Case Study by F8bZ59

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									                       ICT for Education in Thailand
                                                                                            Mr.Sathien Usaha
                                                   The Bureau of Information and Communication Technology
                                                                              Ministry of Education, Thailand


        In the modern world, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays an
important role in our lives and infiltrates every segment of the society . Integration of ICT in
education is an effective alternative for efficient teaching and learning at school levels. It is not
surprising that ICT has increasingly been powerful force in educational development. Realising
the important capacity of ICT for education in enhancing the competitiveness of Thailand and its
people in a knowledge-based economy and society, several actions have been taken by the Royal
Thai Government.
Introduction
        In academic year 2007, The Ministry of Education was responsible for 36,288 schools
consisting of 13,730,409 students and 627,501 teachers . The information about using ICT in
schools and relevant areas is as follows:

Ratio of student to computer in schools


                       Student to Computer Ratio % of Schools
                       Not greater than 20 students      55.3
                       21-40 students                    24.8
                       41-60 students                     8.0
                       61-80 students                     3.2
                       81-100 students                    1.2
                       Greater than 100 students          7.5

           From the table : It shows the Percentage of Schools Classified by Student to Computer Ratio.
The majority of schools was not greater than 20 students per computer
Access to internet in schools
                                                    Total:
  25000                                           34,262 sites
  20000                         19769       19769
                                                            Dial Line
  15000
                                            11915           Leased Line
  10000
                                                            Satellite
                    6338
   5000
                    1054    1267            2578
       0            41         1019
                2003        2004         2005-
                                        Present
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        From the table : The total number of Institutions that can access internet by type of services
is 34,262 schools. From the year 2005 to present only leased lines and satellites have been
installed at institutions.

The Current ICT Situation in Thailand
        At present, the population of Thailand is 67 million. The current data of the ICT utilization
is as follows:

Total of households in Thailand -16.9 million :
   - Households with TV and VDO              95.7%
   - Households with Radio and tape          91.1%
   - Households with telephone               87.7%
   - Households with computer and internet 50.7%
    - Households with fax                    10.7%

 Total number of people ( from 67 million) using cell phone and digital device:
  • Population (6 years up) using cell phone                                78.2%
  • Population (6 years up) using computer and internet                     61.4%
  • Population (6 years up) using mp3, mp4 or personal multimedia player 33.2%
  • Population (6 years up) using digital camera                             29.9%

 Total number of Student user (6-24 years old) 16 million :
   • Percentage of student using of computer and internet 82.7%
                                - searching through explorer      17.8 %
                                 - writing webpage                4.16%
   • Percentage of student using internet at school               39.0%
                                - using internet every day        31.2%
                                 - using internet for education    29.9%
Student’s behavior
   • 66.1% of youth (10-17 years) playing computer game
   • 87.8% of youth (10-17 years) watching TV and VDO as hobby.
   • 28.4% of youth (10-17 years) listeingn radio and tape as hobby.
   • 65.2% of youth (10-17 years) reading book or newspaper as hobby.
   • 11.2% of youth (10-17 years) talking on phone more than 30 minutes per day


The Ministry of Education’s ICT Master Plan
        The Ministry of Education’s ICT Master plan sets forward a bold and ambitious portfolio
of activities and Investments between 2007-2011. The Master plan seeks to support Thailand’s
learning society aspirations by enabling learners, teachers, administrators and all Thai citizens to
experience the benefits of ICT’s. The Master plan is based around three key strands for ICT
enabled transformations in education covering:

       1. Quality of learning: increased access to new learning resources for formal , non-formal
and informal education will be underpinned by instructional materials and teaching approaches
aimed at developing thinking, communication, problem-solving, creativity and other skills to
support Thailand’s knowledge economy aspirations.
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        2. Educational management: ICT enabled improvements in educational management and
administration will be accompanied by innovations in the monitoring and evaluation of learning as
well as new opportunities for collaboration and resource sharing between students and teachers
within educational institutions as well as with their local, national and international peer groups.
         3. Quality of ICT graduates: The development of a large number of ICT specialists to
international standards will simulate innovations in education and related to support Thailand’s
learning society.

       The Ministry of Education has set a development plan to support the following
objectives:

       A substantial majority of educational institutes will increase their access and speed to the
        internet;
       Several hundred e-learning resources will be developed and distributed to teachers;
       Quality standards for ICT-based systems will be used in formal and non-formal education;
       ICT led management information and communications in all institutions;
       All graduate students from educational institutions will have a good standard of ICT
        knowledge and literacy;
       Develop ICT capacity to support Thailand’s economic growth;
       Front office services in all education organizations will be electronic;
       The general public will acquire new knowledge through ICT.

       The Ministry of Education has set the following targets to be achieved by 2011:
       Distance learning will reach all areas in the country from local Educational Service Areas
        to local sub-districts via educational services;
       80 percent of education organizations will manage their offices through ICT’s;
       All levels of education will utilise ICT’s in managing teaching and learning;
       More than 80 percent of the general public will have good ICT knowledge;
       More than 80 percent of graduates at all levels will gain appropriate ICT knowledge and at
        least 50 percent of ICT graduates will meet recognised international standards;
       Science and Technology graduates will be 50% of all graduates;
       90 percent of people in remote areas will receive ICT enabled knowledge and information;
       70 percent of people in working ages will use ICT’s to support their professional
        development.

ICT Infrastructure
         The objectives of The Ministry of Education Network (MOENet) was the national
education network and was developed in order to connect the various existing networks together,
assure coverage at the school level and ensure that internet is equally accessible for all students.
MOENet Infrastructure Development Plan is as follows:
              - Expand the network coverage all higher educational Institutions
             - Connect Higher Education Network to 79 Distribution Nodes
             - Connect Distribution Nodes to 36,650 K12 and Vocational Institutions
    MOENet network installation composes of ADSL Modem, Leased Line,
Satellite and Wireless.
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Stage of ICT integration
        With regard to the adoption of ICT in education, when looking at the overall situation, it
has been estimated that Thailand is currently in the second level or the phase of “Applying” as
rated by the level of UNESCO ICT integration . Some reasons to support this estimation are as
follows:
            - Thailand has the Educational ICT Master Plan (2007-2011) to guide ICT policies
of the Ministry of Education .
            - ICT was accepted as the part of Career and Technology course and taught in
every level of education.
            - Most of schools in Thailand are already have their own computer labs, as well as
the hardware, software and training with the support of budget from the ministry and community.

        However, when considered the stages of ICT Integration by level of education and school
location, it seems that the higher education institutions gains much availability of ICT, and have
employed ICT tools in many courses. This scenario is also applied to the case of primary and
secondary schools in urban areas. Thus, these groups of consideration should be rated in level 3 or
“Infusion” as rated by the level of UNESCO ICT integration .

Number of existing ICT equipments in school
        The average amount of ICT equipment used in each school has been reported that about 14
computers are used in teaching, learning and administration. A number of subordinate tools are
televisions (10 per each school), sound recorder and VDO / VCD / DVD player(3 per each school),
and digital cameras (1 per each school) respectively. For VDO cameras, it has the minimal average
of about 1 VDO cameras shared among 3 schools.
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ICT for management of the school administrators
         Most school administrators have been trained in the use of ICT, especially computer basic
skills; thus, they normally have the medium level of computer literacy. This group of people has
paid an important role of ICT utilization in schools due to the fact that they are those who receive
the policy from the Ministry of Education in ICT use to reform the way of teaching and learning in
school. From the school survey, it shows that the majority use of computers is in education (79%),
and the rest of total use (21%) is focused on management purposes ranging from document, human
resource, and registration to financial management.
        To provide computers for schools, some (27%) have been allocated from the budget of the
ministry; others have been received from donation of parents and community (52%), as well as
other sources (21%). For the use of computer labs, about 80% of total schools have their own
computer lab for teaching and learning – the percentage of schools having 1, 2 and 3 or more
computer labs are 59%, 11% and 10% respectively.
       From school administrators’ perspective, benefits from the use of computers in schools
include the increase in ability to perform individual work with less duration, search for new
knowledge and be up-to-date, and provide quality education from basic to higher levels.


The use of ICT for teachers
        Ministry of Education has endorsed significant amount of budget for training all teachers to
have basic knowledge in computer skills and internet use. Moreover, the MOE has been working
with Ministry of ICT, and private sectors in term of personnel development, for instance Partners
in Learning is the project from Microsoft Thailand who donates operating software for all PCs and
learning grants for improving teachers to use ICT effectively as a result of their professional and
personal development. And e – learning will be an important method for training them. Intel Teach
to the Future is the program to equip teachers with pedagogical use of ICT in classrooms in a way
that the lesson must enhance students’ higher efficiency and thinking skills. Besides,
The Institute of the Promotion of Science and Math Teaching is planning a number of programs to
introduce and produce web based education for teachers and students. The MOE also has a number
of projects with international organizations to integrate ICT into classroom activities, for instance
Japan International Cooperation Agency has launched ITEd project to equip 3000 teachers in the
country with idea of ICT integration in classroom activities. UNESCO and UNICEF also help
teachers and educational institutes in rural areas in the country to get into ICT use paradigm.
World Bank and NGO also have numbers of programs to introduce ICT in the school level. This
seems to be a number of organizations involved in ICT use for education in Thailand.
        From the survey, 78% of teachers use a computer to search for new knowledge from
Internet and support teaching and learning activities. When looking into each subject, it has been
found that teachers normally percept the web as a search tool for 26% in Mathematics, 30% in
Thai language, 26% in Foreign languages, 34% in Science, 26% in Social studies Religion and
Culture, 33% in Career and Technology, 16% in Health and Physical Education, and 18% in Art
and Music.
        In order to develop electronic media for teaching the subject matter taught, most teachers
prefer to produce CAI as an instructional tool (17%), together with other types of media which are
e-Learning (8%), VDO/VCD/DVD (8%), Website (8%), e-Book (7%), Courseware (3%) and e-
Library (1%).
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Student use of ICT in classroom
   Currently, most schools have adopted ICT tools to facilitate teaching and learning in many
subjects. It has been found that 90.66% of students tend to use a computer at school, and 91.34%
are required to learn basic computer skills. Besides, for some schools, students have a chance to
take the course of computer office programs. From the survey, there are approximately 86 %, 84
%, 59 % and 55% of students in those schools taking Computer Graphic, Word processing
Program, Spreadsheets Program, and Presentation Program respectively; 57 % of students also
learn about Internet usage. However, when the students were asked to do self-evaluation for their
computer literacy, surprisingly, they rated themselves only “Fair” or “Poor”.
        When we asked students about problems regarding to the use of ICT in schools, it seemed
that the most common obstacle for them is the lack of enough computers used in schools. In
addition, students also reported other problems, including the inadequate usage time schools
schedule for computer-based instruction, a lack of teachers who graduated in ICT, a lack of focus
on applying ICT into teaching and learning, and the high cost of computer equipment.
       From the survey, the students felt the use of ICT in education offer several benefits. They
thought ICT made learning more interesting and brings enjoyment as well as entertainment.
Besides, ICT could help them explore new knowledge much faster. Therefore, most of the students
were satisfied and encouraged use of ICT in learning activities of the school.

ICT learning programs in schools
       For the school curriculum, a computer course is offered as an elective course in primary
education and as a required course in secondary education. The subjects that the schools offer
normally include:
       Word processing Program        (76% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Presentation Program           (53% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Internet                       (51% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Spreadsheets Program           (51% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Computer Graphic               (33% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Webpage design                 (22% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Database Programming          (16% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Computer Language              (10% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Others                         (4% of total schools offer this subject choice)
       Percentage of school using ICT for instruction. When looking into each subject, it has been
found that the teacher using ICT in teaching for, 65% in Science, 60% in Social studies Religion
and Culture, 59% in Career and Technology,55% in Foreign languages, 54% in Thai language,
50% in Mathematics, 44% in Health and Physical Education, and 43% in Art and Music.
        Electronic learning media is another type of media that schools purchase and encourage
their teaching staffs to produce so as to support learning environment. From the survey, it has been
found that 71% of schools have such media for teaching and learning. For more details, these
media include CAI, e-Library, e-Book and Courseware which are used by 45%, 17%, 16% and
15% of total schools respectively.

Problems and obstacles in integrating ICT in education
   1. ICT devices used in teaching and learning are not adequate, and are currently in conditions
      that have not been fully utilized because of defective performance and obsoleteness.
   2. Schools lack software to support teaching/learning, and management.
   3. Schools (35% of total) lack teachers who graduated in ICT.
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   4. Teachers are still reluctant to adopt of ICT into their teaching practice.
   5. Financial support from national budget, parents and communities is still relatively low.
   6. The internet network runs at a low speed, and schools have to confront with a lack of
      equipment and software to prevent viruses.
   7. There are not enough teacher training programs to guide how to integrate ICT into
      teaching/learning process.
   8. ICT for students with disabilities have not been sufficiently developed and supported.

Challenging Projects on Integrating ICT in Education
The Distance Learning Foundation
        The Distance Learning Foundation (The Wang Klaikangwon School, Hua Hin Model:
Distance Education via Satellite Broadcast and Flexible Learning) : With an initial fund of 50
million baht granted by His Majesty the King, the DLF was established. In cooperation with the
Office of the Basic Education Commission (OBEC), the TOT Corporation Public Company
Limited, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and international organisations under the aegis of the
United Nations, the DLF presently broadcasts educational TV programmes via satellite through 14
channels. Among these, 12 channels are devoted for the direct teaching programmes at basic
education level. Normal classroom-setups with students present are used in studios to ensure that
students in remote schools realise that they access to the study programmes that are of the same
quality/ standards and have the same teachers as those in Wang Klaikangwon School, His Majesty
the King’s private school in Hua Hin, which serves as the parent school. The other two channels
are the international channel broadcast in foreign languages and the community/tertiary education
channel. The Ku-band satellite pattern covers China (Kunming), Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and
Vietnam. All these neighbors received the Royal Granting of distance learning equipment from His
Majesty the King.

Interactive E-learning
      Interactive E-learning is a new form of distance learning. It is another alternative to
enhance education in Thailand in order to achieve the following objectives:
      1. Solve the shortage of specialist teachers in science, mathematics and English.
      2. Develop electronic lessons as a medium for teaching distance-learning with quality and
          standards to cover the curriculum required by Ministry of Education.
      3. Create equal education opportunity and bridge the gap between students in urban and
          rural.
  The project has started since 2008 in schools that lack teachers in science, mathematics and
English.
       Process Implementation
       1. Specialist teachers prepare effective teaching and learning materials.
       2. Such teachers provide live tele-teaching via satellite to the destination schools.
       3. In case the students or teachers in those schools have any questions or concerns, they
          can submit the questions. Then after verified by experts, the answers will be
          broadcasted to the destination schools.
   The outcome expected from this project is the solution for Thailand education according to the
shortage of teachers both in terms of quantity and quality. In addition, we also hope the project will
support students to access advanced and efficient instruction media, and become another step to
advance the equal education throughout the country, and compare Thai education system against
international benchmarks in the near future.
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R radio Network
    Vocational Education Commission has taken part in the development project under the Royal
Initiative of H.R.H Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn to launch R-radio Network so as to broadcast
a radio program of education and professional development in order to promote professional
development of local communities and disadvantaged group in remote areas that have less
opportunity of receiving education and extend the distribution of academic knowledge to the
general public. The R-radio project has started its operation in 23 network radio stations
nationwide since 2007. The target groups are local communities and disadvantaged group in
remote areas, general public and vocational students.
Objectives
         1. Respectfully inform royal duties and projects.
         2. Promote professional development to local communities and disadvantaged group in
            remote areas.
         3. Publish the assorted kinds of knowledge ranging from economy, society, ICT, and
            professional development to local wisdom, national culture and entertainment which
            can be beneficial for people.
         4. Provide teaching and learning for vocational students.
         5. Be the communicative channel that acts as a call center for notifying any emergency or
            accident, and link with other organizations.
   As a crucial factor in the transformation of Thai society into a knowledge-based society,
effective integration of ICT in education can help improve the quality of teaching and learning as
well as make lifelong education for all Thai people more promising. In this regard, continuous and
concrete actions must be taken to deal with the priority tasks. These include development of
materials and other technologies for education and bridging the digital divide between Thailand
and other countries as well as between Thai people living in urban areas and those living in rural
areas.
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Reference

                                 ั
กระทรวงศึกษาธิการ, รายงานผลการวิจยการประเมินผลการใช้เทคโนโลยีสารสนเทศและการสื่ อสารเพื่อ
        การศึกษาของกระทรวงศึกษาธิการ, สานักงานปลัดกระทรวงศึกษาธิการ, กรกฎาคม 2549
                            ั
กระทรวงศึกษาธิการ, รายงานวิจยการใช้เทคโนโลยีสารสนเทศและการสื่ อสารต่อการปฎิรูปการเรี ยนรู ้,
       สานักงานปลัดกระทรวงศึกษาธิการ, ตุลาคม 2550.
Ministry of Education, 2007 Education Statistic in Brief, Office of the Permanent Secretary
          Ministry of Education,Thailand, September 2008.
Regional Guidelines on Teacher Development for Pedagogy-Technology Integration, UNESCO
          and Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development, 2005.

								
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