed had large number of           bronchial, alveolar lumen appeared
streaming macrophages or packed              much diminished and obliterated.
with oat-shaped macrophages as                   Acute hemorrhagic pneumonia
bundle among alveoli(fig,3)                  :this was observed in 3(2,36%)cases ,in
     Chronic interstitial pneumonia :        all cases the apical and cardiac lobes
under this study ,31(24,41%)cases of         were particularly involved .the selected
pneumonia were observed ,grossly             lung pieces on cutting appeared
these was fibrosis mostly in the             consolidated and reddish in co lour.
diaphragmatic lobes ,in majority of the      microscopically appeared widespread
cases the lesions were confined to the       hemorrhage were the main feature of
antero-ventral lobes of the lungs . this     the all these cases ,sharply demarcated
lungs     showed     atelectatic    and      bright red blood cells were observed
emphysematous lobules and others             completely filling the spaces wherever
lobes were pale, hyperemic and red.          hemorrhages was observed ,and it
microscopically , there was an increase      involved the lung alveoli as well as
in the thickening of the intralobular        bronchi and bronchials, also slight
 J.Thi-Qar Sci.                             Vol.1 (1)                          March /2008

infiltration of mononuclear cells also in     pairs of lungs collected from 9bovine
the parenchyma .                              ,12ovine and 11porcine lung (16).the
     In chronic pneumonia ;only               non-suppurative and suppurative
6(4,72%)cases were recorded in this           pneumonia observed in this study was
study ,the colour varied from grayish         corresponding to the catarrhal and
pink to red in appearance , the lung          purulent form,and the acute form of
did not collapsed and were hard to cut        bronchopneumonia       as   well   as
and depressed at places, in on cases          suppurative type was described by
                                              (7,23,24)
ecchymotic       areas    was     noticed
.microscopically, the main features                 Aspiration pneumonia does not
were replacement lung parenchyma by           figure to the most of the reports
fibrous tissue, the alveolar septae were      perhaps it was dealt under purulent or
thickening due to mononuclear                 acute necrotizing pneumonia .but keep
infiltration mostly lymphocytes and           in view the classification of pneumonia
severely congested blood vessels              based on etiology, as well as it is
,bronchi also affected ,in these affected     variable reaction from purulent to
bronchi       the     epithelium     was      abscessation and gangrenous type , it
desquamated and lumen filled with             has be dealt as aspirate entity.
degenerated cellular mass. The                     The incidence rate of chronic
infiltrating cells were also observed in      interstitial      pneumonia          which
the submucosa of bronchi.                     represented approximately 24,4%of
                                              the
Discussion                                     cases studded , these finding were in
      There     was    a   considerable       accordance with earlier reports (3,14,18).
variation in the microscopic pathology        Interstitial reaction is predominantly
in numbers of the cases studied .the          reaction to the viral, mycoplasma,
higher prevalence of the chronic              Chlamydia and some forms of
                                                                            (21)
changes suggested the possibility of          bronchial      infection          ,  while
subclinical infection in these bovine         considered allergic reaction in addition
.the gross and microscopic changes in         to inhalation of nitrogen dioxide gas
these types of pneumonia were similar         and chemical agents as the cause have
to these described by others (15).during      been supported by (15, 18 , 22).
this study we recorded 127 out of 1234               Lymphoid                  pneumonia
bovine lungs were examined with 11             constituted 3,94%,this incidence rate
various types of pneumonia including           were different from that recorded by
                                               (6)
;chronic granulomatous pneumonia                  ,but nearly the same percent
,bronchopneumonia,fibrinopurulent              described by (14).these observation
pneumonia which have already been              have strengthened the view that the
reported by(1,17).the incidence rate of        virus is a probable etiological agent
pathological condition constituted             ,however , the possibility of other
9,59%,the same percent recorded 10%            microbial agents playing same or the
(4)
   .the lungs of 127 bovine slaughtered        other role.
at abattoir revealed 22 acute,53                    Twelve cases of acute suppurative
chronic type of pneumonic changes.            pneumonia were recorded               and
however , found 17 acute ,13 subacute         constitute 9,44%,in two cases that
and chronic bronchopneumonia in 31            already were packed oat-shape
  J.Thi-Qar Sci.                            Vol.1 (1)   March /2008

macrophages ,such lesion have been
reported to be caused by pasturella
(17)
    ,these finding also reported in ovine
(2,12).

    Ten      cases     of     chronic
granulomatous      pneumonia     were
recorded in present study which
constituted 7, 87% out of 127 cow
pneumonic lungs, incidence rate which
is agreement with result that were
recorded by (10,20). actinomycotic
granulomatous type pneumonia
 J.Thi-Qar Sci.                              Vol.1 (1)                               March /2008

appeared in 2 case. however, in other
study was recorded only one case (9).
via, using brown and             brenn
stain(B&B) , showed bacterial colony
of G+ve bacteria appeared as clubbed
– colony.
    In chronic pneumonia, the main
features     observed     were        the
replacement of the lung parenchyma
by means of fibroplastic proliferation
.this view has been supported by (23).

  Among       the      non-suppurative
pneumonia, hemorrhagic pneumonia
is of special interest .it may be that
physical factor like struggling of the
animal at the time of slaughter may
have causes hemorrhage in the organ
and consequently given rise to this
change.

       Table 1: Incidence of various type of bovine pneumonia in (127) lungs.




Acknowledgements
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