Breastfeeding Updated: 5/29/10
Term healthy infants ingest 0.5 oz (15 ± 11 grams) of colostrums over the first 24 hours of life and that is
over 8-10 feedings (or 3.4 feeds in an 8 hour day time period). (Santoro W Jr., Martinez FE,Ricco RG,
Gorge SM. (2010). Colostrum ingested during the first day of life by exclusively breastfed healthy newborn
infants. J Pediatr 156, 29-32; Stokowski LA. (2010) Colostrum ingestion on the first day of life. Advance in
Neonatal Care, 10(2), 51-53.
_______2006 Aust. J Nrs FT, evidence based guidelines graded A are: thermal protection in addition to
breastfeeding is necessary to prevent hypoglycaemia. Early and exclusive BF is
safe to meet nutritional needs of healthy term newborns. Given importance of
thermo regulation, skin to skin contact should be promoted and Kangaroo care
encouraged in first 24 hours after birth.
Abdel et al., 2009 FT, PT, infants in 1st year of life who got KC +BF (60) or standard clinic
immunization(60), KC +BF significantly reduced duration of crying during and
Acad BF Med 2005 FT, Recommendations. recommends birth KC to promote BF in 2005’s Protocol
Ali & Lowry, 1981 FT RCT of 45 min of birthkc and more kc moms were BF exclusively.
AmerAcad Fam Prac Recommendation to practice KC to facilitate BF
Amer Acad Ped 2005 FT PT, recommends birth KC to promote BF in fullterm and says KC should be
encouraged as soon as possible in preterm/risk infants
ACOG 2000 FT, recommends Birth KC
ACOG 2007 FT, recommends Birth KC
Anderson 1993 Review of literature. Concludes that KC is good for BF
Anderson et al., 2003 FT, Abstract of KCBF during postpartum day 2 and 3. 78% Bf at discharge
(75% exclusive), 73% exclusive at 1 week, 52% exclusive at one month.
Anderson, Chiu et al, 2003FT,Descriptive, BF difficulties decreased in Full term KC group on PPD1
Anderson et al., 2001 FT Meta-analysis plan.Will look at BF outcomes in cochrane, no results to
report. Protocol only
Anderson et al., 2002 Lists the studies they are examining in Meta-Analysis, no results yet
Anderson et al., 2003 FT, META-ANALYSIS BF results are???
Armstrong, 1987 Kenya BF of ???
Awi & Alikor, 2004 FT, regression analysis. Having breastfeeding education was factor associated
with onset of KC within 30 minutes post-birth. Having assistance with BF was
one of the most important factors affecting time of first KC.
Bell et al., 1995 PT, Clinical review. KC increases milk supply
Bell & McGrath, 1996 PT, after writing eligibility criteria and step by step implementation policy for
KC, BF rate rose by 41%.
Bier et al., 1995 PT, RCT abstract of 1996 study of 10 mins/day x 10 days of KC on physiologic
And BF outcomes. Same results as 1996 because same study.
Bier et al., 1996 PT, RCT 90% KC vs 61% control BF during hospitalization; 50% KC
Vs 11%control BF at 1 month post discharge. Kcers had more stable milk
production, BF longer
Bosque et al., 1995 PT, RCT
Bramson et al., 2010 FT, population study of 21,842 moms of singleton birth. The more KC in the
first three hours postbirth, the greater the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding
during maternity hospitalization.EXCLUSIVE
Burkhammer et al., 2004 FT, Case study. 8 sessions of KCBF in hospital increased BF success, decreased
Nipple pain, and no breast pain. Baby sought out breast spontaneously and
Byaruhanga et al. 2008 FT, qualitative, moms reported birth KC helped initiate breastfeeding.
Latched automatically. Exclusive BF at 1 week postdischarge.
Cantrill et al., 2004 FT, Descriptive survey of nurses’ knowledge and support of first breastfeeding
with Birth KC. Got good scores but poorly understand “continuous,
uninterrupted” aspect of BKC.
Carfoot et al., 2005 FT. RCT, KC moms were more satisfied with BF, had better success at first
feeding, more were exclusively BF @ 4 months, were satisfied with KC, and
wanted same care for next birth than controls. DURATION 4 MONTHS
Carfoot et al., 2003 FT, No conclusions on BF duration or BF success at first feeding
Cattaneo et al., 1998 PT. RCT showed KMC produced BF/Breast milk feeding at discharge rate of
80%, 98%, and 83% in the 3 sites studied. Mexican KMC infants with early
discharge had more common overall breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding
rates than control infants who did not have the early discharge that occurs with
CDC 2005 FT. Report says on page 1 that KC should be practiced to improve BF
CDCP 2007 FT, national survey that includes three questions about use of KC which
improves breastfeeding. All USA hospitals complete this survey.
CDCP 20008 FT, national survey results. Poor support (few birth KC practices) in US. Long
way to go to help breastfeeding
Cerezo & DeLeon, 1992 PT RCT Exclusive BF at 3 months was 78% KC vs. 34% controls. PT
Chantry 2006 FT, relates Academy of BF Medicine recommendation to do KC immediately
after birth to promote BF
Charpak et al, 1997 PT, RCT term age results. No diff in proportion breastfeeding, but lower
proportion of KMC infants received only formula than traditional care infants.
Charpak et al., 2001 PT RCT
Charpak & Figueroa, 2002PT RCT
Charpak et al., 2005 Review. Says intermittent KMC should be 2 hours at least, starting before a
feeding and continuing as long as possible afterwards (515). Cites many other
Breastfeeding benefits in manuscript.
Charpak &Figueroa 2006 PT, Descriptive of 2773 preterms. 61% were exclusive BF at term age, 25% still
BF at one year.
Charpak & R-P, 2006 PT, Descriptive qualitative study to determine if exclusive BF in KMC was able
to be implemented. Yes, it was.
Charpak, R-P, Motta 2006 PT, Descriptive, 26.2% of 206 newborns were exclusive BF at term age.
Charpak & Ruiz, 2007 PT, Descriptive. Breastmilk composition followed every week from 30-40
weeks. Infants less than 32 weeks need protein fortifier.
Chandry 2005 FT. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine guidelines say it is NOT appropriate to
separate mom and baby immediately after birth and it is recommended routine to
give KC immediately after birth to promote breastfeeding and prevent
Chen, Wang et al,2000 PT, RCT better physiology when BF in KC than when given bottle in KC
Chiu et al., 2005 FT, Descriptive, temporal artery temp is stable in NTZ during BF in KC. KCBF
Chiu et al., 2008 in press FT, descriptive evaluative study of how black,white, and Asians did in KC for
breastfeeding difficulty study. Blacks had lower exclusive BF rate and more BF
cessation at one month than all others.
Chwo et al., 2002 PT, better temperature during KC BF than swaddled BF alone.
Clarke, 2009 Review of KMC and how it benefits breastfeeding and should be used in rich
and poor countries alike.
Closa Monasterolo 1998 PT, Intermittent KC does not permit BF on demand.
Colonna et al., 1990
Conde-Agudelo 2000b PT, KMC (24/7 KC 7 days per week) increases BF exclusivity.
Conde-Agudelo 2003 PT, KMC (24/7 KC 7 days per week) increases BF exclusivity.
Conde-Agudelo 2007 PT, KMC (24/7 KC 7 days per week) associate with less risk for not BF
exclusively at Discharge
Cox, 2006 Rev. encourages antenatal expression of colostrum and KC in first 24 hours
Postbirth to maximize breastmilk output.
Crenshaw 2007 FT, review of evidence for non-separation and lots of birth KC
Davanzo et al.. 2004 PT, Review, exclusive BF and KMC save lives in developing countries
De Almeida et al., 2010 PT, RCT, 23 in each group, More moms exclusively bf at discharge, term age,
&3 months (but not at 6 months) in KC group.
De Aranjo et al. 2010 PT, descriptive of KMC at home and 86.7 % of infants were exclusively
breastfed when getting 5-6 hours of KC/day
De Chateau, 1977a FT, RCT, 15-20 min of KC during BF vs no extra contact and BF in KC.
De Chateau, 1977b FT, RCT, Same study as above. KC moms BF 2.5 months longer. At 3 months
greater proportion of KC moms were still BF (no other data avail).
Demott et al., 2006 FT, UK guidelines for breastfeeding with many sections on Birth KC and need to
feed with KC within 30-70 minutes of birth.
De Vonderweid 2009 PT, Survey of all Italian NICUs and breast milk feeding at discharge is
uncommon even though 67% of units do KMC
Diaz-Rosello et al., 1990 PT,
Di Girolamo et al., 2001 FT, Birth KC is good for Breastfeeding
Dombrowski et al, 2000 FT, Case study. Teen mom had ample milk supply, no engorgement
Durand et al., 1997 FT, KC started 30 mins postbirth for 2 hours. KC babies BF in KC and were
compared to FT who bottle fed under radiant warmer. KC babies reached temp
of 36.5-37.9 after KC BF and radiant warmer kids did not reach these temps.
Erlandson et al., 2007 FT, RCT, paternal KC in first two hours after c/s birth promotes prefeeding
behavior in infant (rooting and sucking behavior is prefeeding behavior that is
programmed in brain, pg. 106 of article).
European Comm. 2006 FT, PT, Guidelines for BF and feeding infants throughout first year of life
Contains many references to Birth KC.
Field et al., 2005 PT Survey 100% of NICU babies are BF
Filho et al., 2008 PT, Clin eval of 8 units with KC in step down and 8 units without KC. Higher %
of infants exclusively BF at 36 weeks corrected age in KC unit.
Furman & Kennel, 2000 PT preterms should have KC for BF and can even have gavage feedings during
Furman et al., 2002 PT. Regression analysis of factors influencing BF of VLBW infants. KC
independently increases milk production.
Gale et al., 1993 PT
Gangal, 2007 FT, doing KC breastcrawl helps initiate breastfeeding and frequent feeds and
KC are the keys to breastfeeding success.
Gloppestad, 1998 PT
Gloppestad, 2000 PT
Gouchon et al. 2010 FT, RCT of elective c/s and babies went into KC when mom got to her
postpartum room. More kc than routine care infants BF at discharge, and KC
infants attached to breast earlier.
Groleau et al., 2009 PT, Preterm moms breastfeeding at discharge soon stop at home because local
norms for feeding and lack of out pt. Support created anxiety and perceived
insufficient milk supply.
Gupta et al., 2007 PT, got 4-6 hrs KC per day in hospital from when stable til discharged; all were
BF in hospital and 8 weeks later 20/50 moms were still doing KC and 16/50
infants were EXCLUSIVELY Breastfed and KC helped milk production.
Hake-Brooks et al. 2008 PT, RCT KC got Mean 4.47 hrs KC/day, controls held swaddled. RMANOVA
Showed longer duration of BF in KCers and more exclusive BF at 6 months (stat
Significance) and more exclusive BF at each time in KCers (clinical
Significance only). EXCLUSIVITY
Hall & Kirsten 2008 PT review of bf improvements with KMC-more feeds per day, increased bf
competence, and should do KC for 2 hours before feed.
Handlin et al., 2009? FT, examined maternal ACTH and cortisol during PP day II breastfeeding and
BF was associated with decreased ACTH and cortisol and duration of KC before
sucking was associated with decreased maternal cortisol, but not ACTH.
Hann et al., 1999 PT
Harris, 1994 FT, Descriptive, Shows infant in water bath crawling to breast for feeding. She
Highly recommends this in immediate postpartum period.
Harrison, 2010 FT, Case study of 12 day old left hypoplastic heart baby who did KC BF and it
went very well whereas bottle feeding was poorly tolerated.
Hill et al., 1999a PT
Hill et al. 1999b PT
Hill & Aldag, 2005 PT.Milk production and income predict BF adequacy at 6 weeks postbirth
Hurst et al, 1997 PT. KC increases milk production.
Hurst & Meier, 2001 PT KC promotes BF in preterm infants
Isaacson 2006 PT, review. Recommends KC so infant gets to know mom’s scent and feel of
breast and that let down will occur more when doing KC. Mentions that KC can
be done during gavage feedings too in infants greater than 30 wks pma.
Int Lact Assoc 1999 FT, recommends birth KC and non-separation for breastfeeding.
Int Lact Assoc 2007 FT, PT, recommends birth KC and shows how to teach mom signs of readiness
to BF. This is tri fold for lactation consultants and their clients
Javorski et al., 2004 PT, Qualitative study of the meaning of BF a preterm to kmc mothers. BF a
preterm is hard and exhausting.
Jolivet, 2010 PT, Review of Renfrew 2009 review and says “strong evidence to suggest that
even short periods of skin to skin mother-baby contact are associated with
increased duration of BF (pg. 202).” SHORT PERIODS OF KC
Kadam et al 2005 PT, RCT. No differences in onset of BF (KC=4.7days/ Control=5.6 days)
Kambarami, 2002 PT, chart review of 42 twins/2 triplets in 24/7 KC unit. All were discharged
From unit exclusively BF, but Zimbabwe is a BF culture.
Kirsten, et al., 2001 PT
Kirsten et al., 2004 PT, BF and unfortified human milk feeding effects on VLBW KMC infants
Landers, 2003 Review of how KC helps milk production
Lau et al., 2007 PT, descriptive. KC was positively correlated with maternal drive to express
milk and milk volume (production). Lactation programs should encourage
frequent milk expression and KC.
Lazarov 1994 FT. Talks about barriers to implementing very early KC to promote BF
Lincetto et al., 1998
Ludington-Hoe et al., 1993
Ludington-Hoe et al., 1999
MacDonald, 2005 FT, PT, talks about European Blueprint for Breastfeeding and says that health
care workers should have a commitment to best practices (and Ludington adds
that Birth KC is best practice
Marin et al., 2010 FT, RCT, Birth KC increased frequency of exclusive BF at discharge
McCain, 2003 PT. Talks about evidence based practice and that data exists to support KC’s
use to increase BF, so teach RNs, write guidelines, and do it. In References to
KC section of the bib.
McGrath & Brock, 2002 PT Review of KC breastfeeding effects
Meier et al.,1998 PT, Review. Mothers often have largest let down when doing KC
Meier 2001 PT
Meier 2003 PT
Meier et al., 2004 PT
Mikiel-Kostyra et al, 2002 FT, All infants in Polish hospitals. >20 minutes of kc was significant predictor
Of exclusive BF duration, the more KC they have, the longer they BF and
The longer the EXCLUSIVE BF is.
Mikiel-Kostyra et al.,2005 FT. Factors associated with lack of EXCLUSIVE BF during hospitalization
Were C/S, BF initiation of not within 2 hours post-birth, lack of KC, use of
pacifiers and separation > 1hr/24hr. Factors associated postdischarge were use
of pacifiers, reluctance to BF > 4months, low education of mom/dad.
Miles et al., 2006 PT, RCT, daily kc for 4 wks starting in first week in <32 wk preemies made no
difference in lactation performance
Mizuno et al., 2004 FT,RCT, 60 infants given 50+ mins of KC immediately after birth had enhanced
recognition of own mother’s milk odor and breastfed 1.9 months longer than
Mohrbacher, 2008 (3) PT, breastfeeding handout from Ameda encourages KC to assist with BF the
preemie. The other two talk about KC for latching on and skin contact for
increasing breast milk production.
Moore, 2005 FT, RCT, KC started 15 mins postbirth and produced more and earlier hunger
cues and more effective first BF, but no diff in exclusivity or duration of BF in
KC group than swaddled holding (held by mom or father). Early report of data
published in 2007 as follows.
Moore & Anderson 2007 FT RCT …..see Moore 2005
Mulet et al., 1992
NANN Brd Director 2009 Position Statement of use of Human milk and breastfeeding that says that KC is
an important component of transitioning the infant from tube feedings to direct
Nommsen-Rivers, 2003 Review of Mikiel-Kostyra article, but it makes the point that duration is
important predictor of any BF and exclusive BF.
Nyqvist 2004 PT, has policy for KCs use and it includes BF guidelines
Nyqvist, 2005 PT, says that KMC produces higher BF rates and is a model of care that supports
Breastfeeding (pg. 36).
Nyqvist, 2009 PT, FT in NICU, KMC should be done to promote initiation of lactation and
Breastfeeding in preterm infants.
Nyquist et al.1994) PT “lack of early contact with infants was a cause of BF failure.”Ample
opportunities for early KC should be offered both mothers delivered vaginally and
by cesarean section in order to compensate the delayed physical contact with the
Nyqvist et al., 2008 PT, VLBW, moms suggested KC as most important element of baby friendly
hospital for promotion of breastfeeding.
Odent, 1989 FT, clin. Report- sustained and immediate KC and BF in KC in familiar home
Environment prevents birth weight loss in 33% of 70 homebirths.
Phillip&Jean-Marie 2007 FT, PT, Review of why African American women don’t BF and programs to
help them BF more. Cites KC as part of Rush’s mothers milk club and as part of
Baby Friendly routines.
Pineda et al., 2009 PT, pretest-posttest of BF initiation and breastmilk feedings at discharge from
med records before and after nurses were given education about BF that
included KC. Non-sig improvements despite increases in both. KC taught to be
done as much as possible and taught as a prefeeding intervention.
Porter 2004 FT, commentary that KC permits infants to discriminate mom’s scent from all
others and that maternal odors stimulate breastfeeding activity.
Price & Johnson, 2005 FT, implementation of Birth KC to increase breastfeeding. No BF data included.
Rao et al., 2008 PT, RCT, More KMC babies were exclusively bf at end of study (3 months age)
Renfrew et al., 2009 PT, Systematic review. They found strong evidence to suggest that even short
periods of skin to skin mother-baby contact are associated with increased
duration of breastfeeding in clinically stable premature infants from 48 studies.
Righard 2008 FT, editorial. Don’t ask moms about BF, baby makes choice, and keep in KC
for at least one hour and then encourage a lot of holding.
Righard & Alade, 1990 FT, Moved to breast, KCBF received well.
Riskin & Bader, 2003 PT, Review. Support of lactation in moms of preemies mandates KC.
Roberts, et al., 2000
Rowe-Murray/Fisher ‘03 FT, review of baby friendly progress and step 4 (KC within 30 mins of birth and
as soon as c/s mom is responsive) is seldom occurring in c/s moms and is barrier
to initiation of BF
Ruiz et al, 2002 PT, infants on exclusive BF need supplementation. Infants >1200 grams don’t
Schanler 2001 PT, a review article about need for fortification of mothers milk for preterm
Infants and that skin-to-skin contact provides species-specific antimicrobial
protection for premature infants.
Schanler et al., 2005 PT, RCT, women in mother’s milk group provided longer duration and more
Episodes of KC than women in preterm formula and donors milk groups did and
mothers milk group infants had fewer infectious events (late onset sepsis,
meningitis, nec, UTIs, and presumed sepsis) than preterm formula & donor milk
Sinusas & FT, Review, says that KC should begin immediately after birth to promote BF
Gagliardi, 2001 success.
Sizun et al., 2004 Review. Restates better BF outcomes from Charpak et al, 2001 but says this
may not be relevant in high tech countries.
Sloan et al., 1994 Pt, RCT with stable preterms. No diff in # of women BF because BF is strongly
promoted in a breastfeeding culture
Sosa et al., 1976 FT, 3 RCTs. In each KC moms got 45 min of KC after episiotomy repair and 20
Moms separated for 12-24 hrs from newborn. Study #1: KC (n=20) group BF
for mean 173 days during 1st year, controls (n=20) for 274 days. Early postnatal
KC did not result in an increase in BF- probably because many more poor rural
moms in controls group despite randomization.. Study #2: KC (n=34) got 45
minutes post episiotomy repair, control (n=34) separated for 12-24 hours. KC
group BF for mean 159 days over 1st year, control for 109 days: KCers BF
longer. Study #3: KC (n= 20) also got 45 minutes of KC, and controls (n=20)
were separated for 12-24 hours and third group (n=20) got nude infant at 12 hrs
age. KC group BF for mean # of 96 days over 1 st year of life, controls BF for
mean of 104 days. KCers did not BF longer in Study #3.
Schmidt & Wittrich, 1986 PT, More KC moms BF than non KC moms, even though first KC was at 3 wks
Smith et al., 2008 FT, cesarean birth KC procedure presented and says it will help BF
Spatz, 2005 PT. Review. Presents 10 rules to help BF with LBW infants. Rule #5 is
Taylor, 1985 FT, RCT of 50 primip moms 25 of whom got KC in first hour after birth, but
KC alone did not affect breastfeeding duration, but KC + suckling within 30-70
minutes of birth did, and those women who did KC+suckling were more likely
to still be breastfeeding at 2 months postpartum than moms who did not.
Tofteland 2006 FT, Descriptive. In 2001 one mother/292 noted that skin-to-skin time was
influential in helping her meet her breastfeeding goals; in 2003 3 mothers/167
noted KC as being influential.
Torres et al., 2006 PT, Descriptive follow up of 66 LBW infants in KMC in Cali, Colombia. At
discharge 96% were breastfeeding, at 40 wks pma 94% were breastfeeding,
and67% were EXCLUSIVE BF at discharge and 51% at term age.
UNICEF 1998 FT, review of progress toward Baby Friendly status (WHO/UNICEF 1989,
1992, and reports the many barriers to birth KC and Very Early KC
Vaidya et al., 2005 FT, 92 mother infant dyads given a few minutes of early postpartum KC. KC
had more significant effect on exclusive BF at 6 months than early initiation of
Varendi & Porter, 2001 FT, breast odor brings infant to nipple and breast odor is emitted when in KC
Villalon & Alvarez, 1993
Wahlberg et al., 1990
Wahlberg et al., 1992
Whitelaw, et al., 1988 PT. RCT. 6 month follow-up of KC in hospital. Prolonged lactation in KC grp at
6 months post discharge.
Whitelaw & Liestol, 1994
.Widstrom et al, 1990 FT 6/32 infants put at breast in KC right after birth, sucked within 30 minutes of
birth, but all who had touched licked areola stayed with mother more and had
more interaction with mother. KC stimulated maternal vagal nerve and gastrin
secretion. MATERNAL EFFECT. Prolactin levels before and after feeding in
KC were not different.
WHO/UNICEF 1989 FT, review, position statement that KC should begin within 30 min of birth for
NSVD and within 30 minutes of mom being able to respond for C/S deliveries
To promote BF.
WHO/UNICEF 1992 FT, statement that KC should begin within 30 minutes of birth and continue for
For at least 30 minutes in NSVD and within 30 minutes of mom becoming
responsive after cesarean section to promote BF.
WHO, 1992 FT, guidelines for implementation of Baby Friendly in hospitals that includes
Very early KC and KC with cesarean section moms.
Wiberg et al., 1989 FT, RCT, KCBF for 15-20 in 1st hr after birth. Longer duration of BF at 3 years.
This is de Chateau’s 3 year follow-up.
Physiology during feeding in KC (either breast or bottle):
Chen, Wang et al,2000
Chwo, Anderson, 2002
Chiu et al., 2005 PT, descriptive. Temporal artery temp maintained during KCBF.
Durand et al., 1997 FT, took temps after two hours of KC starting 30 mins after birth and having BF
in KC and comparing to infants bottle fed under radiant warmer.
Breastfeeding films by Bergman and Reviews:
Bar Yam, 2002
SEARCH BEHAVIORS WHEN ON CHEST/BREAST or BREAST CRAWL
Amer Acad Ped 2005 FT, says infants will seek out nipple spontaneously
Burkhammer et al., 2004 Fullterm sought out nipple spontaneously when in KC
Christensson et al., 1992 FT, provides an advantage of the breast crawl
Christensson et al., 1995 FT, advantages of the breast crawl are addressed
Gangal, 2008 FT, full book on advantages and procedure for breast crawl, even with c/s moms
and prematures. Does cheek to cheek too and says most babies do crawl within
30-60 minutes of birth, but if they have not done it by 60 minutes, they can be
helped to breast.
Harris, 1994 Shows pictures of fullterm infant searching and latching onto breast in
immediate postpartum period. Beautiful pictures.
Klaus, 1998 FT, Review, gave description of breast crawl
Klaus & Kennell 2001 FT, Review, includes description of breast crawl.
Righard & Allade, 1990 FT infants who get radiant warmer do not seek out breast
Romano 2007 FT, review of Jonas. Epidural disturbs infant temp on PPD 2
Romano 2007 FT, review of Moore’s Cochrane. Interesting beliefs.
Matthiesen et al. 2001 FT, provides a list of the advantages of the breast crawl.
Ransjo-Arvidson & M, 2001. Maternal analgesia disturbs spontaneous seeking
Varendi & Porter ,2001 FT, when infants smell breast odour they crawl towards it when
in birth KC position.
Varendi et al., 1994 FT. newborn finds breast because it smells like amniotic fluid and it knows
amniotic fluid from the womb. Describes starting position for breast crawl
(“nose in midline of mother’s chest, eyes at the level of the nipples”) and this
description is in Varendi et al., 1996 below under breast crawl.
Widstrom et al.,, 1987 FT, Gastric suctioning disturbs seeking behaviors, but infants whose mothers
have not been exposed to maternal analgesia will crawl onto the mother’s breast.
First description of breast crawl. Started moving 30-45 minutes after birth.
Latch at 55 minutes or more.
Widstrom, et al.,1990).
See also the Breastcrawl film on www.breastcrawl.org
Biological Mechanisms for homing in on the nipple:
Amer Acad Ped 2005 Recommendations that identify spontaneous search for nipple
Varendi et al., 1994 (on KC bib)
Varendi et al., 1996 Citation is Varendi H, Porter RH, Winberg J. 1996. Attractiveness of amniotic fluid
odour. Evidence of prenatal olfactory learning? Acta Paediatrica 85, 1223-1227.Gives description of
starting position for breast crawl.
Varendi & Porter, 2001. (On KC bib).
BREAST FEEDING IN KC Position
Anderson et al., 2003 KCBF Abstract at Research ShowCASE. KCBF improved # of women BF and
exclusivity of BF at discharge, one week and one month postdischarge.
Anderson et al., 2004 FT, reports effects of KCBF (30-90 mins of KC before BF and then BF in KC).
Practiced increased initiation, duration, and exclusivity of BF over first month.
Burkhammer et al., 2004 FT, Case study.
Bier et al., 1995, 1996
Chiu et al., 2005 FT, descriptive of temp during KCBF. Temps at end of feedings were
De Chateau et al FT, RCT
Durand et al., 1997 FT. Compared temps after two hours of KC starting 30 mins after birth and after
having BF during KC to infants who bottle fed under radiant warmer. KC temps
Odent, 1989 KCBF does not separate infant and let’s infant get all the good colostrums
Wiberg et al., 1989 FT, RCT, 3 year follow-up of de Chateau’s study. Longer duration of BF.
Widstrom et al., 1990