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									Population, language, ethnicity and
socio-economic aspects of education

Michelle vonAhn, Ruth Lupton and Dick Wiggins
School pupils with a first language other
  than English (Jan 2009)
               Primary                             Secondary

  15.2   0.2             English        11.1 0.4
                                                               English

                         Other than
                                                               Other than
                         English
                                                               English
                         Unclassified
                                                               Unclassified

                 84.6                               88.4
A big issue in London
Who is interested?
 Businesses
    Have we got the language skills to talk to the rest of the world,
     and where are they?
 Public services
     Are there people who need translation or language classes
      – where are they?
     How we can we find employees who speak the languages
      we need?
 Government
    Does language diversity help or hinder community cohesion?

 Olympic organisers!
 Schools
     Is a different first language an asset or a liability?
     Little evidence, tendency to treat all ‘bi-linguals’ the same
And beyond language…

 Can knowing about language tell us more
 about people’s migration history and social
 and economic status than the crude ethnic
 categories we have available?
Aims of the fellowship
 Analyse and map distribution of language across
  London
   What issues does this raise?

 Analyse the relationship between language,
  ethnicity and socio-economic indicators

 Conduct some preliminary analysis between
  language and attainment

 Provide guidance and training on the ways
  language data may be used with other data to
  answer social and educational research questions
Updating Multilingual Capital
              Published in 2000,
              using pupil data from
              1999 to identify and
              map languages in
              London
Pupil data
                1999                          2008
Pupils          >850,000, attending           >1,100,000, resident in
                state schools in London       London, attending a state
                                              school
Languages       >350, including dialects      322 categories collected,
                and variants                  239 without variants
Geography       Boroughs mainly, some         Boroughs and MSOAs
                postcodes
Missing data    Bromley and Havering          Variable data collection
                did not collect data –        between schools and local
                synthetic data used           authorities

But data collection variability makes comparison difficult…
Data ambiguity
   Categories include:                 % of London total
   Missing data                                    0.6%
   Not obtained                                    0.4%
   Classification pending                          0.3%
   Refused                                         0.1%
   Other language                                  0.4%
   Other than English                              4.5%
   Believed to be other than English               1.3%
   Believed to be English                          0.8%
   Total ambiguous                                 8.4%
Data variability
     Borough          Total pupils   % ambiguous
     Westminster          16,086          27.9%
     Brent                43,120          21.1%
     Waltham Forest       38,500          15.6%
     Haringey             35,056          14.5%
     Hounslow             35,203          14.0%
     Newham               50,402          12.4%
     …
     Havering             33,526           2.5%
     Ealing               46,511           2.3%
Data inconsistency
Some languages have variants, which are not consistently used within a
  local authority or across London, e.g.
  Bengali                Panjabi              Arabic             Chinese
  Bengali                Panjabi              Arabic             Chinese
  (Any other)            (Any other)          (Any other)        (Any other)
  Bengali (Sylheti)      Panjabi (Gurmukhi)   Arabic (Algeria)   Chinese
                                                                 (Cantonese)
  Bengali (Chittagong/   Panjabi (Mirpuri)    Arabic (Iraq)      Chinese
  Noakhali)                                                      (Hokkien/Fujianese)
                         Panjabi (Pothwari)   Arabic (Morocco)   Chinese (Hakka)

                                              Arabic (Sudan)     Chinese (Mandarin/
                                                                 Putonghua)
                                              Arabic (Yemen)
    Language classification
 Asian             Asian              Asian           African           Africa           Africa        European    European     International/                 Unspeci-
                                                                                                                                 Transnational       Other
(South)            (East)             (W/C)           (North)           (West)           (E/C/S)         Union       Other                                       fied
                                                                                                                         Albanian/                       Caribbean
      Bengali               Chinese           Turkish       Somali               Yoruba        Lingala        Greek                         Arabic
                                                                                                                           Shqip                          Creoles
                             Viet-        Persian/                           Akan/             Swahili/                                                   Oceania/
          Urdu                                              Tigrinya                                          Italian     Russian          French        S/C America
                            namese          Farsi                           Twi-Fante          Kiswahili
                                                                                                             Dutch/       Serbian/          Portu-
      Panjabi           Japanese              Kurdish       Amharic               Igbo         Luganda                    Crotian/
                                                                                                             Flemish      Bosnian           guese
                                              Pashto/
      Gujarati              Korean                              Other            Other             Shona     German       Other            Spanish
                                              Pakhto
                        Tagalog/
          Tamil                               Other                                                Other      Polish
                         Filipino

          Hindi             Other                                                                           Lithuanian
                                                                                                                                                         >5000
                                                                                                                                                         pupils
    Malayalam                                                                                                 Other


          Nepali


          Other
Geography
• Comparative counts not possible with boroughs due to
differences in size
• Wards and postcodes also differ in population size
• Percentage comparisons are problematic due to data
capture variability
• New statistical geographies - Super Output Areas

       LSOA                    MSOA
       4765 in London          983 in London
       About 1500 people       About 7500 people
LSOA map
MSOA map
And now…


           the maps….
English and Believed to be English
English and Believed to be English
Languages with 5000+ pupils
                   Total                       % of Ranked              % of Ranked              % of
 Language         pupils Ranked 1st    Pupils total 5 2nd       Pupils total 5 3rd       Pupils total
 Bengali          46,681 T Hamlets     20,182 43% Newham         7,208 15% Camden         3,517 8%
 Urdu             29,354 Newham        4,155 14%   Redbridge    3,985 14%    W Forest    3,507 12%
 Somali           27,126 Ealing        3,531 13%   Brent        2,034 7%     Newham      1,582 6%
 Panjabi          20,998 Ealing        4,354 21%   Hillingdon   3,078 15%    Redbridge   3,048 15%
 Gujarati         19,572 Harrow        4,139 21%   Brent        3,536 18%    Newham      1,979 10%
 Arabic           19,378 Westminster   2,211 11%   Ealing       2,181 11%    Brent       1,742 9%
 Turkish          16,778 Enfield       4,804 29%   Haringey     2,583 15%    Hackney     2,573 15%
 Tamil            16,386 Harrow        2,524 15%   Redbridge    2,009 12%    Ealing      1,552 9%
 Yoruba           13,961 Southwark     2,130 15%   Greenwich 1,936 14%       Hackney     1,512 11%
 French           13,020 Lambeth       1,050 8%    Lewisham       895   7%   Enfield       767    6%
 Portuguese       11,915 Lambeth       2,135 18%   Newham         867   7%   Brent         726    6%
 Polish           10,991 Ealing        1,801 16%   Haringey       793   7%   Brent         743    7%
 Spanish           8,647 Lambeth       1,282 15%   Southwark      883 10%    Haringey      506    6%
 Albanian/Shqip    8,380 Camden          834 10%   Enfield        727 9%     B&D           588    7%
 Akan              8,117 Lambeth         837 10%   Newham         830 10%    Haringey      807 10%
 Persian/Farsi     6,959 Barnet        1,149 17%   Ealing         990 14%    Harrow        683 10%
 Chinese           5,905 Barnet          604 10%   Lewisham       450   8%   Southwark     404    7%
South Asian languages
Patterns of clustering
    and dispersal
Bengali

          London = 46,681
Urdu

       London = 29,354
Panjabi

          London = 20,998
Gujarati

           London = 19,572
Tamil

        London = 16,386
Persian/Farsi

                London = 6,959
Chinese

          London = 5,905
Migration patterns over time
 Annual data could show change (if data is collected in a
  robust way)
 Established communities
 Recent arrivals
 Magnet communities
Somali

         London = 27,126
Somali numbers
have increased, but
their distribution
has also become
more dispersed
Turkish

          London = 16,778
Greek

        London = 3,336
Polish

         London = 11,035
Lithuanian

             London = 2,974
Language is not always enough
 French speakers
    17% White
    57% Black
    26% Other
 Arabic speakers
    57% Other
    15% Black
    10% Mixed
    9% White
    8% Asian
French by ethnic group

                         London = 13,020
French has an
east-west
distribution by
ethnic group
Portuguese by ethnic group

                             London = 11,915
Portuguese also has a
different geographic
distribution for Black and
White ethnic groups.
Spanish by ethnic group

                          London = 8,647
White Spanish speakers are likely to
be from Europe, while Other
Spanish are probably from Central
and Latin America
Proof of concept study: first stage
 How are ethnicity and language related? Can we create
  useful ethnicity/language categories?

 How is language related to attainment? Does ethnicity/
  language tell us more than ethnicity on its own?
Average points at Key Stage 2 by Ethnic Group (London 2008)
Linguistic Breakdown for Selected Lower Attaining Groups

 Bangladeshi                                Black ‘other’

 Language                   N % of total   Language                     N % of total
 Bengali                  3725      92%    English/Believed to be
                                           English                    1097      66%
 Other than English       205        5%
                                           French                      86        5%
 Believed to be English    69        2%    Other than English          68        4%
 Others ( 10 or less                       Portuguese                  61        4%
 each)                     47        1%
                                           Yoruba                      57        3%
                                           Somali                      49        3%
                                           Arabic                      37        2%
                                           Akan                        30        2%
                                           Swahili variants            18        1%
                                           Creoles and Pidgins         14        1%
                                           Lingala                     14        1%
                                           Unknown                     12        1%
                                           Others (10 or less each)   118        7%
Linguistic Breakdown for Selected Lower Attaining Groups

 Black African                                White ‘other’
 Language                   N    % of total   Language                     N    % of total
 English/                                     English/
 Believed to be English   2481        25%     Believed to be English     1887        26%
 Somali                   2079        21%     Turkish                    1184        16%
 Yoruba                   1245        13%     Polish                     757         11%
 Akan                     682          7%     Albanian/Shqip             559          8%
 French                   502          5%     Portuguese                 505          7%
 Lingala                  259          3%     Greek                      263          4%

 Igbo                     220          2%     Spanish                    199          3%

 Arabic                   181          2%     Lithuanian                 237          3%

 Swahili variants         183          2%     French                     116          2%

 Luganda                  112          1%     Italian                    151          2%

 Portuguese               131          1%     Arabic                     119          2%
                                              Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian   100          1%
                                              Russian                    107          1%
Diversity in the ‘Black African’ group

 Higher attaining    Lower attaining
Yoruba

         London = 13,961
Igbo

       London = 2,837
Akan/Twi/Fante

                 London = 8,117
Somali

         London = 27,126
Diversity in the ‘white other’ group

 Higher attaining    Lower attaining
Proof of concept study: next stages
 How are ethnicity/language categories related to socio-
  economic status?
    FSM, IDACI, using London ASC
    Matching to local authority data (e.g. housing benefits,
     Council tax band) for wider indicators, for a case study
     Borough (Newham)
 How are ethnicity/language/attainment relationships
  affected by interacting them with SES data?
Data matching

                                    Council
                                      Tax



                GP register
                of patients
    LLPG        GP register                   Housing
  addresses     of patients                   benefit



                              Electoral
              PLASC           Register
              FSM
Data matching
         Attainment
             and
          language                          Council
            data                              Tax



                        GP register
                        of patients
    LLPG                GP register                   Housing
  addresses             of patients                   benefit



                                      Electoral
                      PLASC           Register
                      FSM
 Michelle vonAhn
   Email: michelle.von.ahn@newham.gov.uk
   Tel: 020 3373 1659


 Ruth Lupton
    Email: r.lupton@lse.ac.uk
    Tel: 0207 849 4910

								
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