Key Question 1.6 What are the demographic challenges facing countries? This
lesson: The issue of high birth rates and high mortality rates - including Aids
Candidates should be aware of:
The issue of high birth rates and high mortality rates - and policies to address
these. Some of this has already been covered in Key Idea 2.
The issue of the impact of diseases such as AIDS.
Detailed knowledge and understanding of at least one case study to
understand the causes and effects of high birth rates and high mortality
Policies to address high birth rates and high mortality rates and the relative
success of such policies.
Question: Outline policies to tackle the demographic challenge of
high birth rates  May 2010
Question: Outline the issues created by a society with both a high
birth rate and a high mortality rate.  (made up question) Some
High Birth Rate -
To reduce stabilise the birth rate - issues raised by China's One Child policy
for example. Religious and cultural resistance to such policies.
Possible issues arising from gender imbalances following selective abortion.
To raise the standard of living of the majority so that people choose to have
fewer children. Raising the status of women.
Economic pressure of high youth dependency - how to fund health care and
education of the children. Economic progress 'swamped' by rising costs of
To avoid mass underemployment - too many people for too few jobs.
To avoid increased rural to urban migration if poverty increases in the
To manage the issue of illegal emigration (or Brain Drain) to wealthier
Continuing population growth from the ongoing effect of large numbers of
fertile young people.
potential raised standard of living if families have fewer children.
Youthful population will help to reduce death rate.
strong youthful working population - potential to develop along the NIC
model like Malaysia if young generation are given skills.
economic gains from growing home market.
High Mortality Rate - Challenges ...
orphaned children - economic and social issues
reduced production eg in foodstuffs
loss of talent
increased pressure on grandparent generation
older children lose opportunity for education caring for younger siblings
gender imbalance in death rate
Problems from Aids in Africa
cost of health care
less gender inequality if supply of labour is short
increased understanding of healthy lifestyle
some promotion of positive moral codes (ABC)
increased support from MEDCs to tackle issues.
reduced pressure on land and resources
shortage of labour so wages may rise
Test Yourself: The Challenge of High Birth rate and High Mortality rate: Uganda –
What does the cartoon mean?
What does the cartoon mean?
The Impact of HIV and Aids in Africa
> Task: Print / summarise the notes from: http://www.avert.org/aidsimpact.htm
Two-thirds of all people living with HIV are found in sub-Saharan Africa, although this
region contains little more than 10% of the world’s population. AIDS has caused
immense human suffering in the continent. The most obvious effect of this crisis has
been illness and death, but the impact of the epidemic has certainly not been
confined to the health sector; households, schools, workplaces and economies have
also been badly affected. During 2007 alone, an estimated 1.5 million adults and
children died as a result of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the beginning of the
epidemic more than 15 million Africans have died from AIDS.
AIDS: 40 million people worldwide with over 30 million in Sub Saharan Africa
In countries like Swaziland and Botswana over 20% of the population is affected.
Annual death toll 3 million. US$5 billion raised by a range of organisations:
# to teach about healthy transmission-prevention strategies
# to care for the millions of orphaned children
# to treat those already infected
Uganda has reduced its adult infection rate from 15% to 5% - a success story. A
concerted campaign backed by the government and religious leaders stressing 'ABC'.
(Abstinence, Being faithful, Using a Condom)
Education is critical - especially for young adults. Migratory labour systems in
southern Africa have an effect as men leave their homes to find work - they may
spend time in brothels when away.
Other problems come from traditional African culture:
# polygamy (more than one wife)
# inheriting the wife of a deceased brother
# communal breast feeding (common in rural areas)
AIDs is a global issue - the global community must help those countries most
affected - the LEDCs do not have the resources or organisational structures to fight
the disease. If we don't help the problem may spread becoming even more of a
pandemic. Potentially the giants of China, India, Indonesia and Russia are at risk.
> Task: Print the notes about AIDS in Uganda from this site
http://www.avert.org/aids-uganda.htm HIV/AIDs - Case Study Uganda
5.4% of adult population PMTCT campaign since Has killed 1 million people
antiretroviral medication 59% of affected are first AIDS programme
free women 1987
slight increase from 2006 80% are unaware of their 10% of adult urban
HIV status population
over 1 million orphaned A is for abstinence US charities stressed
Condoms only to Peak 1991 at 15% of all voluntary counselling and
prostitutes adults testing free
C is for use Condoms first case 1982 Peak 30% of pregnant
women in cities
Victims face stigma and down to 5% in 2001 B is for Be faithful
some complacency and
> watch selection of video clips from GeogOnline