BIRTH KC/VEKC (within 30 minutes of birth) updated: 5/29/10 ______2007 Newsline Review of Moore et al. 2007 Cochrane analysis. More like to BF and for longer. ______2006. Aus J Nurs Evidence based review that says two WHO 1997 recommendations that are graded as A level recommendations are: “skin to skin contact should be promoted and kangaroo care encouraged in first 24 hours after birth” to prevent hypoglycemia. Ali&Lowry, 1981 FT, RCT of 45 min of KC ewith 6 and12 week age fu Amer Acad BF Med 2005 FT, recommends birth kc for thermoregulation, maintenance of euglycemia Amer Acad Pediatr 2005 FT, recommends KC immediately after birth until end of first feeding and delay all care til feeding complete AAP & AHA 2006 FT. lesson 1 page 18 recommends “thermoregulation can be provided by putting the baby directly on the mother’s chest…Warmth is maintained by skin-to-skin contact with the mother.” ACOG 2000 FT, recommends birth KC ACOG,2007 FT, recommends birth KC Anderson et al., 2003 Cochrane review of early KC (mixed in with some birth KC). Better and more Exclusive BF. Argote et al.,1991 PT, Case study and descriptive of 6 infants given Birth KC for Respiratory distress. All symptoms disappeared in 6 hours and infants went home at 24 hours post-birth and have higher temps in KC. AWHONN 2000 FT, recommends birth KC for breastfeeding Awi & Alikor, 2004 FT, factors associated with onset of KC within 30 min of birth were delaying cleaning/measuring of infant, providing BF assistance, and delaying repair of episiotomy Bergman et al. 2004 PT, birth KC started and infants were more stable in birth KC than incubator. Bouloumie , 2008 Bramson et al., 2010 FT, descriptive of 21,842 moms. The more Kc they get in first 3 hours of birth, the more likely they are to exclusively breast feed during the maternity hospital stay. Branger et al., 2007 FT, sudden infant death to full terms in KC Byaruhanga et al. 2008 FT, qualitative moms liked Birth KC but worried about transmission of HIV with raw cord and some thought it was done to distract moms from episiotomy repair. Bystrova et al.,2009 FT,RCT, Calais et al., 2010 FT, survey of routine Postpartum KC with healthy term infants. Need to educate moms antenatally, reduce visitors, provide support during Postpartum for effective implementation. Cantrill et al., 2004 FT, descriptive questionnaire of nurses’ knowledge and support of 1st breastfeed with Birth KC. Got high scores but practice is poor and poor understanding of importance of “continuous, uninterrupted KC” Cantrill, 2006 FT, dissertation abstract on influence of Birth KC on effective breastfeeding. Carfoot et al., 2004 FT, Pilot RCT of success of 1st BF Carfoot et al., 2005 FT, RCT. 102 KC moms more satisfied with their care than controls and infant temp warmer in KC than controls CDCP, 2007 FT, national survey of birth KC practices that support breastfeeding. CDCP 2008 FT, national survey results are not good, much work to do. Birth KC practices are not being practiced. Charpak et al., 2005 PT, Review. “KC should be started as early as possible, even in the DR or in NICU” pg. 515. Chandry 2005 FT, Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine guidelines that separating mom and baby immediately after birth is NOT appropriate and KC is the recommended routine because it actually is more likely to result in euglycemia. KC should be encouraged because it prevents heat loss which in turns help prevents hypoglycemia. Christensson 1992 FT Christensson et al., 1995 FT Christensson et al., 1996 FT Christensson 1998 FT Clarke, 2009 Review, KMC for improving child health in rich and poor nations. Colonna et al., 2008 FT, Paternal KC in DR during Cesarean section. Crenshaw et al. 2004 FT, review of evidence against separation and need to Birth KC as evidence for Lamaze’s guidelines. Crenshaw 2007 FT, review of evidence against separation and need for lots of Birth KC and presents Lamaze International’s recommendation. Curry, 1979 FT Dabrowski, 2007 FT, parents wanted Birth KC and so they started it in L/D. Dageville et al., 2008 FT, neonatal death during birth kc has occurred in France. Davanzo, 2004 PT Demott et al., 200 FT, UK guidelines for breastfeeding with many sections on Birth KC and need to feed with KC within 30-70 minutes of birth. DiGirolamo et al., 2001 FT, Birth KC is good for breastfeeding Durand et al., 1997 FT, started KC 30 mins post birth and infants who BF in KC about 2 hours postbirth reached temp between 36.5-37.8, but bottle fed infants under radiant warmer did not. European Commis2006 FT guidelines for Birth KC which are excellent. Fardig, 1980 FT Field et al., 2006 A survey of 25 neonatal nurseries in South revealed that in 83% of them KC following birth in the delivery room was practiced. Fransson et al. 2005 FT, descriptive of 27 newborns. started temp recordings 4-8 hours post-birth, so really it is Early KC, not birth kc. All temps higher when in close contact with mom than when in incubator. No heat loss when with mom Gangal, 2007 FT, recommends breast crawl in KC to satisfy step 4 of Baby Friendly Steps. And reports doing it with c/s moms and with preemies too. Page 15-16 lists many advantages of breastcrawl within 30-60 minutes of birth. Says most babies instinctively complete the crawl within 30-60 minutes of birth. Gardner, 1979 FT, KC had less drop in temp than infants under radiant warmer Gomez-Papi et al. 1998 FT, KC at birth, Infants stayed awake, if KC lasts more than 50min infants have Nearly 8 times the probability of spontaneously breastfeeding. 21% of moms Were tired. Hake-Brooks et al. 2007 PT, RCT of very early KC (not right at birth but soon after). Better BF at 6 mos. Hwang, 1981 FT. Int Lact Assoc 1999 FT, recommends birth KC and non separation for breastfeeding. Int Lact Assoc 2007 FT, and some PT. Trifold that reviews Birth KC to promote BF and how to look for signs of readiness in the first hour of birth. Komara et al. 2007 FT, report of incorporating birth KC in labor/delivery unit to increase BF Kontos 1978 FT, RCT, maternal affectionate behavior at 3 months was higher in extended contact (EARLY KC) group than controls. Kovach 2002 FT. Most hospitals give KMC at delivery, some do APGARS In KC. Kramer et al. 2001 FT, RCT, testing of all Baby Friendly Initiative parts in 10 hospitals on BF outcomes but independent effects of KC cannot be determined from article. Kroeger & Smith, 2004 FT and PT, addresses the continuum of birth and says that taking babies away and interrupting skin to skin contact is unnatural/harmful. Wonderful references. Johanson et al 1992 RCT, FT & PT, KC as effective as swaddling and oil massage at keeping babies warm immediately after birth Lamp & Zadvinskis,09 FT. Poster for non-separation at birth and birth KC. Lazarov 1994 FT, Reviews barriers to implementing very early Kc within 30 minutes of birth For Baby Friendly hospitals. Lindenberg et al.1990 FT. Use of early KC (not immediate) and breastfeeding support increases breastfeeding initiation & duration. Ludington-Hoe,et al,1999 PT, Descriptive report of KC with 14 preterms 34-36 week who began KC within 11 minutes of birth and had stable HR, RR, SaO2 and Temperature. Ludington-Hoe,et al,1993 PT, Descriptive report of KC beginning within 11 minutes of birth Reports that PT infants with 5 min APGAR of 6 or more who were in KC for 1st 6 hours Postbirth were stable with HR, RR, SaO2, and were discharged 48 hours later. Preliminary report of 1999 publication. MacDonald, 2005 PT, FT, summary of European Blueprint for BF that says health care workers should have commitment to best standard practices to promote BF (Ludington adds that Birth KC is a best practice though article does not mention KC per se. Mance, 2008 FT, PT review of strategies to keep babies warm at birth and says that KC can start as soon as mother & infant are dried and head cap is placed (pg. 9). Marin et al.,2010 FT, RCT, KC at birth increased frequency of exclusive BF at discharge, increased infant temp by 0.07 deg.C, and decreased placental expulsion time. Matthiesen et al., 2001 Ft, descriptive, 20 infants dried and then started KC. Massage of breast & nipple and suckling stimulates oxytocin release in mom. Mazur & Mikiel-K, 2000 FT, Descriptive, KC in first 2 hrs postbirth is not a factor in exclusive Bf of fullterms at discharge. Mazurek et al., 1999 FT, RCT, KC began 6-8 minutes postbirth, Skin thigh temp, HR, RR, and glucose level best in KC group. KC grp cried 3 times less than gp 3 and less than grp 2. KC group had optimal adaptation and special protection against hypothermia. McCall et al., 2007, 2005 PT, LBW(<2500 g). KC was effective in reducing risk of hypothermia when 2008 administered in first 10 minutes postbirth and did better than conventional incubator care for PT and LBW infants. McClellan&Cab1980 FT, RCT 20 KCers started KC in cesarean section recovery room and had it for 60 min. Maternal perception in hospital was significantly higher for KC than controls, and higher mat behavior scores in hospital and at home. Mikiel-Kostyra et al 2002 FT, descriptive/regression. Having > 20 minutes of KC starting early after birth Is independent predictor of breastfeeding. Mizuno et al., 2004 FT, RCT, 60 infants given 50 minutes of KC immediately after birth recognized their own mother’s milk better than controls and breasfed 1.9 months longer. Moore, E, 2005 . FT, RCT, birth KC started at 15 mins and many + BF effectiveness outcomes And # and onset of hunger cues greater and earlier in KC versus swaddled holding group. Effectiveness scores higher in KC; exclusivity and duration of BF not diff. Moore et al., 2007 FT, Cochrane update with 30 studies . VEKCers more likely to breastfeed and BF Longer. Nagai et al., 2010 PT, RCT of 24/7 KMC beginning within 24 hours of birth vs after 24 hours post birth. No differences in mortality in 1st 28 days, length of stay, adverse events or morbidity, but birthweight loss in first 24 hours significantly less for early KC (-34 gms) than late KC (-73 gms). Nakamura 2007 FT, case studies of infants in Birth KC who needed resuscitation. See Nakamura & Sano for full report. Nakamura & Sano, 2008 FT, 2 case studies of infants who were apneic, pale, hypotonic at 5 and 70 min postbirth in KC at the breast. Advises close observation of HR, color, tone, respirations. Nommsen-Rivers, 2003 FT, Review of Mikiel-Kostyra et al. 2002. She says no matter how short the duration, if KC starts early it fosters successful breastfeeding Nyqvist, 2009 PT, FT, KMC should being immediately after birth even with moderately preterm infants but not necessarily with extremely preterm infants. Phillipp &Jean-Marie 2007 Review, policy paper saying that Baby Friendly initiative includes Birth KC to improve BF outcomes (pg. 11 of article). Price & Johnson, 2005 FT, Implementation process. Birth KC went from 0% to 80% within 18 months in British hospital trying to increase breastfeeding. Ransjo-Arvidson et al 2001 FT, Descriptive. Placed in KC immediately after birth and better BF movements Observed in babies who did not get exposed to maternal analgesia and others did Not breastfeed within 2.5 hours of birth. Romano 2007 FT, review of Moore’s Cochrane. Interesting views of Birth KC Romano 2007 FT, review of Jonas 2007 article and says epidural prevents normal infant temp on PPD2 and that babies need natural environment of birth KC continuing. Romano 2009 Review. Criticizes KC studies at birth because they really do not start immediately after bith and then they are only measuring adaptation to many disruptions. Recommends KC immediately after birth and non-separation. Rowe-Murray/Fisher 2003 FT, review of baby friendly practices and says that KC does not occur in first hour post birth with c/s patients and that this is barrier to early initiation of breastfeeding. Senarath et al, 2007 FT, RCT of hospitals, one group of hospitals taught WHO’s Essentials of Newborn Care which includes Birth KC. Training increased Birth KC by 1.5 times. Sheridan 1999 FT, practicing midwifes have concern over body temp regulation with KC immediately after birth. Sinclair, ???? FT, PT, on page 52 says babies will not get warm in KC but does review Fardig andWhitelaw and Acolet studies about baby warmth and then on page 224-225 has review of birth KC studies on maternal behaviors. Sinusas & Gagliardi 2001 FT, clinical guidelines for docs about doing Birth KC (use head cap, delay procedures, cover with blanket for warmth, do it immediately after birth. Sizun et al. 1999 PT, Case study of birth KC and it improved bonding and better physiologic stability. Smith et al. 2008 FT, Cesarean birth KC is described. Takahashi et al, 2010 FT, two groups, early initiation (< 5 mins or later) and short/long duration (<60 mins or > 60 mins) in first two hours post-birth. HR stability has higher probabilitiy with early initiation and lower stress occurs with longer duration. Taylor, 1985 FT, RCT of 50 primip moms 25 of whom got KC in first hour after birth, but KC alone did not effect breastfeeding duration, but KC + suckling within 30-70 minutes of birth did, and those women who did KC+suckling were more likely to still be breastfeeding at 2 months postpartum than moms who did not. Thomson et al., 1979 FT, RCT of 15 controls and 15 KC who started KC 15-30 minutes post-birth. Effect of very early KC on breastfeeding at discharge, months later and BF success defined as BF for two months or longer. KC moms/infants did better in all outcomes. Uvnas-Moberg, 1996 Review, FT, animal and human studies showing that birth KC is optimal care Uvnas-Moberg, 1999 Review, FT, animal and human studies showing less maternal stress with birth KC Vaidya et al., 2005 FT. 92 moms given a few minutes of early postpartum KC and it more significantly affected exclusive BF up to 6 months than early initiation of BF. Varner 2008 FT, commentary of Smith et al. 2008 article on Cesarean KC, says that evaluative criteria need to be presented. Vaughans 1990 FT Van den Bosch et al., 1993 Villalon et al., 1992 WABA 2007 World Alliance of Breastfeeding says immediate KC is important. Walters et al.,2007 FT, Birth KC with 10 infants who all went to breast by 52 minutes post birth and none had hypoglycemia nor hypothermia and all had perfect MEALS breastfeeding scores. WHO/UNICEF 1989 FT, review. Position statement that infants should receive KC and be allowed to breastfeed within 30 minutes of birth. WHO/UNICEF 1992 FT. provides global guidelines for KC within 30 minutes of vaginal birth WHO/UNICEF 1992 FT. provides guidelines for hospital adaptation of Baby Friendly step 4 which is KC beginning within 30 minutes of birth to promote BF NEAR BIRTH ( EARLY KC) Worku & Kassie, 2005 PT, RCT of 32 weekers started on KC at 10 hours postbirth and kept there for 4.6 days. 91% were discharged before 7 days of age and better survival in KC group.
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