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Understanding and Interpreting Emotional Intelligence View 360 and PeopleIndex Kenneth M. Nowack, Ph.D. 3435 Ocean Park Blvd, Suite 203 Santa Monica, CA 90405 (310) 452-5130 (310) 450-0548 Fax www.envisialearning.com email@example.com Emotional Intelligence: The State of the Field What is Emotional Intelligence? At the most basic level, Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, understand and manage your emotions and behavior as well as others effectively Current Issues and Controversies with Diverse EI Measures Ability Measures Independent of FFM Weak convergent validity with other cognitive ability measures Scoring issues Confounded with a measure of knowledge Self-Report (Mixed) Measures of EI and ESC High correlations with FFM Limitations of self-report 360 feedback Tend to ignore context, situation and setting Cherniss, C. (2009). Emotional Intelligence: Towards Clarification of a Concept. Rutgers University What Does EI and ESC Predict? A meta-analysis of 69 studies using diverse measures of EI correlated .23 with job performance (k=19, N=4158) and .22 with general mental ability (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004) New research by Joseph & Newman (2010) was based on 21 published meta-analytic studies and new meta-analysis of over 171 studies revealed: Self-report (mixed) measures and ability based measures do not appear to be assessing the same thing “Mixed” measures show incremental validity over mental ability and personality measures but it is not clear why When dealing with high emotional labor jobs, all types of EI/ESC measures exhibit meaningful incremental validity over cognitive validity and personality (weaker or negative for low emotional labor positions) Ability based EI measures favor women and Whites Joseph, D. & Newman, D. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 54-78 What Does EI and ESC Predict? The most comprehensive meta-analysis by O’Boyle et al. included 65% more studies and twice the sample size to estimate EI and job performance outcomes: Trait, personality and mixed measures demonstrated corrected correlations ranging from 0.24 ti 0.30 with job performance All measures show incremental validity over mental ability and personality measures O’Boyle, E., Humphrey, R., Pollack, Hawver, T. & Story, P. (2010). The relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10.1002/job.714 Goleman Emotional and Social Competence Model http://www.eiconsortium.org Self- Social Awareness Awareness • Emotional Self-Awareness • Empathy • Accurate Self-Assessment • Organizational Awareness • Self-Confidence • Service Orientation Self- Social Skills Management • Developing Others • Self-Control • Leadership • Trustworthiness • Influence • Conscientiousness • Communication • Adaptability • Change Catalyst • Achievement Orientation • Conflict Management • Initiative • Building Bonds • Teamwork & Collaboration Cascading Model Emotional Intelligence Conscientiousness Emotion Perception Cognitive Ability Emotion Understanding Emotional Stability Emotion Management Job Performance Health Emotional Intelligence View 360 Psychometrics and Research Envisia Learning EI Competency Model Self Relationship Communication Management Management • Self-Development • Building Strategic • Listening ••Self-Development •Adaptability/Stress Empathy Relationships • Organizational Awareness • Oral Communication • Adaptability/Stress • Conflict •Tolerance Service Orientation • Two-Way Feedback •Tolerance Self-Control Management • Oral Presentation ••Self-Control Trustworthiness • Leadership/Influence • Interpersonal • Written ••Trustworthiness Strategic Problem Solving Sensitivity/Empathy Communication • Strategic Problem • Achievement • Team/Interpersonal Solving Support Orientation/Drive for • Achievement Results • Collaboration Orientation EIV360 Psychometrics and Norms Moderately high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) ranging from .74 to .89 across all 17 competencies High intercorrelations between competency groups (average r = .91 , p < .01) Factor analysis suggests a 5 factor solution (Eigen values over 1.0) accounting for over 71% of the variance suggesting that for research purposes an overall EI score may be useful EIV360 Psychometrics and Norms North American and European data base contains over 5,500 full time working adults Diverse job levels from executives to independent contributors and professionals No significant differences by age Women score significantly higher on Relationship Management (F = 7.3, p < .01) and Communication (F = 21.1, p < .05) competency groups compared to men in the United States and higher on Communication (F = 5.96, p < .01) competencies only for European samples Those with higher education degrees report significantly higher Communication EI scores compared to lesser educated participants (F=7.58, p < .01) African Americans self-report significantly higher EI scores on overall EI, Self-Management and Relationship Management competencies compared to Whites (all p’s , >05) but no other ethnic/cultural differences were found EIV360 Analysis: Significant Differences by Country Descriptives 95% Confidence Interval for Mean N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Lower Bound Upper Bound EIVTot Ireland 240 5.2127 .79164 .05110 5.1121 5.3134 UK 2959 5.3419 .71618 .01317 5.3161 5.3677 Denmark 71 5.0624 .78447 .09310 4.8767 5.2481 Canada 706 5.6285 .73083 .02751 5.5745 5.6825 German 32 5.7031 .51809 .09159 5.5163 5.8898 Hungary 304 5.5284 .70831 .04062 5.4485 5.6083 Spain 1872 5.4609 .92263 .02132 5.4191 5.5027 New Zealand 110 5.0622 .89417 .08526 4.8932 5.2312 Sweden 387 5.1463 .60940 .03098 5.0854 5.2072 South Africa 55 5.4445 .67531 .09106 5.2620 5.6271 Total 6736 5.3926 .79065 .00963 5.3737 5.4115 SelfMgt Ireland 240 5.2642 .79934 .05160 5.1626 5.3659 UK 2958 5.3807 .72217 .01328 5.3547 5.4067 Denmark 71 5.1093 .84836 .10068 4.9085 5.3101 Canada 706 5.6745 .72669 .02735 5.6208 5.7282 German 32 5.7199 .51875 .09170 5.5328 5.9069 Hungary 304 5.4829 .74082 .04249 5.3993 5.5665 Spain 1871 5.4727 .94106 .02176 5.4300 5.5153 New Zealand 110 5.1009 .89478 .08531 4.9318 5.2699 Sweden 387 5.2296 .63821 .03244 5.1659 5.2934 South Africa 55 5.4259 .73532 .09915 5.2271 5.6246 Total 6734 5.4234 .80094 .00976 5.4042 5.4425 RelMgt Ireland 240 5.0610 .89581 .05782 4.9471 5.1749 UK 2958 5.2376 .82001 .01508 5.2080 5.2672 Denmark 71 5.0394 .79606 .09447 4.8510 5.2278 Canada 706 5.4876 .84495 .03180 5.4252 5.5501 German 32 5.6675 .54158 .09574 5.4723 5.8628 Hungary 304 5.4748 .77079 .04421 5.3878 5.5618 Spain 1872 5.3437 1.01730 .02351 5.2976 5.3898 New Zealand 109 4.9882 1.02597 .09827 4.7934 5.1830 Sweden 387 5.0215 .68030 .03458 4.9535 5.0895 South Africa 55 5.4217 .67012 .09036 5.2406 5.6029 ANOVA Overall EIV F (9, 6726) = 21.09, p < .01 Note: USA EIV (N=1,801), SelfMgt.,RelMft, Com Means = 5.60, 5.63, 5.50, 5.66 A Comparison of EI in Leaders in Spain and United States Objective: Explored emotional intelligence in Spanish (740) and US (1,271) leaders in diverse industries. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 Results: Leaders in Spain rated themselves significantly higher on overall emotional intelligence compared to those in the United States as did direct reports (p < .05). In Spain, boss ratings of leaders were significantly lower than self or direct report ratings. No significantly differences between self, manager and direct report ratings were observed in the US sample. Conclusion: In general, leaders in Spain are rated significantly higher by direct reports and perceive themselves to be more emotionally intelligent on the three major areas measured in this study (Self-Management, Relationship Management and Communication). Nowack, K. & Pons, B. (2009). Executive MBA (EMBA) EI Research Objective: To investigate the change in emotional intelligence with and executive MBA program participating in a 2-year leadership development program as part of their academic curriculum. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 (EIV360) and Talent Accelerator (online developmental and planning and reminder system to support professional action plans). Design: Subjects for this study were full time working executives participating in a 2-year EMBA program. A new leadership curriculum was introduced along with a focus on developmental planning on interpersonal and team competencies. The EIV360 was administered at the beginning of the EMBA program and approximately 18 months later for 110 students. Outcomes: Significant changes were observed for the Relationship Management competency area (F = 4.04, p < .05) but not for self-management, or communication competency areas during the two-year program. These results support the focus on enhancing interpersonal competence of EMBA students during their program. Nowack, K. (2010). Unpublished Manuscript. Envisia Learning, Inc. EI, Organizational Commitment & Performance Objective: Explored emotional intelligence, organizational commitment with job performance among administrators in Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM ) Malaysis Measures: Management View 360 Questionnaire as an index of job performance, PeopleIndex for emotional intelligence and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire for organizational commitment. Design: The population in the study was 153 administrative managers working at UiTM who completed a comprehensive survey measuring EI, commitment and performance. Results: Job performance was positively related to emotional intelligence (r = .761, p = 0.001) and organizational commitment (r = .366, p = .001). Job performance is positively related to emotional intelligence dimensions: self-management (r = .742, p = 0.001), relationship-management (r = .746, p = .001) and communication (r = .766, p = .001). Overall emotional intelligence was significantly associated with organizational commitment (r = .354, p = .001). Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence was significantly associated with both self-reported organizational commitment and job performance. Yusof, R. (2006). The Relative Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment on Job Performance of Administrators in UiTM. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Putra, Malaysia EI & Academic Performance of Nurses Objective: Explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and performance of third year nursing students in a clinical course. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360, Clinical evaluation scores on Nurses Related Learning Experience (RLE; 60% professional and 40% personal), and overall grade point average. Design: The population in the study was 48 third year nursing at the University of Santo Tomas, College of Nursing. Students were asked to complete the Emotional Intelligence View 360 as part of their curriculum during the year. Results: Self-Management, Relationship Management and Communication competences were significantly correlated (all p’s< .01) with RLE scores for both self ratings and other ratings. Self and other emotional intelligence ratings were significantly associated with overall grade point average ranging from .84 to .97 (all p’s < .01). Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence was significantly associated with nursing academic performance on qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Agustin, V. et al. (2006). The Relationship Between the Competencies of Emotional Intelligence and the Performance of Selected Junior Thomasian Nursing Students in their Related Learning Experience Course. A thesis presented to the College of Nursing University of SantoTomas España, Manila EI, Learner Autonomy & Performance Objective: Explored emotional intelligence, learner autonomy, retention and academic performance in students enrolled in an adult degree completion program. Measures: PeopleIndex and the learner autonomy intentions measured the Learner Autonomy Profile (LAP) Short Form (SF) were used. Student success was measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA) and retention. Design: 141 nontraditional undergraduates enrolled at a small, private, liberal arts college in the northeastern U.S. completed web-based surveys measuring emotional intelligence and learner autonomy. Results: Emotional intelligence and learner autonomy were positively correlated (r = .486; p = .000; < .01). Two of three emotional intelligence constructs to be predictors of retention but not grade point average. Of the PeopleIndex competency groups, communication (p = .051) and relationship management (p = .022) were the highest predictors of retention. Overall scores on PeopleIndex were the single best predictor of overall learner autonomy. Self-management, but not Communication or Relationship Management was significant predictors of learner autonomy in regression analyses. GPA was not significantly correlated with EI in this study. Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence was significantly associated with both retention and learner autonomy. Buvoltz, K., Powell, F. & Solan, A. (2007). Exploring Emotional Intelligence, Learner Autonomy and Student Success in Accelerated Undergraduate Degree Completion Programs. Manuscript submitted for publication. Regent University, Virginia EI and Transformational Leadership Objective: Explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 and the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-36; Avolio & Bass). Design: Surveys were administered to 57 managers in a multinational company within the electronics industry. Results: Transformational leadership scales of the MLQ-36 were significantly associated with Self-Management (r = .93, p < .01), Relationship Management (r = .70, p < .01) but not Communication competencies (r = .52, p = .16). Transactional leadership was significantly correlated with Self-Management (r =.95) but not significantly with Relationship Management (r = .70) or Communication (r = .36). Laissez-Fair leadership was not significantly correlated with Self- Management (r = -.15), Relationship Management (r = -.42) or Communication (r = .40). Transformational leadership was significantly correlated with Transactional Leadership (r = .91, p < .01) and modestly correlated with Laisse-Faire Leadership (r = .40). Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence was significantly associated with both transformational and transactional aspects of leadership. Pedro, M. L. (2006). Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership. Unpublished Manuscript. Masters Thesis, University of Edora, Portugal EI and Transformational Leadership Objective: Explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. . Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 and the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-36; Avolio & Bass). Design: The population in the study included 23 female managers from several businesses/industries from Canada (6), Mexico (10), and the UK (7). Results: Regression analyses indicated that overall EI was the single best predictor of transformational leadership (r²=0.45). Self-Management, Relationship Management and Communication were significantly correlated with Transformational leadership (rs = .66, .65, .54, all p’s < .01). Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence was significantly associated more strongly with transformational versus transactional leadership outcomes. Flores, M. (2007). Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership in Female Managers. Unpublished Thesis, University of Arkansas, Little Rock EI and Transformational Leadership Objective: Explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 and the Transformational Leadership Scale (Podsakoff et al. 1990). A measure of satisfaction with leadership, global satisfaction, and follower’s performance were also included in this study. Design: The population in the study was 120 managers working within a banking organization in Portugal and 299 of their direct reports. Results: Overall EI, Self-Management, Relationship Management and Communications were correlated with transformational leadership behaviors in leaders (r = .74, .68, .76. 64, respectively; all p’s < .01) and with transactional leadership (r = .59, p < .01). A positive correlation between EI, transformational leadership behaviors in leaders and performance and satisfaction in their followers (only the EI communications scale significantly was associated with follower’s performance; r =.18, p < .05). Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence was significantly associated more strongly with transformational versus transactional leadership outcomes. Ana Maria Rocha, Madalena Melo, Nuno Rebelo dos Santos & Adelinda Araújo Candeias (2007). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Universidade de Évora, Departament of Psychology, Portugal EI, Stress and Coping Objective: Explored the relationship between emotional intelligence, stress, coping and well-being. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 (EIV360) and StressScan. Design: Measures were administered to 109 executive MBA students working full time during one of their required leadership courses in 2008. Results: In multiple regressions, overall manager EI ratings (b = .25, t(84) = 2.5, p < .01) incrementally predicted Threat Minimization coping above overall self-ratings accounting for .17 of the variance in this dependent variable (b = .34, t(84) = 3.4, p < .01). No other significant associations were found in regression analyses between emotional intelligence, stress, coping and well-being. Conclusion: Emotional Intelligence was significantly associated with Threat Minimization coping in this EMBA sample of men and women. Students with higher EI tended to be more perceptive of their stressors as indicated by using a type of coping that acknowledges feelings and puts closure to them, rather than ruminating and obsessing about them. Women students reported significantly higher levels of Cognitive Hardiness but no more stress (F (1,107) = 6.12, p < .01), Type A behavior, emotional intelligence or well-being compared to men (all p’s > .05). Lukaj, M. (2010) Emotional intelligence and stress: An exploratory study. BA Honours Business Studies Dissertation, University of the West of England, Bristol EI, Stress and Hardiness Objective: Explored emotional intelligence, self-reported stress and cognitive hardiness in 109 Executive MBA students in a cross-sectional design. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 and the stress/resilient measure StressScan. Design: 109 Executive MBA students were administered EIV360 and StressScan concurrently as part of their academic program. Regression analysis was used to explore f the extent to which overall EI and specific sub-scales predicts stress, cognitive hardiness and psychological well-being outcomes. Results: No significant predictor variance was found between overall EI scores and stress, hardiness and well-being However adaptability scores of EIV360 were a significant predictor variable for hardiness and well-being scores, whereas self-control was a significant predictor variable of stress scores. Conclusion: Self-management competencies (adaptability/stress and self-control) were significantly associated with stress, cognitive hardiness and psychological well-being providing evidence of convergent validity with these EI scales. Emotional intelligence coping appears to be associated with both resilience and global life satisfaction (psychological well-being). Jessica Marie McGourty (2010). Emotional Intelligence and its relationship in predicting EMBA student’s work/ life stress and hardiness and well-being using self-report measures. Dissertation submitted as partial requirement for Masters of Sciences in Occupational Psychology, University of Worcester, UK Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Performance Objective: To explore EI competencies and performance in 21 high potential leaders within diverse industries and to identify factors associated with the highest performing individuals. Measures: PeopleIndex was used to assess EI and senior management ratings were used to evaluate performance of the high potential leaders. Design: Participants for this study consisted of 21 middle managers in diverse industries. Interviews will be conducted with a randomly sampled group of study participants to identify success factors associated with high and low performers. Outcome: ANOVA analysis found no significant differences in EI by competency group (Self- management, Relationship management, Communication). Leaders who were categorized as "Exceeding Results" rated themselves significantly higher on the EI competency called Building Strategic Relationships compared to those categorized as "Gets Results" (F 1,20) = 4.77, p < .05). This finding provides construct validity to this mixed EIV360 measure of emotional and social competence and the importance of the competency of Building Strategic Relationships to leadership performance. Teresa Lara (2011). Exploring the correlation between positive and productive work peers with their level of Emotional Intelligence. Pepperdine University Masters Thesis University of Barcelona Emotional Intelligence Educational Research Project Objective: To compare the impact of a one-year emotional intelligence education program to postgraduate students compared to a control group at the University of Barcelona. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 (EIV360 self-assessment), MSCEIT (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), StressScan, QDE-A (self-report measure of emotional competencies with more about the design at http://stel.ub.edu/grop/files/Competencias_emocionales-P.pdf ) Design: Subjects for this study will be approximately 200 postgraduate students at the University of Barcelona and Universitat de Lleida. Graduate students were divided randomly into a control and experimental group who participated in a one-year EI educational education. Pre and Post measures were collected on all assessments. Outcome: No significant correlations were found between the mixed measure EIV360 and ability measure subscores of the MSCEIT for 110 subjects. MSCEIT Overall, Emotional Experiencing and Emotional Reasoning subscores and overall EIV360 correlations were .12, .07, .12, respectively, all p’s > .05). The competencies of Trust and Empathy were significantly correlated with the Managing Emotions, Using Emotions branches of the MSCEIT as well as the total score (average r’s = .25, p < .01). This finding provides construct validity to this mixed EIV360 measure of emotional and social competence. Additional analyses are pending with the other measures Rafael Bisquerra Alzina, Nuria Perez Escoda, Laura Mari. Departmento MIDE Facultad de Pedagogia. Universidad de Barcelona (in progress) Emotional Intelligence in Achieving Success in Women in Engineering and Technology Objective: To examine the use of emotional intelligence (EI) and perceptions of success and burnout among women in technology to better understand what EI competencies are needed to be successful. Measures: PeopleIndex and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) Design: A mixed method approach was used, which consisted of three surveys and an interview. 23 female participants who earned a technical degree or who had a minimum of 5 years’ experience in a technical field participated in the study Outcome: the study found that success was defined as others’ favorable perceptions of them, their own feelings of happiness, and making a difference. Nearly all participants (19 of 23) reported that the top factor that influenced their success in engineering and technology was EI with their competency ranging from neutral to high in self-management, relationship management and communication. Twenty-one of the participants identified influence as the most important skill to develop as a woman progresses in her career, with strategic relationships second Significant correlations were observed with the MBI emotional exhaustion scale and overall EI, and each of the three main competency groups (r’s = -.476, -.407, -.482 and -.461, all p’s < .05) as well as specific competencies (Stress/Adaptability r = -.53, building strategic relationships, sensitivity/empathy, collaboration and listening. Significant associations were also observed between the MBI scale of Professional Efficiency and both overall EI and six competency scores. No significant relationship was found between the MBI cynicism scale and any EI competencies.These finding provide criterion related validity to this mixed EIV360 measure of emotional and social competence and job burnout. Kim Elisha Proctor (2011). The role of emotional intelligence in achieving success for women in engineering and technology. The George L. Graziadio School of Business and Management at Pepperdine University for a Master of Science in Organization Development EI and High Commitment HR Management Objective: This study is exploring the relationship of emotional intelligence of the small and medium enterprise manager as a determinant of high commitment human resource management. Design: The population in the study is targeted to be 380 between the size of 9 and 50 employees in Spain. Measures: PeopleIndex, Organizational practices, employee satisfaction Deybbi Cuéllar (in progress). The emotional intelligence of the small and medium enterprise manager as a determinant of high commitment human resource management. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain (Doctoral Dissertation) EI and Transformational Leadership Objective: Explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in Portugal and Brazil. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 and the Transformational Leadership Scale (Podsakoff et al. 1990). Design: The study consists of 548 managers working within a banking and health organizations in the two countries. Adelinda Araujo Candeias. (in progress). Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Unpublished Manuscript. Department of Psychology, University of Evora, Portugal EI and Student Team Effectiveness Objective: This study is exploring the relationship between emotional intelligence and team performance. Measures: PeopleIndex, Team Satisfaction (Earley & Mosakowski); Team Learning Scale (Druskat & Kayes); Instructor Ratings of team performance; Peer ratings using the Team Building Scale (Maurer, Raju & Collins); Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; Trust among team members (Earley & Mosakowsi) and the Big Five Personality Inventory (BFI; John). Design: The population in the study will consist of 60 teams (approximately 150) graduate students in the Organizational Dynamics, Human Relations & Social Work program Roblyer, M. (in progress). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to student team effectiveness. Doctoral Dissertation Team and Individual Emotional Intelligence in Natural Resource Committee Members in Australia Objective: To investigate the type of team characteristics and behaviours associated with different Emotional Intelligence profiles. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 and the Group Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Wolff and Druskat). Team performance will be determined using ranking to determine committee performance as this is consistent with the Australian Government process Design: Subjects for this study will be approximately 200 committee members. Schalk, T. (in progress). Team and individual emotional intelligence in Natural Resource Committee Members in Australia. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Canberra, Australia. Doctoral Dissertation. EI, Organizational Citizenship and Withdrawal In School Principals Objective: This study is exploring the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and withdrawal of teachers working for school principals in Israel. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 (EIV360), Organizational citizenship behavior (Vigoda-Gadot, E., Beeri, I., Birman-Shemesh, T. & Somech, A., 2007); Withdrawal behavior (Hanisch, 1990). Design: The subjects in the study will consist of 50 high school principals working in 30 districts. Teachers and superintendents will be asked to complete the EIV360 on each school principal during district meetings. Krugliak Lahat, Y. (In progress). Emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship and withdrawal behavior in school principals. Tel Aviv school district, Israel EI, Transformational Leadership and Job Performance Objective: To determine the association between job performance of non-academic administrators in research universities with emotional intelligence and transformational, transactional leadership styles in Malaysia. Measures: Emotional Intelligence View 360 (EIV360), Transformational Leadership (MLQ) Design: The subjects in the study will consist of 107 non- academic administrators in research universities in Malaysia. Mehdinezhard, M. (In progress). Relationship between EI, transformational leadership styles and job performance. Department of Professional and Continuing Education, University Putra Malaysia Interpreting the PeopleIndex Feedback Report PeopleIndex Features Measures 17 Competencies 74 Behavioral Questions Online Administration Reliable and Valid Scales Scoring Bureau Service Comprehensive Summary Feedback Report EI Exercises PeopleIndex Research PeopleIndex questions are the same validated Emotional Intelligence View 360 (EIV360) EIV360 is one of several tools highlighted at the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations www.eiconsortium.org Established reliability (alphas .74-.89) PeopleIndex competencies have shown significant correlations with academic and job performance PeopleIndex Norms PeopleIndex report is based on a growing and large international data base (3,000+) PeopleIndex norms reflect diverse job levels and industries including talent in the private, public and non-profit sectors PeopleIndex norms are composed of employees in diverse countries (Europe and Asia) outside the US PeopleIndex Report Components PeopleIndex Competency Definitions and Conceptual Model Competency Graphs (self and Norm Group comparisons) Overall Behavior Summary Emotional Intelligence Exercises Developmental Action Plan PeopleIndex Online PeopleIndex Online PeopleIndex Report Graphs PeopleIndex Report Graphs KEY POINTS PeopleIndex uses average scores based on the 1 to 7 frequency scale The line or bar graphs summarize self and other perceptions based on the large international normative database The legend to the right of the graph will summarize average score and number of raters for each category Range of scores for each rater group are graphed PeopleIndex Overall Summary Table PeopleIndex Overall Summary KEY POINTS Self ratings are compared to the PeopleIndex norm sample for both competencies and individual behaviors Each of the PeopleIndex behaviors are organized under their respective competency for ease of interpretation Competencies can be presented in either ascending or descending order to facilitate development planning PeopleIndex EI Exercises PeopleIndex EI Exercises KEY POINTS Suggested exercises are presented to enhance self-awareness, self- management, social awareness, & relationship management areas These exercises have shown to increase psychological well-being and decrease depression in recent placebo controlled studies over a 6-month set of studies by Seligman and colleagues (2005) PeopleIndex Development Plan PeopleIndex Development Plan KEY POINTS Behavior change is challenging PeopleIndex introduces a developmental planning process based on change theory (assess, reflect, plan, implement, evaluate) PeopleIndex provides several a developmental action plan section to facilitate awareness into successful behavior change PeopleIndex Report Questions to Consider Do I understand my PeopleIndex feedback report? Does it seem accurate/valid? What are my EI strengths to leverage? What are my EI development opportunities Am I motivated to change? PeopleIndex Next Steps Review your PeopleIndex summary feedback report Obtain additional feedback from your manager, direct reports, peers and team members Identify specific developmental goals Draft a development plan Meet with your manager to finalize your plan Implement your development plan Track and monitor progress Administration of the Emotional Intelligence View 360 Assessment EIV360 360° Feedback Process Voluntary 1. Adding Sign-Up Participants EIV360 360° Feedback Process 1. Adding Participants 2. E-Mail Briefing Participant Invitation EIV360 360° Feedback Process 1. Adding Participants 2. E-Mail Briefing 3. Rater Nomination EIV360 360° Feedback Process 1. Adding Participants 2. E-Mail Briefing 3. Rater Nomination 4. Manager Approval EIV360 360° Feedback Process 1. Adding Participants 2. E-Mail Briefing 3. Rater Nomination 4. Manager Approval 5. Questionnaire Invites Sent EIV360 Assessment Email Sent EIV360 360° Feedback Process 1. Adding Participants 2. E-Mail Briefing 3. Rater Nomination 6. 4. Manager Questionnaires Approval Completed 5. Questionnaire Invites Sent EIV360 360° Feedback Process 1. Adding Participants 2. E-Mail Briefing 3. Rater 7. Automated Nomination Reminders 6. 4. Manager Questionnaires Approval Completed 5. Questionnaire Invites Sent Automated Reminders EIV360 360° Feedback Process 1. Adding Participants 8. Reports Available 2. E-Mail Briefing 3. Rater 7. Automated Nomination Reminders 6. 4. Manager Questionnaires Approval Completed 5. Questionnaire Invites Sent Interpreting the Emotional Intelligence View 360 Feedback Report Emotional Reactions to Feedback: GRASP Model Grin or Grimace Emotional Reaction Recognize or Reject Cognitive Reaction Act or Accept Commitment Reaction Strategize & Behavioral Reaction Partner Emotional Intelligence View 360 Feedback Report Expectations Much of the feedback will be validating Some feedback might be surprising Participants will have some type of emotional reaction to it Not all rater groups necessarily experience the participant in the same way The participant will have a lot of information to review and reflect on Emotional Intelligence View 360 17 EI Competencies/ 74 Behaviors Self Relationship Communication Management Management • Self-Development • Building Strategic • Listening ••Self-Development •Adaptability/Stress Empathy Relationships • Organizational Awareness • Oral Communication • Adaptability/Stress • Conflict •Tolerance Service Orientation • Two-Way Feedback •Tolerance Self-Control Management • Oral Presentation ••Self-Control Trustworthiness • Leadership/Influence • Interpersonal • Written ••Trustworthiness Strategic Problem Solving Sensitivity/Empathy Communication • Strategic Problem • Achievement • Team/Interpersonal Solving Support Orientation/Drive for • Achievement Results • Collaboration Orientation Confidentiality of the 360 Feedback Process KEY POINTS All raters are anonymous except for the “manager” Online administration uses passwords to protect confidentiality (Internet administration) No line or bar graphs are shown unless at least two raters respond in a rater category (anonymity protection) The summary feedback report is shared only with the respondent and is intended for development purposes only The respondent decides how much of the summary feedback report he/she wants to share with others Self-Other Perceptions: What Are Others Really Rating? BOSS Performance Derailment REPORTS Factors (EI) Leadership PEERS Potential EIV360 Feedback Report Components Introduction Self-Awareness View “Johari Window” Self-Other Rater Comparisons Most and Least Frequently Observed Behaviors Overall Competency/Behaviours Summary Written Comments Developmental Action Plan Emotional Intelligence View 360 Invited Raters Page Emotional Intelligence View 360 Awareness View Section KEY POINTS Emotional Intelligence View 360 provides a snapshot of self/social awareness in a series of graphs highlighting four areas: 1. Potential Strengths (Low Self Ratings & High Other Ratings) 2. Confirmed Strengths (High Self Ratings & High Other Ratings) 3. Potential Development Areas (High Self Ratings & Low Other Ratings) 4. Confirmed Development Areas (Low Self Ratings & Low Other Ratings) Emotional Intelligence View 360 Awareness View Emotional Intelligence View 360 Graphs Self-Other Perceptions KEY POINTS Emotional Intelligence View 360 uses average scores based on the 1 to 7 frequency scale The bar graphs summarize self and other perceptions on each of the 17 separate EIV360 competencies The legend to the right of the graph will summarize average score and number of raters for each category Range of scores for each rater group are graphed Emotional Intelligence View 360 Self-Other Perceptions Emotional Intelligence View 360 Most Frequent/Least Frequent Section KEY POINTS The “Most Frequent” section and “Least Frequent” section summarizes those competencies and behaviors that were most frequently/least frequently observed by various rater groups The number in the first column corresponds to the average score for all raters providing feedback (1 to 7 scale) The “Most Frequent” should be considered as perceived strengths to leverage and build on The “Least Frequent” should be considered as possible behaviors to practice more frequently Emotional Intelligence View 360 Behavior Summary KEY POINTS Each Emotional Intelligence View 360 question is summarized and categorized in its appropriate competency Average scores across all raters are reported for each competency and question A statistical measure of rater agreement based on the standard deviation is reported as a percentage—a score less than 50% suggests that the raters providing feedback had enough disagreement to warrant a cautious interpretation of the average score reported (e.g., raters had diverse perceptions and rated the participant quite differently on that question or competency) Behavior Summary Report Emotional Intelligence View 360 Written Comments Section KEY POINTS Comments are randomly listed by all raters who volunteered to share written perceptions to two open-ended questions (perceptions of strengths and development areas) Comments are provided verbatim from the online questionnaire—no editing Some comments are specific, behavioral and constructive—others may be less useful or hard to understand It is important to focus on themes that emerge, rather than, to dwell on any one individual comment Emotional Intelligence View 360 Comments Report Necessary Ingredients for Changing Behavior 1. Enlighten Assessment and Feedback Process 2. Encourage (awareness of strengths and Readiness to Change potential development (clarification of motivations areas) and beliefs) Goal Setting/Developmental Planning (measurable and specific) Skill Building 3. Enable Reinforcement, Monitoring, and Social Support to reinforce learning and behavior change Relapse Prevention Training Evaluation (knowledge acquisition, skill transfer, impact) 360 Feedback and Coaching Olivero et al., (1997) found that an 8-week coaching program increased productivity over and above the effects of a managerial training program (22.4% versus 88.0%) Thatch (2002) found that 6 months of coaching with executives following 360 feedback increased leadership effectiveness up to 60% based on post-survey ratings Smither et al., (2003) reported that after receiving 360 feedback, 1,361 managers who worked with a coach for 6 months were significantly more likely to set specific goals, solicit ideas for improvement and subsequently received improved performance ratings Randomised Executive Coaching Study Solution-focused cognitive-behavioural coaching intervention with 45 executives Half-day leadership development programme Measures 360 feedback Goal Attainment Scaling Cognitive Hardiness/Resilience Workplace Well-Being Four coaching sessions over 10 weeks Control group got coaching ten weeks later Grant, Curtayne, & Burton (2009). Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: A randomised controlled study. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 396-40 Randomised Executive Coaching Study Goal Attainment 360 Feedback and Manager Involvement 62% of the respondents reported being dissatisfied or highly dissatisfied with the amount of time their manager spent helping with a development plan More than 65% expressed strong interest in utilizing an online follow-up tool to measure progress toward behavior change Rehbine, N. (2006). The impact of 360 degree feedback on leadership development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Leader as Performance Coach A 2008 survey of over 2,000 international employees and 60 HR leaders reported that 84% of managers are expected to coach talent but only 52% actually do (only 39% in Europe) Only 24% of all leaders are rewarded or recognized for coaching and developing talent 85% of all managers and employees see value in leaders as coaches but 32% of managers reported it takes too much time and interferes with their job The Coaching Conundrum 2009: Building a coaching culture that drives organizational success. Blessing White Inc. Global Executive Summary Leveraging the Impact of 360 Feedback for Successful Behavior Change Talent Accelerator Behavior Change Model Conscious Conscious Incompetence Competence Feedback Talent from Accelerator Assessments and Coaching Unconscious Unconscious Incompetence Competence Description of Talent Accelerator Talent Accelerator is a web-based professional development tool integrated with Envisia Learning assessments Talent Accelerator will provide you with a guided process for developmental planning based on “Best Practices” of how people successfully change The online tool is designed to help translate awareness from all of our assessments into lasting behavior change Components of Talent Accelerator Educates: Talent Accelerator resource library provides a comprehensive source of over 2,500 readings, websites, media, and suggestions to facilitate your development. Monitors: Talent Accelerator provides you and your coach and/or manager to track and monitor your development plan progress. Coaches: Facilitates requesting and receiving feedback. Talent Accelerator sends an email to the individual’s coach and/or manager about development plan progress and they can communicate back to the user through Coach Accelerator with targeted feedback and support based on the most recent progress update. Promotes Insight: Talent Accelerator provides an opportunity for participants to maintain a personal journal to reflect on their reactions and feelings about his/her developmental journey. Teaches: Our development “wizard” will walk you through your assessment report and provide a structured way to allowing you to focus on those competencies that are most important. Reminds: Talent Accelerator allows you to select how often you want the system to send you reminders about due dates on your development plan. Translating Awareness into Behavior Change Enlighten: Provide an electronic version of the assessment to help employees review and understand their feedback report Encourage: Provide a structured process to review the feedback report, ask reflective questions to increase motivation to want to change behavior and to identify one or more areas to focus developmental efforts Enable: Through the use of monthly reminders and a comprehensive competency resource library, users are able to track and monitor progress on their developmental action plans online and avoid relapse Talent Accelerator Process Users are sent an email with a unique username/password to allow access to Talent Accelerator Access to Talent Accelerator is for a 12-month period Upon log in users will have an electronic copy of their assessment report and begin to use the development “wizard” to identify key competency areas to focus on Clients can access the Competency Resource Library to find readings, articles, websites, developmental suggestions, media, blogs, podcasts and other resources targeted to the specific developmental areas of interest Once the developmental action plans are finalized, users can go in Talent Accelerator and update progress and set any new coaching goals Reminders on developmental plan progress will be emailed to your client every 30 days (they can change the preference on this) Clients can also utilize the Developmental Journal and decide which entries, if any, they wish to have shared with you at the Coach Accelerator site Talent Accelerator Reminders to Facilitate Behavior Change Talent Accelerator sends out a reminder email every 30 days reminding participants about their wellness plan progress Research suggests that implementation intentions coupled with reminders result in greater behavior change Sheeran, P. et al. (2005). The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 87-97 Prestwhich, A. et al. (2010). Can implementation intentions and text messages promote brisk walking: A randomized trial. Health Psychology, 29-40-49. Coach Accelerator Site and Features Each Coach will have access to a separate website and tool called Coach Accelerator Features of Coach Accelerator include: • Access to all assessments of your client (PDF) including those of other vendors • Access to the Resource Library integrated with each assessment of ours that you are using with your client • Ability to track and monitor client’s progress on their development plan • Ability to provide comments and feedback directly to your client through the Coach Accelerator site • Confidential “Coaching Log” to enable you to create and maintain your professional notes about each client session • No additional cost to utilize the Coach Accelerator tool Talent Accelerator Case Study Talent Accelerator Case Study Business Issue: Department of pathology at a leading University medical center wanted to improve leadership performance coaching to increase engagement and retention of talent Intervention: Executive performance coaching workshop + 360 feedback and developmental planning (N = 15) Pilot with one of the pathology Departments: 360 feedback + developmental planning + monthly follow up lunch discussion/support meetings (N = 23) Talent Accelerator Case Study Assessments included: Executive View 360 (senior team) Performance View 360 (departmental talent) Talent Accelerator (used by talent) Coach Accelerator (used by managers) Talent Accelerator Case Study Talent Accelerator Case Study Outcomes All participants created a development plan; 80% completed progress on at least one competency they targeted Participants targeted potential development areas rather than strengths The average time to complete their plan was 53 days (SD = 46 days) with 55% focusing on developmental suggestions from our resource library, 23% focusing on resource websites/Blogs, 12% reading books and the remainder watching videos/podcasts Time series 360 (ANOVA) demonstrated significant increase in interpersonal, task and communication competency ratings in talent over 12-months 80% completed at least one competency based action plan Talent Accelerator Research Summary Intervention Completion of Plans 360 Feedback Alone < 5% 360 Feedback and Talent 15% to 25% Accelerator Coaching, Talent > 80% Accelerator and Manager Follow-Up Envisia 360 Feedback Study “Best Practices” Provide individual coaching to assist in interpreting and using the 360 feedback results Hold participant and manager accountable to create and implement a professional development plan Track and monitor progress on the completion of the development plan Link the 360 intervention to a human resources performance management process Use 360 tools with sound psychometric properties Target competencies for 360 feedback interventions that are related to strategic business needs Nowack, K. (2005). Longitudinal evaluation of a 360 degree feedback program: Implications for best practices. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles, March 2005 Maximizing the Impact of 360 Feedback • Some evidence that facilitated feedback enhances successful behavior change Seifert & Yukl, 2003; Nowack, 2005 • Some evidence that coaching coupled with 360 feedback can facilitate behavior change Smither, J. et al. (2003). "Can working with an executive coach improve multisource feedback ratings over time? A quasi-experimental field study." Personnel Psychology, 56, 23-44 • Some limited evidence that use of an online development planning system and competency based resource center can facilitate behavior change with managerial involvement Rehbine, 2006; Nowack, 2009 360° Feedback Selected References Nowack, K. (2009). Leveraging 360 feedback to facilitate successful behavior change. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Theory, 61, 280-297. Nowack, K. (2005). Longitudinal evaluation of a 360 degree feedback program: Implications for best practices. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles, March 2005. Nowack, K. (1999). 360-Degree feedback. In DG Langdon, KS Whiteside, & MM McKenna (Eds.), Intervention: 50 Performance Technology Tools, Jossey-Bass, Inc., pp.34-46. Nowack, K., Hartley, G, & Bradley, W. (1999). Evaluating results of your 360-degree feedback intervention. Training and Development, 53, 48-53. Nowack, K. (1999). Manager View/360. In Fleenor, J. & Leslie, J. (Eds.). Feedback to managers: A review and comparison of sixteen multi-rater feedback instruments (3rd edition). Center for Creative Leadership, Greensboro, NC., Wimer & Nowack (1998). 13 Common mistakes in implementing multi-rater systems. Training and Development, 52, 69-79. Nowack, K. & Wimer, S. (1997). Coaching for human performance. Training and Development, 51, 28-32. Nowack, K. (1997). Congruence between self and other ratings and assessment center performance. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 12, 145-166 Nowack, K. (1994). The secrets of succession. Training & Development, 48, 49-54 Nowack, K. (1993). 360-degree feedback: The whole story. Training & Development, 47, 69-72 Nowack, K. (1992). Self-assessment and rater-assessment as a dimension of management development. Human Resources Development Quarterly, 3, 141-155.
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