2 4 PPT EN Step 2 Food Consumption Access Indicators

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2 4 PPT EN Step 2 Food Consumption Access Indicators Powered By Docstoc
					Session 2.4.


Situation Analysis Step 2

Food Consumption
& Food Access
Indicators
                            Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
    Learning Objectives
After the session, participants should be able to:
   Explain the methodology of calculating the food
    consumption score, and the limitations of the FCS in
    determining the status of food consumption
   Explain the value - and limitations - of food access
    indicators and thresholds in determination of food
    security groups
   Analyse a food consumption & food access cross
    tabulation table

    2                                Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Where are we?
    EFSA Process
    Adapt conceptual framework & objectives
    Prepare analysis plan: indicators, data, sources
    Collect, review secondary data
    Collect primary data
    Conduct situation analysis
    Conduct forecast analysis
    Analyse response options
    Make response recommendations
    Prepare report
3                                 Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
HH FS: estimated from combination of food
 consumption and food economic access:

           Food Consumption
   Poor?       Borderline?        Acceptable?




  +         Poor?
                             Food Access
                               Average?               Good?




           =         Severe?
                                    Food (In)Security
                                          Moderate?           Adequate?




                                             Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Creating Food Security Groups
 Food consumption indicator:
  Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption Frequency score
  Apply thresholds to define ‘poor’, ‘borderline’ and ‘acceptable’ food
   consumption patterns

 Food access indicator :
  Simple or combined
  Indicator(s) and thresholds are context-specific
  Selection of indicator(s) and thresholds should be based on:
    Type of crisis

    Hypotheses made on the effects of crisis on food access

    Pre-crisis information (baselines, previous surveys)

    Key informants’ and experts’ judgement


                                              Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Food consumption score (1)
   Ideally detailed food consumption surveys are used
    to measure caloric intake.
      Limitations – sample size (cost & time), expertise
   Alternatively, food consumption scores (dietary
    diversity & food frequency) are used in HH
    surveys
   Approach - widely adopted to analyze food
    consumption & assess shortfalls
                                    Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Food consumption score (2)

   Proxy indicator reflecting quantity (kcal) & quality
    (nutrients) of people’s diet
   Based on 7-day recall of food types & frequency of
    consumption
   Data are collected at HH level
   Additional information on food sources is collected to
    understand better HH food access

                                      Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
     Example – Darfur HH questionnaire
                                      DAYS eaten in past   Primary source of food
      Food item/group
                                       week (0-7 days)          (use code)
a     Sorghum
b.    Millet
c.    Other cereals (wheat, maize)
d.    Groundnuts, legumes
e.    Meat/chicken, bush meat, etc.
f.    Cooking oil
g.    Vegetables
h.    Fruits
i.    Milk, yogurt, cheese, etc.
j.    Eggs
k.    Sugar
l.    Wild foods (including leaves)


                                                            Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Calculating food consumption scores (1)

Each food group is assigned a weight reflecting its nutrient
density and expected quantity
For each HH, food consumption score is calculated by:
     Merging food items into 8 food groups
          Note: the maximum frequency for each food group is 7

     Multiplying each food group frequency by food group
      weight, and then
     Summing these scores into one composite score

                                                 Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Calculating Food consumption scores (2)
                                                       Days eaten in past
         Food item                Food        Weight                            Score
                                                            7 days
                                  group        (A)                              AxB
                                                              (B)
Maize, rice, sorghum, millet,
bread and other cereals         Cereals and
                                                2               7                 14
Cassava, potatoes and             tubers
sweet potatoes
Beans, peas, groundnuts
                                  Pulses        3               1                  3
and cashew nuts
Vegetables, relish and
                                Vegetables      1               2                  2
leaves
Fruits                             Fruit        1               0                  0
Beef, goat, poultry, pork,       Meat and
                                                4               0                  0
eggs and fish                      fish
Milk, yoghurt and other dairy      Milk         4             1                    4
Sugar and sugar products          Sugar        0.5            4                    2
Oils, fats and butter               Oil        0.5            2                    1
                                                         Composite score          26
                                                       Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Interpretation of FCS (1)
   HH score is compared with pre-established thresholds that
    indicate the status of HH’s food consumption

   21 scores is the minimum thresholds:
         7 days cereals/tubers = 14
         + 5 days pulses/beans = 5
         + 4 days oils/fat = 2
         = 21


   Any HH or group of HHs falling below this minimum level of
    consumption can be viewed as having poor food
    consumption

                                           Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Interpretation of FCS (2)
 Poor food consumption:       0 to 21                   (0 to 28)
 Borderline food consumption: 21.5 to 35                (28.5 to 42)
 Good food consumption:       > 35                      (>42)



Note: Thresholds can be adjusted if there is clear justification for doing so,
           e.g. small amounts of oil & sugar consumed daily



                                                 Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Interpretation of FCS (3)

  FCS       Interpretation

  < 21      Quantity and quality inadequate

21.5 - 35   Quality inadequate (quantity?)

  > 35      Adequate diet

                             Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Example: frequency and diversity

     Household 1                      Household 2
    Maize = 4 days                  Rice = 7 days
    Tubers = 3 days                 Tubers = 2 days
                                     Meat = 5 days
    Rice = 1 day
                                     Cooking oil = 7 days
    Beans = 5 days
                                     Vegetables = 3 days
    Meat = 1 day
    Cooking oil = 7 days
    Leaves = 3 days


 1. What are the scores for each household?
 2. Who enjoys better food intake and why?
      Household 1 = 41.5 scores
      Household 2 = 44.5 scores
                                               Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Analysis of Food Consumption (1)
Example

                         Average number of days per week households consumed
                                    certain food items (7 day recall)
                              7.0
                        7.0
                        6.0
  number of days/week




                                                                5.2
                        5.0

                        4.0
                        38.6 scores = adequate food consumption
                        3.0

                        2.0         1.6               1.8
                                              1.4                                        1.4       1.2
                        1.0                                             0.5       0.4
                        0.0
                              ce

                                        tub




                                                          ve




                                                                                                   oil
                                                pu

                                                          gr




                                                          me

                                                                                  po

                                                                                            fis
                                re




                                                            ge
                                                            ou




                                                                                               h
                                                  lse




                                                                                    ult
                                         er




                                                             at
                                  als




                                                              ta
                                                               nd




                                                                                       ry
                                            s

                                                      s




                                                                 ble
                                                                  nu


                                                                     s&
                                                                     ts


                                                                        fru
                                                                            its




                                                                                        Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Analysis of Food Consumption (2)
Example




                       Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Limitations

Is only a snap-shot of one week food consumption
Does not:
   capture seasonal changes
   quantify the food gap
   capture intra-HH food consumption
   show how food consumption has changed as result of crisis,
    unless previous FCSs for same HHs are available
      Thus, in an emergency, MORE ANALYSIS IS NEEDED
        to understand changes in HH food consumption

                                        Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Food Access
        The measure of a population’s
        ability to acquire available food
        for the given consumption
        period through:
            its own stocks
            home production
            market transactions
            other forms of transfers




                  Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
    Food access indicators (1)

   People’s access to food varies widely among & within areas
   Indicators must be tailored to the livelihood strategies employed
    by the assessed population
      e.g. purchasing power: HHs depend upon daily labour for
      their income & buy almost all their food at the market
           Wage income
           Prices (terms of trade – wage income/staple food)
           Seasonality

                                            Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Examples: Food access indicators
      Sources of food and income
      Consumption of “famine foods”
      Purchasing power
      Terms of trade
      Food self-sufficiency
      Asset ownership
      Remittances
                                                          20
                              Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
What would you choose as
food access indicators? Why?

   In a community, households
    keep about 1/2 of their         Food access
    harvested crops for own
    consumption.                      indicators:
   This does not cover all their    Food stock duration
    food needs, so they need to
    purchase food.                   Income source
   Income comes from sale of         (reliability)
    crops as well as fishing and
    livestock sales

                                        Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Food sources




               Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
    Food access indicators (2)
   Food access indicators are rated as poor/average/good using
    context specific indicators
   The key criteria for such a value judgement are:
       Reliability: continuous & predictable supply of food / income
       Sustainability: source is not dependent on temporary or
        unpredictable systems (such as food aid)
       Quantity: Food or income sources provide sufficient quantity
        to cover needs
       Quality: Food sources cover nutrition requirements; income
        sources are socially acceptable.

                                                                         23
                                             Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Poor, average or good
food access? (1)
 A HH has recently moved to an IDP camp and
 acquires most of its food from relief assistance
 provided by an international humanitarian
 organisation.
 The household has no income source.


   Poor food access because of poor food
    and no income source

                                    Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Poor, average or good
food access? (2)
Another HH in the camp receives most of its food from
relief. This HH retains access to some of its fields and is
able to harvest and sell some cash crops.

In addition, the HH receives regular remittances from a
relative working in the capital.

 HH’s income sources are good. Combination of poor
   food sources with good income sources leads to
    average food access.

                                     Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
    Darfur food access indicator -
    establishing thresholds (1)

2006 Darfur assessment :
   Most people in area under study depend primarily on their own
    agricultural production for food and income
   According to FAO/WFP references, average individual in
    Darfur needs 150 kg of cereal / year for consumption
   According to 2005 EFSA, ave. yields of cereal are 450 kg/ha
   Therefore, to produce enough food, HH must cultivate at least
    0.33 ha of cereal / HH household member


                                         Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Darfur food access indicator -
establishing thresholds (2)

On the basis of this analysis, simple thresholds
can be established:
  < 0.3 ha / HH member =             poor access
  0.3 to 0.4 ha / HH member =        average
  > 0.5 ha / HH member =             good

                              Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Darfur food access indicator -
establishing thresholds (3)
 Note of caution:
 Analysis within broader context.
  e.g. HH with 0.5 ha / HH member might have problems if
   rains were less than usual, or if conflict restricted access
   to fields

 Variations in the data.
  Average yield is estimated at 450 kg/ha, but perhaps half
   the farms yield 750 kg/ha while the other half yield only
   150 kg/ha.
                                       Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
 Combining food access
 indicators
 Food source 
                       Poor          Average                Good
Income source 
                  Poor food      Poor food           Average food
     Poor         access         access              access

                  Poor food      Average food        Good food
   Average        access         access              access

                  Average food   Good food           Good food
     Good         access         access              access




                                         Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Malawi –
Food access indicators (1)




                     Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Malawi –
Food access indicators (2)




                     Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
 Creating Food Security Groups (1)
Food consumption 
                         Poor          Borderline              Good
Food access 

                     Severely food-   Severely food-        Moderately
       Poor
                       insecure         insecure          food-insecure

                     Severely food-     Moderately
     Average                                               Food-secure
                       insecure       food-insecure

                       Moderately
       Good                           Food-secure          Food-secure
                     food-insecure



                                            Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Creating Food Security Groups (2)




                         Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Exercise 2.4.a.
Food Access & Food Security Indicators

 Construct a food access indicator
 Estimate proportions of food
 insecure HHs

 Use Exercise 2.4.a Worksheet


                                Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
Exercise 2.4.b.
Cross-Tab: Food Consumption & Food Access



  Calculate the number and proportion of HHs in:
   severe food insecurity

   moderate food insecurity

   food security




                                Advanced EFSA Learning Programme
In EFSAs in your countries…

    What food access indicators have been
     used?
    Why were these chosen?
    What other indicators might help
     determine food access levels?


36                         Advanced EFSA Learning Programme

				
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