Relationship between nightshades tomatoes and arthritis

Document Sample
Relationship between nightshades tomatoes and arthritis Powered By Docstoc
					Journal of Neurological and Orthopedic Medical Surgery (1993) 12:227-231


An Apparent Relation of Nightshades (Solanaceae) to Arthritis
N.F. Childers, Ph.D.1,2, and M.S. Margoles, M.D.3

1Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA, 2Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA, and 3Arthritis
Nightshades Research Foundation, 177 San Ramon Drive, San Jose, CA 95111-3615,
USA.


Abstract
Diet appears to be a factor in the etiology of arthritis based on surveys of over 1400
volunteers during a 20-year period. Plants in the drug family, Solanaceae (nightshades) are
an important causative factor in arthritis in sensitive people. This family includes potato
(Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum
melongena L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and peppers (Capsicum sp.) of all kinds
except the black pepper (family, Piperaceae). A buildup of cholinesterase inhibiting
glycoalkaloids and steroids from consumption and/or use (tobacco) of the nightshades and
from other sources such as caffeine and some pesticides (organophosphates and
carbamates) may cause inflammation, muscle spasms, pain, and stiffness. Osteoarthritis
appears to be a result of long-term consumption and/or use of the Solanaceae which
contain naturally the active metabolite, vitamin D3, which in excess causes crippling and
early disability (as seen in livestock). Rigid omission of Solanaceae, with other minor diet
adjustments, has resulted in positive to marked improvement in arthritis and general
health.

Introduction
Previous studies [1] have established the relation of arthritis to a family of food plants and
tobacco, the Solanaceae, or nightshades. This study is based on surveys of over a thousand
volunteers who omitted from daily usage these crops and their culprit chemicals in other
foods.
There are over 90 genera and some 2000 species in this family of staple food plants
[1,2,3,4], among which are the potato (Solanum tuberosum L), the tomato (Lycopersicon
esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and
peppers (Capsicum sp.) of all kinds except the black pepper (family, Piperaceae). The
nightshade tobacco (Nicotina tabacum L.) is closely related to the food nightshades and
has a documented record of causing heart, lung, and circulatory problems as well as cancer
and other health problems [5,6]. The flowers, fruit, and foliage of the Solanaceae contain
glycoalkaloids and steroidal drugs (e.g. the stimulating capsaicin in peppers, the
tranquilizing nicotine in tobacco, solanine in potato and eggplant, and the tomatine in
tomato). Some drugs from the Solanaceae are widely used in medicine, such as
scopolamine, atropine, hyoscyamine, and belladonna [7]. Several solanaceous plants and
products are highly poisonous, such as deadly black nightshade, Atropa belladonna L., and
Jimsonweed, Atropa stramonium L. [4,8].

                                                                                            1
Surveys
The author became interested in arthritis when diagnosed personal symptoms appeared at
age 50, along with diverticulitis and a three-phase colostomy operation. The cause of
diverticulitis is unknown, but "hot foods" (Capsicum sp.) were suspected [2]. The author
had been drinking a spiced tomato juice with fresh tomatoes in season. All solanaceous
foods and tobacco were stopped with a permanent disappearance of the colon and arthritic
discomforts. Little was said of this apparent anecdotal relationship for several years,
assuming a limited personal allergy. Eventually, others who were avoiding food
nightshades to control their arthritis began asking, "Why don't you do something about
this to help others?" Consequently, announcements were placed in the horticultural media;
these drew over 400 interested volunteers, most of whom reported various degrees of
success in controlling their arthritis. A book was published in 1977 [2] as (1) a possible
aid to other arthritics and (2) a survey of the literature of adverse effects of the Solanaceae;
and (3) as an attempt to recruit additional volunteers.

In 1979, a post-card-return survey of 2453 book holders was made [1] with 763 (30%)
volunteers responding: there was a 72.7% positive response to the "No Nightshades" Diet
(Table 1). The replies varied from a positive (44%) to a marked positive (28%) response:
immobile joints became mobile, and canes, walkers, and wheelchairs were discarded.
About 20% of the volunteers were judged as being not on the diet, based on indefinite
replies, not fully understanding the diet, or inability to avoid completely the addicting
foods and/or tobacco. There were 7.5% negative replies.

In 1985-1986, another survey was made of over 5000 new book (1981) holders with a
detailed 4-page questionnaire that drew only 434 (8.6%) replies, but did provide broader
information [10]. The survey of over 5000 new diet book (1981) holders canvassed
provided the following information:

      Of the 5000 readers canvassed, 434 returned a questionnaire (8.6%);
      Arthritis had been diagnosed by a physician in 85% of respondents;
      79% had been treated with drugs, with 80% receiving some degree of temporary
       relief;
      52% indicated they were rigidly on the diet, 48% had "slipped" occasionally;
      Rigidly on the diet, 94% had complete or substantial relief from symptoms;
      Of dieters with an occasional "slip" 50% had complete or substantial relief;
      Overall, 68% had complete or substantial relief
      Tobacco inquiry was inadvertently omitted from questionnaire, which could have
       had some impact on data.

While 68% received various degrees of relief from arthritic symptoms vs. 72% in the first
survey, it was found that physicians had diagnosed arthritis in 85% of the volunteers. Of
the 52% rigidly on the diet, 94% reported complete or substantial relief. Of the 48% who
"slipped" occasionally and partook of a nightshade, 50% reported complete or substantial
relief from arthritic symptoms.


                                                                                              2
Sherman [11] circulated a detailed questionnaire in the late 1970's to over 3000 arthritis
sufferers who were trying to avoid the nightshades in their diet [11]. Only 290 replied
(9.7%). They varied in age from 20s to 80s and were suffering from different kinds of
arthritis. Twelve percent reported no response. About 87% reported positive response.
Fifteen percent reported over 85% recovery. Major reductions were experienced in pain,
joint tenderness, and muscle spasms, with appreciable gains in motion and endurance.
While the total number of volunteers replying to these questionnaires was over 1400, the
percentage of replies of people contacted was generally low. One reason for a low
percentage reply could be that the diet is very difficult to follow. Nightshades are mixed
(hidden) among dozens of other foods (fresh and processed). It is often difficult to avoid
these readily available and more or less addictive foods and tobacco. Volunteers usually
must be strongly motivated to be rigidly conscientious about the diet.

Rat Study
Two feeding experiments were conducted by Stankiewicz and Evans [12,13] at Rutgers
University to determine if the white potato (Solanum tuberosum), as in the case of
Solanum malacoxylon[14], can naturally produce vitamin D3 and cause pathology in rats
[15] as in livestock [16]. In trial 1, rats were fed diets containing 0, 5, 15, 25, or 35%
whole dried potato with and without added vitamin D3. In trial 2, whole dried potato at
levels of 0 or 50% was substituted for the vitamin D3. Mineral levels and vitamin D3 were
adjusted in the rations to standard requirements, as the percentage levels of whole dried
potato and/or potato peel were varied. Increasing levels of whole dried potato caused (1)
femur Ca, Mg, and P to increase, and (2) serum hydroxyproline (Hp) to be lowered with
the higher levels of the whole dried potato; soft tissue mineralization was virtually absent.
However, liver Zn and Cu increased linearly as whole dried potato increased. In trial 2,
increasing the level of dried potato peel caused (1) femur Hp to increase, (2) femur Ca and
P to trend upward, while (3) serum Hp declined. Soft tissue mineralization was absent
while body weight gains declined only when dried potato peel exceeded 20% in the diet.
An interaction between whole dried potato and dried potato peel caused (1) a linear
decline in femur Hp (Fig. 1) and femur Ca and P, while (2) serum Hp, kidney Ca and Mg,
and heart Ca were elevated, with (3) a decline in body weight-gain (Fig. 2). In like
manner, vitamin D3 interacted with whole dried potato to (1) decrease femur Mg and Ca,
(2) increase kidney Mg, and (3) decrease liver Zn and Cu. In conclusion, low levels of
potato increased bone mineralization due to a hypothesized increase in the intestinal
absorption of Ca, P, and Mg. Conversely, a high intake of potato resulted in (1) decreased
bone mineral content, (2) soft tissue mineralization, and (3) a decrease in body weight
gain. The overall effect indicated the potato does have vitamin D-like activity.

Animal Implications
Livestock researchers since the early 1900's have reported a disease of livestock
resembling arthritis. The disease is chronic, crippling, and debilitating; it results in
arteriosclerosis, hypercalcemia, parathyroid atrophy, C cell hyperplasia, osteopetrosis,
osteonecrosis, soft tissue calcinosis, and early death (Fig. 3). Countries and researchers
include: Argentina [17,18], USA [19,20,21,22], Brazil [23,24], Hawaii [18,25], Jamaica
[26], Australia [27], and Europe [28,29]. The principal culprits have been identified in the
plant family Solanaceae, including Solanum malacoxylon, and Solanum sodomeum,

                                                                                           3
(same genus as potato and eggplant), Cestrum diurnum, and Nierembergia veitchii. A
forage grass in the German Alps, Trisetum flavescens [16], has been associated with the
disease. Farmers have long been aware of sickness and death of livestock, particularly the
young, when feeding inadvertently on pasture nightshades. Literature for almost a century
contains reports of sickness and death when nightshades, including the potato, are
consumed under certain conditions [6,30,31,32]. Based on livestock research, vitamin D3
found naturally in the nightshades is now being used as a highly effective rat poison at
0.075% [33].
The Solanaceae cause at least two known health problems. They contain cholinesterase
inhibiting glycoalkaloids and steroids [6,34,35,36] including, among others, the drugs
solanine in potato and eggplant, tomatine in tomato, nicotine in tobacco, and capsaicin in
garden peppers. When these inhibitors accumulate in the body, alone or with other
cholinesterase inhibitors such as caffeine or food impurities containing systemic
cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides, the result may be a paralytic-like muscle spasm,
aches, pains, tenderness, inflammation, and stiff body movements [2]. These symptoms
may dissipate in a few hours or days if ingestion is stopped; people vary in sensitivity. The
second problem is the ability of the Solanaceae (those species analyzed) to develop
naturally the very active metabolite of vitamin D3 (1a25 dihydroxycholecalciferol) that
results in calcinosis of soft tissues, ligaments, and tendons, mineralization in walls of
major     arteries   and     veins,    and      osteopetrosis   and    related     pathology
[10,14,16,17,18,19,20,28,37] in livestock (Fig. 3). In time, there is progressive lameness
and extended uselessness, with eventual death of livestock. Copper deficiency in the liver
and other tissues associated with arthritic-like symptoms has also been diagnosed with the
livestock disease [18].

There could be other factors such as a saponic-like glycoalkaloid [8], possibly capsaicin
[6], causing irritation of the walls of the digestive tract after extended usage by sensitive
people, resulting in an ulcer, diverticula, and polyps [2]. The nightshades can cause red
blood cell destruction in vitro [8], and the steroid alkanine is readily absorbed by the
intestine; this could be responsible for associated nervous symptoms [6,8].

Conclusions Davis [18] stated [14] that
      "The demonstration that the active form of vitamin D (D3) is present in at
      least three species of three (now four [24]) different genera of plants,
      raises many questions regarding the possible role of diet and calcium and
      phosphorous metabolism. Are there many other plants common to human
      diets, as well as in animal feeds, that contain significant if small quantities
      of the active form of vitamin D? Can the presence of such a compound be
      used advantageously to protect against the occurrence of osteomalacia? Is
      it possible that the presence of the active form of vitamin D may result in
      abnormal calcium absorption and deposits in connective tissue with
      resultant pathology [38,39]? Obviously, the discovery that plants can form
      the active vitamin D3 opens a vast new area of research with potentially
      far reaching importance for human and animal health."




                                                                                           4
Kingsbury [8] stated that "Despite the ancient and general reputation of the nightshades as
poisonous plants, very few feeding experiments have been performed with any of the toxic
species... begging experimentation." Further research with the food nightshades, which has
been done with tobacco, may also be fruitful in helping solve the problems of heart,
circulatory, cancer, and related diseases.

References

Childers N.F. A relationship of arthritis to the Solanaceae (nightshades). J Intern Acad Prev Med
1979; 7:31-37
Childers N.F., Russo G.M. The nightshades and health (extensive literature). New Jersey
(Somerville) and Florida (3906 NW 31 Pl., Gainesville 32606): Hortic Pub, 1977
D’Arcy WG. Solanaceae: biology and systemics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985
Heiser CB Jr. The fascinating world of the nightshades, 2nd ed. New York: Dover Publ, 1987
Tso TC. Tobacco and tobacco smoke. In Childers NF, Russo GM (eds). Nightshades and health.
New Jersey: Horticultural Publications, 1977; 92-121
Zitnak A. Steroids and capsaicinoids of solanaceous food plants (the nightshades). In: Childers
NF, Russo GM (eds). The nightshades and health. New Jersey: Horticultural Publications.
Gainesville, 1977; 41-91
Lewis WH. Medical botany-plants affecting man’s health. Philadelphia: John Wiley and Sons,
1977; 419-425
Kingsbury JM. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,
1968; 288.
Dong CH, Banks J. New hope for the arthritic. New York: TH Crowell Co, 1975
Childers NF. Arthritis-Childer’s diet to stop it. Nightshades, aging, and ill health, 4th ed. Florida:
Horticultural Publications, 1993; 19-21
Sherman C. On reader’s experiences with the Childers’ diet. Prevention Magazine 1979; 31:10:58-
59.
Evans JL, Childers NF. Rutgers Univ, N Bruns, NJ Unpublished 1979(Discussed and cited in ref
2)
Stankiewicz JN, Evans JL. Potato diet influences on tissue mineral composition in the growing rat.
J Animal Sci Abstr 1980; 51:223
Wasserman RH, Henion JD, Haussler MR. Calcinogeric factor in Solanum malacoxylon. Science
1976; 194:853-854
Storey P. Osteosclerosis after intermittent administration of large doses of vitamin D in the rat. J
Bone Joint Surg 1960; 42B:606-725
Wasserman RH. Active vitamin D-like substances in Solanum malacoxylon and other calcinotic
plants. Nutrition Reviews 1975; 33:1-5
Carillo BJ, Worker NA. Enteque seco. Arteriosclerosis and calcification metastasica de orgen
toxico en animales pastoreo. Rev Invest Agric INTA Argent 1967, Ser 4: Pat an IV:2
Davis GK. Effect of a nightshade (Solanum malacoxylon Send.) on calcium metabolism in
livestock. In: Childers NF, Russo GM (eds.). The nightshades and health. New Jersey:
Horticultural Publications, 1986; 144-157
Krook L, Wasserman RH, Shivley JN, Tashjian AH Jr., Brokken TD, Morton JF. Hypercalcemia
and calcinosis in Florida horses: implication of the shrub, Cestrum diurnum, as the causative
agent. Cornell Vet 1975; 65:26-56
Krook L, Wasserman RH, McEntee K, Brokken TD, Melbourne TB. Cestrum diurnum poisoning
in Florida cattle. Cornell Vet 1975; 65:10:557-575
West E, Emmel MW, Poisonous plants (to livestock) in Florida. Florida Agr Exp Sta Bul 1952;
510:42-44

                                                                                                    5
Durrell LW. Poisonous and injurious plants (potato included) in Colorado. Colorado Agr Exp Sta
Bul 1952;412-A:55
Dobereiner J, Tokarnia CH, DeCosta JBD, Campos JLE, Dayrell MD. The Espichamento disease.
Pesq Agropec Bras Ser Vet 1971; 6:91-117
Reit-Correa F, Schild AL, Mendez MC, Wasserman R, Krook L. Enzootic calcinosis in sheep
caused by the ingestion of Nierembergia veitchii (Solanaceae). Pesq Vet Brazil 1987; 7:3:85-95
Lynd FT, Willers EH, Weight LA, Gebauer PW. The Naalehu disease (in Hawaii). Am J Vet Res
1965; 26:1344-1349
Arnold RM, Finchem IH. The Manchester wasting disease (Jamaica). J Comp Path 1950; 60:51-64
Case AA. Nightshade (tomato vines) poisoning in cattle (Australia). Sheepbreeder 1957; 77:8-10
Dirksen G, Plant P, Spies A, Hanichen T, Dammrich K. The enzootic calcinosis disease. Deutsch
Lierarztl Wiss 1970; 77:321-337
Morris M. A drug from a disease causing plant (Solanum malacoxylon)? N Sci 1977; 1:135-136
Hansen AA. Two fatal cases of potato poisoning. Sci 1925; 61:340-341
Harris FW, Cockburn T. Alleged poisoning by potatoes. Analyst 1918; 43:133-137
Anonymous. Early American Horticulture. Grower Talks. (Tomatoes and cancer) Bicentennial
Issue Geo J. Ball, Inc., W Chicago, IL 1976; 48
Anonymous. True grit rampage. Overland Park, Kansas: CEVA Laboratories, Inc., 1979
Orgell WH, Vaidya KA, Dahm PA. Inhibition of human plasma cholinesterase in vitro by extracts
of Solanaceae plants. Science 1958; 128:1136-1137
Harris H, Whittaker M. Differential response of human serum cholinesterase types to an inhibitor
in potato. Nature 1959; 183:1808-1809
Abbott DC, Field D, Johnson EL. Correlation of anticholinesterase effect with solanine content of
potato. Analyst 1960; 85:375-376
Corradino RA, Wasserman RH. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like activity of Solanum
malacoxylon extract on calcium transport. Nature 1974; 252:716
Hayes KC, Hegsted DM. Toxicity of the vitamins. In: Toxicants occurring naturally in foods, 2nd
ed. Natl Acad Sci 1973; 11:236-239
Kutsky RJ. Handbook of vitamins, minerals, and hormones, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold, 1981; 186




                                                                                               6

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Stats:
views:738
posted:8/7/2012
language:English
pages:6
Description: This medical peer reviewed manuscript reviews some of the health problem, particularly arthritis, that some people may experience when eating them.