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Integrated project proposal - P2P-Next

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					                                                                                                  IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                      P2P-Next


                    Large-scale integrating project (IP) proposal
                                     ICT Call 1
                                                 FP7-ICT-2007-1


Next Generation Peer-to-                                Peer Content Delivery Platform

                                                 P2P-Next
Date of preparation: 2.5.2007
Version number: 1.61

List of Participants:
                                                                              Participant short
    N°                               Participant name                                             Country
                                                                                    name
    1    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland                                   VTT              FI
    2    Norut AS                                                                 NORUT             NO
    3    DACC Systems AB                                                           DACC             SE
    4    Lancaster University                                                     ULANC             UK
    5    Josef Stefan Institute                                                     JSI              SI
    6    First Oversi Ltd.                                                          FOL              IS
    7    Technische Universiteit Delft                                              TUD             NL
    8    STMicroelectronics S.r.l.                                                  STM              IT
    9    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan                                                KTH             SE
    10   Markenfilm GmbH & CO KG                                                    MFG             DE
    11   RTV Slovenia                                                               RTV              SI
    12   Kendra Foundation                                                          KEF             UK
    13   Klagenfurt University                                                    UNIKLU            AT
    14   AG Projects                                                                AGP             NL
    15   British Broadcasting Corporation                                           BBC             UK
    16   Pioneer Digital Design Centre Limited                                      PDD             UK
    17   Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH                                          IRT             DE
    18   Consorzio per la Ricerca nell Automatica e nelle Telecomunicazioni         UOR              IT
         (UoR-CRAT)
    19   Fabchannel BV                                                              FAB             NL
    20   University Politehnica of Bucharest                                        PUB             RO
    21   European Broadcasting Union                                                EBU             CH


Work programme topics addressed:
Objective ICT-2007.1.5 Networked Media, Interoperable multimedia network and service infrastructures

Name of the coordinating person: Jari Ahola
e-mail: jari.ahola@vtt.fi
fax: +358 20 722 3365

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next

Proposal abstract


P2P-Next develops an open source, efficient, trusted, personalized, user-centric, and
participatory television plus media delivery mechanism with social and collaborative
connotation using the emerging Peer-to-Peer (P2P) paradigm, which takes into
account the existing EU legal framework.

The P2P-Next integrated project will build a next generation Peer-to-Peer (P2P) content delivery
platform, to be designed, developed, and applied jointly by a consortium consisting of high-profile
academic and industrial players with proven track records in innovation and commercial success.
The current infrastructure of the Internet is not suited to simultaneous transmission of live events to
millions of people (i.e. broadcasting). The problem is that a dedicated stream of data must be sent to
every single user. With millions of potential users, the simultaneous streams of data the network will
easily becomes congested by the simultaneous streams of datathe Internet. For several years, we
have been told that the answer to this problem is "multicasting", whereby the data stream is distributed
to many local servers which that subsequentlythen "re-broadcast" the content to local users. However,
most IP routers of the Internet cannot support multicasting–and there seems to be no financial
incentive for operators the ISPs to introduce multicasting.
Also, the use of Audiovisual Media usages isare moving from a collective and passive approach to
personal active behaviors, at home and in mobileity situations outside the home. At the same time
useages patterns are shifting towards non- linear usages, moving and away from the classic models of
linear broadcast TV. The TV set no longer has the monopoly of delivery of audiovisual content;, the
PC and related media centers, mobile phones, and potentially initiatives from new stakeholders are all
becoming increasingly important.
In such a heterogeneous environments, efficient content delivery will needs to optimized unicast,
multicast, broadcast, and also support for as well as the new mechanisms that have been made
possible by the recent advances in P2PPeer-to-Peer grids. This situation has important consequences
for the existing business models and institutions, as well as for content production, content distribution,
and the end user experience on various terminals. This particular holds - in particular to for
stakeholders that proposeing services based on heterogeneous terminals and networks, together with
the demand from users of transparent service continuity.
This makes Peer-to-Peer -based technologies which that can provide efficient and low-cost delivery of
professional and user created content essential for the technologically-competitive future Europe.
In response to these challenges, the mission objective of P2P-Next is to move forward the technical
enablers to facilitate new business scenarios for the complete value chain in the content domain from
a linear unidirectional push mode to an user centric, time and place independent platform
paradigm. A platform approach allows modular development and modular applications, enables
knowledge sharing and facilitates technology integration, code- and skill re-use. This translates to fast
development of new content delivery applications that build value for service and content providers
P2P-Next will develop a platform thatwhich takes open source development, open standards, and
future proof iterative integration as key design principles. These requirements will be developed
through collaboration with European and national initiatives, as well as some of the largest and most
sophisticated actors in the media and telecommunications sector, ensuring industrial relevance and
world-wide application reach. P2P-Next involves 21 partners in 12 different countries, including large
European players to ensure the future project’s sustainability, SMEs and Subject Matter Experts to
manage highly-focused technology components.
P2P-Next will advance the state-of-the-art in important areas, including evolutionary content
distribution, easy access to vast amount of content with metadata federation, social networking, and
innovative business models for advertising. The sum of these advances is a large step towards
moving the information access from the hands of a producer to the hands of the consumer, and
allowing consumers to enjoy and utilise content resources in a mobile and pervasive manner, across
the great online space.
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                                                           P2P-Next

                                                               Table of contents




 1. SCIENTIFIC AND/OR TECHNICAL QUALITY, RELEVANT TO THE TOPICS ADDRESSED BY THE CALL ................5
    1.1     Concept and objectives ..............................................................................................................5
          1.1.1 Relevance to FP7 ..................................................................................................................9
    1.2      S/T methodology and associated work plan ........................................................................... 17
    1.3     Research, technological development and innovation activities ............................................. 17
          1.3.1 The P2P-Next approach ..................................................................................................... 17
          1.3.2 The P2P-Next Flow-chart and general Architecture ......................................................... 19
          1.3.3 P2P-Next components ...................................................................................................... 20
          1.3.4 Showcase Approach ......................................................................................................... 20
          1.3.5 Description of Showcase .................................................................................................... 22
2. IMPLEMENTATION .............................................................................................................................. 125
    2.1     Management structure and procedures ................................................................................ 125
          2.1.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 125
          2.1.2 The General Assembly ..................................................................................................... 126
          2.1.3 Executive Board Directors ................................................................................................ 126
          2.1.4 Consortium Agreement .................................................................................................... 128
          2.1.5 Information Flow .............................................................................................................. 129
          2.1.6 Conflict Resolution .......................................................................................................... 129
          2.1.7 Risk Assessment and Control .......................................................................................... 129
    2.2     Individual participants ........................................................................................................... 134
          2.2.1 Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) .................................................................. 134
          2.2.2 DACC Systems AB (DACC) ............................................................................................. 135
          2.2.3 Lancaster University (ULANC) ......................................................................................... 136
          2.2.4 Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) ............................................................................................... 137
          2.2.5 Delft University of Technology (TUD) .............................................................................. 138
          2.2.6 STMicroelectronics (STM) ................................................................................................ 139
          2.2.7 The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) ......................................................................... 140
          2.2.8 Markenfilm GmbH & CO KG (MFG) ................................................................................. 141
          2.2.9 Kendra Foundation (KEF) ................................................................................................ 142
          2.2.10 AG Projects (AGP) ......................................................................................................... 142
          2.2.11 Pioneer Digital Design R&D Centre (PDD) .................................................................... 143
          2.2.12 Fabchannel BV (FAB) .................................................................................................... 144
          2.2.13 University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest (PUB) .............................................................. 146
    2.3      Consortium as a whole ......................................................................................................... 147
    2.4      Resources to be committed .................................................................................................. 150
3. IMPACT ............................................................................................................................................. 151
    3.1      Expected impacts listed in the work programme................................................................... 151

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                                                      P2P-Next
          3.1.1 Strategic Impact ............................................................................................................... 151
          3.1.2 Contributions to standards ............................................................................................... 186
          3.1.3 Contributions to policy developments .............................................................................. 186
    3.2     Dissemination and/or exploitation of project results, and management of intellectual property188
          3.2.1 Dissemination ................................................................................................................... 189
          3.2.2 Exploitation ....................................................................................................................... 190
          3.2.3 Multi-industry Market Analysis ......................................................................................... 194
          3.2.4 Business Plan................................................................................................................... 194
          3.2.5 Management Activities ..................................................................................................... 195
          3.2.6 Plan for using and disseminating knowledge ................................................................... 195
          3.2.7 Raising Public Participation and Awareness .................................................................... 195
          3.2.8 Major Milestones .............................................................................................................. 195
4. ETHICAL ISSUES................................................................................................................................ 196
    4.1       Handling and Protection of Personal data ........................................................................... 196
    4.2       Ethical Management ............................................................................................................. 196




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                           P2P-Next

      1. Scientific and/or technical quality, relevant to the topics
      addressed by the call
1.1 Concept and objectives


Project Objectives, Mission and Motivation for the Project
P2P-Next addresses the key of media business today – the changing nature of refinancing a/v media
production in an era with disruptive shifts:
    a) from awareness-building, non-interactive, expensive, interruptive TV ads to targeted, non-
        disruptive, sales channel oriented forms of promotion
    b) passive collective, linear media consumption to personal active behavior at home and in
        mobility situations
    c) linear TV with a monopoly in a/v consumption to non-linear, on-demand, anytime-anywhere,
        cross device patterns that change the roles of publishers and consumers.

Audiovisual Media usages are moving from a collective and passive approach to personal active
behaviors, at home and in mobility situation outside the home. At the same time usages patterns are
shifting towards non linear usages and away from the classic models of linear broadcast TV. The TV
set no longer has the monopoly of delivery of audiovisual content, the PC and related media centers,
mobile phones and potentially initiatives from new stakeholders are all becoming increasingly
important.




The Consumer Electronics, Broadcast and Telco Industries response is extremely abundant
heterogeneous terminals (Personal TV, Mobiles, Game consoles, Personal Video Players, Home
media Centers , Home Gateways…..) and heterogeneous networks (2.5-4G, DVB-H, T-DMB, Wimax
Home network, IPTV…..).




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next




In such a heterogeneous environment, efficient delivery will need to optimize unicast, multicast,
broadcast as well as the new mechanisms made possible by recent advances in peer to peer grids.
This situation has important consequences for the existing business models and institutions, as well
as content production, content distribution and the end user experience on various terminals - in
particular to stakeholders proposing services based on heterogeneous terminals and networks, with
the demand from users of transparent service continuity.




On the user side, non linear usage is growing, and key initiative to sound economics is adaptation of
the advertising models. Double digit growth of advertising budgets on the internet show that the
overall model is shifting, implying an equivalent shift in AV digital content distribution business
models.

Today, 19 % of TV consumption in the US is time-shifted TV consumption via PVR’s. This means that
commercial breaks are usually skipped. According to a Yankelovich Partners report from 2004, 65 %
of consumers feel constantly bombarded with too many marketing messages on TV.

2/3 of the growth in online advertising is non-disruptive search based advertising with very low
production costs per message, but with very high relevance as ads are displayed when consumers are
prepared to watch. Ads on linear TV are not targeted, at all. There is still “a one size fits it all
approach across the network In the US targeting according to ZIP codes is possible in the cable
industry (Comcast). The effect of advertising on linear broadcast TV cannot be measured and
quantified. Only aggregate viewing figures can be given.


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
At the same time, technologies like Rich Media provide new potential for creativity in promotional
messages and mechanisms. To adapt to this changing environment the European Commission is
currently in the process of changing the regulatory environment for advertising, promotion and
sponsoring for broadcast media and networked media. This includes regular spots as well as product
placement, AFP (Advertising Funded Programming) etc. Regulations aspects as well as user
acceptance and privacy respect will be key to the project.



P2P-Next is an evolutionary extension of the existing media and entertainment
distribution systems
Distribution of radio and television programmes, movies, music, ring tones, games, and various data
applications to the general public is today possible via a variety of dedicated networks and special end
user terminals. As broadband internet becomes ubiquitous, all content distribution services will be
combined (bundled) and conveyed to the general public via a common pipeline – the Internet. Today
several technologies are used for the media distribution across the Internet: unicast, IP multicast,
content distribution networks and most recently – Peer-to-Peer (P2P).
P2P has still somewhat dubious reputation as an illegal file sharing mechanism akin to Napster,
Kazaa, Glockster, etc. Nevertheless, it is today considered by many as an efficient, reliable and low
cost mechanism for distributing any media files or live streams, and it is extensively used.
Broadcasters and content providers consider P2P as a future-proof, universal and ubiquitous two-way
(interactive) distribution mechanism. Initially, P2P will complement the existing distribution
mechanisms such as satellite, cable and terrestrial networks but ultimately it may supersede them.
The P2P-Next Project extends the notion of a conventional media distribution network. It introduces a
concept of on-demand, personalised, and social network.

P2P-Next is an overlay to the existing infrastructure
The P2P-Next system is an application-layer media delivery system which can in principle be overlaid
to any two-way communication system. Media delivery does not require a dedicated network such as
the DVB-H or 3G networks. Therefore P2P-Next does require much lower infrastructure investments
(no "streaming farms" are required), management costs and maintenance costs compared to
dedicated distribution networks.

P2P-Next may dramatically improve the network economics
P2P-Next changes the conventional business model for media distribution over the Internet. Using
conventional technologies (e.g. unicast, IP multicasting, content distribution networks), distribution
costs are proportional to the number of users, the bandwidth required and service quality required
(SLA).
P2P-Next cost is not directly proportional to the number of users; in fact, the cost per user diminishes
with the number of users. Therefore P2P-Next significantly reduces distribution costs.
The number of services which can be accommodated is practically limitless. Note that conventional
systems do require frequency spectrum which is a scarce resource and have a limited capacity of
channels. To this end, P2P-Next may considerably ease the regulatory and frequency management
problems.

P2P-Next approach is NOT limited to computers
The concept of Peer-to-Peer distribution can be ported to virtually any consumer-electronics terminal
devices such as DVB set-top boxes and home gateways. For the reasons of interoperability, such P2P
solutions need to be standardised and validated. Embedded P2P-Next devices could be used for open
internet access as well as closely controlled and managed IPTV systems.
Extension of P2P to connected non-PC devices can dramatically change the business model of media
distribution.


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                  P2P-Next
The P2P-Next Project plans to contribute to world-wide standardisation of an open-source, scalable,
modular P2P plug-in which can potentially be embedded in any CE media device. In this manner,
P2P-Next could become platform- and device agnostic.

P2P-Next is a win-win technology as it helps all actors in the value chain
By rolling out P2P-Next services, all actors of the media distribution value chain could benefit
significantly.
       Content owners and providers can enlarge their markets and can make more profits.
       For broadcasters P2P-Next could represent yet another outlet for distributing their
        programmes and contents.
    
                                                                                1
        Consumer manufacturers and IT manufacturers would sell more hybrid STBs and other
        devices. As the market grows, prices go down.
       Network providers will benefit as the overall network load will be reduced – P2P packet paths
        are much shorter than conventional in traditional server-client networks.

P2P-Next provides live steaming, downloading and progressive downloading
It has been often stated that the audio-visual media are moving away from linear channels and are
becoming more and more on-demand, thus available to the end user when they want them, where
they want them and on any terminal. The same P2P-Next system will help end users to live streaming
a TV channel, download a song or video clip, or progressively download a file (and watch it while it is
being doenloaded).

P2P-Next enables horizontal market solutions
As P2P-Next is a non-proprietary, an open source, open standard solution and is going to be adopted
as an international (world-wide) standard, it will enable deployment of a horizontal market. A not-for-
profit foundation will be established to roll out P2P-Next devices on the market and perform the
required product compliance and interoperability tests.

P2P-Next facilitates social networking
As one of the underlying principles of any P2P system is the participation of several peers in a
common project (for example, sharing a video clip), P2P-Next will facilitate the introduction of several
Joost, Flick and YouTube-like social elements: communication primitives, strong peer authentication,
strong content integrity checks, permanent storage of context, semantic clustering, recommendations,
reputations, micropayments, etc

Outstanding challenges
The P2P-Next Project will need to investigate into some of the following subjects:
       rich metadata,
       adaptive interfaces,
       continuous application changes,
       modular design,
       identity management,
       etc



1
        "Hybrid" implies both broadcast and broadband front ends.

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                                P2P-Next


1.1.1 Relevance to FP7
1.1.1.1 Relevance to Strategic Objective ICT-2007-1.51.2 Progress beyond the state-of-
       the-art


Classification in X dimensions
         Business and Industrial context (for instance convergence)

Currently, manufacturers are slow to adopt P2P technology into their products – if at all. When buying
a television receiver consumers typically have the limited choice of a device with one or more tuners
targeted the broadcast distribution channels of DTT, Cable or Satellite TV. Such devices are currently
limited to STBs, Personal Video Recorders and iDTVs (Integrated Digital Televisions).

Current state-of-the-art work in industry forums such as the DVB organisation, and DTG in the UK, is
investigating a hybrid combination of traditional broadcast receiver with Internet connectivity, although
the latter function is typically targeting limited scope VoD (Video on Demand) services rather than a
broad and varied content catalogue – as is envisaged being the outcome of the P2P-next project.
Other models under consideration utilise the IP connection as a means of access to IPTV broadcast
systems. IPTV contrasts strongly with P2P or Internet Television system more generally, in that IPTV
typically refers to a closed and fully operator managed network who approach is one of “me too” rather
than innovative. In the a nutshell, IPTV in accompaniment with a traditional RF tuner often serves only
to increase the number of broadcast-style channels available to the consumer and does not
dramatically influence their viewing behaviour and lifestyle options in any significant way.

         Technologies: Media Delivery (+ other relevant technologies)
Currently no effective solution exists for cost-efficient, seamless delivery of text, pictures, and video on
the Internet. We aim to address this issue and bootstrap an ecosystem for a new breed of Internet
entrepreneurs.
The web is based on the classical client/server paradigm and has a massive amount of available
content. However, web servers are expensive to operate, they cannot handle flashcrowds, are
inefficient for huge files, and are prone to failure. The market leading Internet TV website Youtube.com
                                                                                    2
has huge operational costs. It is reported to serve 100 million clips views daily . Due to this scale and
usage of LimeLight edge video servers it is estimated that Youtube operational costs are $1 million per
                                                   3
month and increasing as their popularity rises . Due to this server reliance Youtube will not scale and
be unable to move to a new level of sophistication. Support for HDTV, personalization &
recommendation, or any other resource intensive technology is not commercially sustainable with the
pure targeted advertisement model of Youtube.
Existing P2P file sharing systems offer very cost-effective, reliable, and scalable publication of files.
However, existing P2P systems are often inefficient for small sized files, lack the seamless media
playback and integration of a web browser, and have numerous other problems which vary between
systems. The best of both worlds combination is still beyond the state-of-the-art. Our ambitious aim is
to bring these two world together. P2P-Next will re-define the state-of-the-art with an order of
magnitude increase in cost-efficiency for media delivery. We will create near-zero cost broadcasting
technology which: enables one person to reach an audience of millions within seconds
for less than one Euro at HDTV quality. Imagine a 1-person company facilitating millions of


2
         See BBC Technology news: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/5186618.stm
3
        See     Forbes      Magazine:         http://www.forbes.com/home/intelligentinfrastructure/2006/04/27/video-youtube-
myspace_cx_df_0428video.html and http://blog.forret.com/2006/05/youtube-bandwidth-terabytes-per-day/

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                            P2P-Next
simultaneous users of an interactive multimedia-rich application which is created on a simple laptop
and operated by its visitors.

                                                                                                             4
Hundreds of startup companies are trying to become the new Youtube, Skype, or Bittorrent . These
mostly US-based startups have a short life expectancy due to the high investment requirements for an
operational system, shortage of talented engineers, and strong network effects which create a ruthless
winner-takes-all environment. P2P systems in actual use by end-users are almost solely created by
small companies and independent Open Source software developers. Due to the “black-sheep origin”
of this technology it has largely been ignored by vested technology companies. Universities and
research institutes have only played a minor role in the fast paced world of P2P. Academic research is
almost exclusively focused on a certain aspects of P2P. Experimental P2P research requires
multidisciplinary expertise in all components of a P2P system, system knowledge, and sufficient
engineering capacity. The two P2P technology experts in P2P-Next, Delft University of technology and
Norut are almost the only research organizations which conducted experimental P2P research. In the
general case, most university focus from 2000 onwards has been focused on the the abstract routing
problem. For an in-depth academic research overview we refer to the most extensive survey ever
                                                                       5
conducted in P2P to date which gathers over 350 scientific references .

The five currently leading Internet TV companies exploiting P2P technology are Bittorrent, Joost (Beta
only), Babelgum (Beta only), Zattoo, and Azureus. As of 2007 they define the state-of-the-art in P2P in
the for-profit domain. This first company, Bittorrent Inc. has grown from a single software developer in
2002 into the small startup of today that has deals with big Hollywood studios and hardware
companies. The Bittorrent protocol is the largest source of traffic on the Internet backbone and the
flagship of this company. However, Bittorrent Inc. has failed to produce any innovation since 2003 and
is not in a position to take P2P to a new generation. The take-over of µTorrent by Bittorrent Inc. will not
spur innovation. The µTorrent engineers excel at crafting efficient software, not at creating new
architectures. The P2P company Joost is the closest competitor for P2P-Next. They have the most
experienced industrial P2P engineering team which previously created Skype and Kazaa. However,
especially the Kazaa system has been the center of controversy. To maximize revenue Kazaa comes
                          6
bundled with spyware . One Kazaa version even included third party software which committed
computer fraud for financial gain by redirecting referral credits for sales on E-commerce sites such as
               7
Amazon.com .




4
          See Forbes Magazine:     http://www.forbes.com/home/digitalentertainment/2006/10/09/google-youtube-video-tech-
ent_cx_rr_1009youtube.html
5
        J Risson, T Moors, “Survey of research towards robust peer-to-peer networks”, ACM Computer Networks Journal,
Volume 50 , Issue17, December 2006
6
         See: http://www.google.com/search?q=kazaa+spyware
7
         See: http://www.google.com/search?q=kazaa+amazon+links+%7Espyware

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Several content partners of P2P-Next use the Joost Beta P2P software and we have extensively
tested it. Shown above is a screenshot of the main player window of Joost when viewing the popular
BBC program “Top Gear”. The cardinal element of Internet TV is the program navigation method.
Program selection within Joost is based on the traditional “channel paradigm” with “channel up” and
“channel down” controls. This simplifies usage, but prohibits unbounded scalability. Joost navigation
will be only be manageable upto to a few hundred channels. Joost does not have the open standard
and Open Source approach that is at the very heart of P2P-Next. Moreover, Joost is the gatekeeper
for all creative, commercial, and technical matters. User-generated content is not allowed, severely
limiting it's appeal in a Web 2.0 prosumer world. The Joost software is proprietary and controlled by
central servers. As such the P2P-Next value proposition based on Open Source is superior because it
empowers entrepreneurs to create new business. By creating an open ecosystem with user-generated
content and independent entrepreneurs the P2P-Next solution will be able to successfully compete
with Joost.
A crucial difference is also the lack of live TV support, Joost requires over a day of heavy crunching
before content is ready for delivery. P2P-Next enables any prosumer to start a live broadcast using
only an Internet connected webcam. The underlying Joost technology uses SVG, (X)HTML, XUL,
CSS, RDF, DOM and ECMAScript and other resource-intensive technologies for generating the
                          8
appealing user interface . This implies that Joost will have severe difficulties moving outside the PC
domain into the Consumer Electronics world.



8
        See X-Tech technology conference 2007: http://2007.xtech.org/public/schedule/detail/53

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                                P2P-Next
We bluntly position the Tribler P2P system as defining the state-of-the-art in P2P media delivery using
                                             9
open standards in the non-profit domain . Tribler is developed Delft University of Technology in
collaboration with other universities. Tribler has been operational since early 2006 and yielded several
world-first technology breakthroughs. It was the first system which included completely server-less
solutions for epidemic-based content discovery, recommendation & personalization, social networks,




                                               10
and thumbnail-based content navigation .

Shown above is a screenshot of the Tribler P2P system depicting the social network of the user.
Instead of the channel paradigm; Tribler is bundles social discovery, tag-based navigation, and
personalization to browse content. A key differentiator with other P2P file sharing systems is the move
beyond simple keyword searching. More advanced visual thumbnail-based browsing is supported,
akin to Youtube.

The ingredients of P2P-Next will re-define the state-of-the-art:
    Convergence of Web, multimedia and collaborative knowledge systems such as Wikipedia.org
    Merging media consumption with communication and communities
    New ecosystem for online media companies
    A step towards an online marketplace of computer resources
    Zero-cost broadcasting

9
        See Tribler homepage: http://www.Tribler.org
10
        J.A. Pouwelse et. al., “Tribler: A social-based peer-to-peer system”, Concurrency and Computation Journal, 2007.

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
        New forms of media creation, delivery, and consumption
        Mashups, creative re-use, support for the prosumer.
        Move towards a global online trust and reputation system
        Scalablity, robustness, flexibility, and ease-of-use



         User Created Content (various sub sections)

The core business of the main European commercial broadcasters is being eroded in today’s multi
channel era. All players are looking at diversified revenues coming from digital repurposed channels,
the Internet, interaction and transaction income.

Given the fact that advertising spend follows content delivery and consumption with a time lag
advertising will adapt to the more fragmented and segmented audience situation that lie ahead and
distributes spending more evenly across delivery channels and below the line and above the line
advertising schemes.

What is forecast to take place is a more web-like experience with Internet technologies being applied
to TV and ad insertion. A key word is addressable advertising and addressable advertising products.
Key changes may be induced by the way
   Ads are carried
   Interaction with them can be accomplished and
   The success of the campaign being measured in quantitative terms.


        1.2.1.1 The TV landscape


TV Landscape
Reporting its financial results for 2005, one of Europe’s oldest commercial broadcasters, ITV, made a
significant forecast. In three years’ time advertising revenue from its flagship channel, ITV1, would
only account for 50 per cent of its business by the end of 2008. Behind the trend is the gradual decline
of ITV1’s core business in the multi channel era. Ad revenue was down £50m last year and ITV1’s
share of viewing slipped to a historic low of 21.5 per cent.

The ProsiebenSat-1 group has set diversification— by organic growth and acquisition—as a key
objective. The group announced the launch of two pay TV channels on the Premiere platform and has
started with a video-on-demand portal that offers films and TV series for download to the PC and to
TV set-tops. The most successful start of a TV station in Germany for years has been 9Live – a
channel with nearly no advertising but a lot of call media income. 9Live is highly profitable and was
acquired in full by Pro7/Sat1.

RTL Group, Europe’s largest commercial TV group with a portfolio of channels including M6 and
Antena 3 TV, generated around 38 per cent of its revenue from non-advertising businesses in 2005.
The group is aiming for a split of 50/50.




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next




1.2.1.2 Advertising landscape

The Internet is both – an image transporting medium and a sales channel. Sales channels approaches
on linear TV still face the problem of a media break (return channel is the phone) and are usually low
quality Direct Response Television (DRTV). IPTV, broadband TV and mobile TV (via IP Datacast) are
interactive by nature. This means that Internet based principles in producing, displaying, measuring
and optimizing commercials can be used. This may result in a range of changes introduced to the TV
advertising landscape, among them.
       Ads can be targeted according to e.g. demographics, purchasing preferences, geographic
        aspects, or the frequency they are shown.
       Success can be measured by applying Internet yardsticks such as CPC (click rates), CPO,
        CPL measurements
       Ads can have different interaction schemes and, thus, different optimization functions

Such changes may not only apply to 30 seconds spots and commercial breaks but also to new forms
of advertising, e.g. non-disruptive and non-skipping ads such as virtual ads, product placements,
clickable video elements, split screen advertising (Google type, etc. via e.g. Microsoft Media Center
Edition). This may also apply to build modular ads, whereby individual components of an ad may be
replaced on the spot, if e.g. click rates fall below a certain threshold.

While at first sight this may look like a catastrophe to consumers and those who want to protect the
rights of individuals from industry manipulation, in fact this means that the foundation of the traditional
media business are changing and that content production and delivery may work in a way that
consumers will be free to chose between a no advertising/ pay mode, no-pay/ advertising mode and
mixtures of both with different forms of promotional content being received in a way and when it is not
disturbing when it matters and when the consumer is prepared to listen.

A typical ad insertion system for TV looks like the graph below:




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                             P2P-Next




Open TV (Advanced Advertising Solution) of Israel and the US and Packet Vision from the UK have
both and independently developed ad insertion schemes that enable broadcasters, operators and
advertisers to tailor IP-based based advertising to the viewer applying push and pull forms of
advertising.

In such a situation a household with a young viewing profile may receive a different Coke Zero spot
than a household, in which only teen programs are watched. Demographic features, regional features
and viewing and skipping ad habits may also be taken into account applying individual ad delivery
schemes at household level.

The Packet Vision system is feasible for niche and locally oriented advertisers and businesses as well
as large advertisers that target international campaigns. The system is a combination of an IPTV video
server, a splicer, an IP router and a management system. It is commercially available since 2006 and
works with all IPTV middleware.




1.2 S/T methodology and associated work plan

This section shows how the P2P-Next project is structured in order to reach its ambitious goals. P2P-
Next is based on a five-layer structure defined to map the general objectives into operational areas.
The following diagram depicts the overall structure of the P2P-Next implementation plan in terms of
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                           P2P-Next
layered blocks of works (“streams”, in the P2P-Next terminology) and references to the work-plan
activity.




                                         Stream 1. Stakeholders &
                                              Requirements




                                                                           Stream 5. Mgmt and impact
                                   Stream 2. Content & Metadata

                                   PC                           CE

                                 Stream 3. The P2P-Next Framework



                                 Trial                          Trial

                                         Stream 4. The Showcases




                      Figure 0.1: Structure of P2P-Next Implementation Plan


The rest of this section follows the logical progression of the stream structure. Sections XXX describe
the Stream 1 and 2 components that make up the P2P-Next platform in Stream 3. Sections XXX
describe the showcase in Stream 4 and how application is built on top of the P2P-Next platform.
Sections XXX describe the exploitation, dissemination and federation activities in Stream 5, while the
demonstration, training and management activities of this stream are described in XXX.



1.3 Research, technological development and innovation activities
1.3.1 The P2P-Next approach
P2P-Next will develop the next generation of P2P technology which will lift the field from simple “file
sharing” with keyword search towards “content sharing” which seamlessly merges content,
communities, communication, and commerce.
We move the P2P paradigm to the next level by providing each peer with the intelligence for full
context-awareness, sophistication to explicitly manage all vital resources (trust, bandwidth, uptime,
storage, groups, etc. ), and use less then 1 % of the users hard disk to memorize people, friendships,
preferences, resource exchanges, and other events inside a small embedded database. Put together;
intelligence, resource management, and explicit memory are the foundations for the P2P-Next content
sharing platform we dubbed: Next-Share. Our Next-Share system is a self-organizing system with
complete decentralisation and thus lacks any central bottleneck or choke point which hampers
performance, induces setup cost, or require maintenance. The scalability of Next-Share is unbounded
due to the academic purity of the architecture. The inherent networking effect of P2P states that a
good P2P system attracts more users and more users make a good P2P system, thus there is strong


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
convergence to a single leading P2P platform. Networking effects ensure that content, communities,
communication, and commerce will flourish with more participants.
Note that as of 2007 no other P2P system has successfully been able to combine advanced
functionality such as online communities with complete decentralisation. The leading systems such as
Joost, Babelgum, Bittorrent, and Vuze all require central servers for fraud or spam sensitive
functionality such as voting, rating, tagging, sharing ratio tracking, and message boards. These
existing file sharing system are all monolithic in nature, do not split mechanisms from policies, conduct
no explicit resource management, and in general lack proper functional decomposition. In Next-Share
we apply a modular approach where we build-up a stable trusted platform for people from unreliable
donated resources which include malicious peers.
The research and technological development within P2P-Next can be described in terms of the work
done in Stream 1 (Stakeholders and Requirements), Stream 2 (Content and Metadta) and Stream 3
(P2P-Next Framework Next-Share). These streams provide the foundation on which Stream 4
(Showcase) is built. Stream 5 (Management and Impact) ensures the smooth running of the project
and oversees its impact in the outside scientific and business world.

     Stream 1 (led by the Innovation Director – XXX) provides the technology necessary to build
      an audiovisual search application which supports real-world user-centric scenarios. It
      addresses the problems of... The first enabling technology is a ….
      Stream 2 (led by the Technical Director – BBC) combines the requirements in Stream 1 with…

     Stream 3 (led by the Scientific Director – TUD) is providing the most essential enabling
      framework of the project. By means of vertical system integration, Stream 3 is the forum
      which brings together the technological development of components in Streams 1 and 2, and
      the user-scenarios, enabling their conversion into real-life applications in the stream of
      showcase and exploitation. This is achieved by setting the architectural fundament of the project
      – the P2P-Next platform. The platform links consumers and producers of content through
      the development of an innovative publication/subscription mechanism. Each component
      is a service whose functionality is provided through well-defined interfaces which complies with
      the requirements developed in the P2P-Next project. Furthermore, it also ensures the
      adaptability of the P2P-Next platform to the outside world which will enable applications to be
      built on top of the platform.
     Stream 4 Showcase and exploitation (led by the Innovation Director – ) will manage one
      effective showcase that demonstrates the added value of the P2P-Next approach in the
      business scenario. This showcase has been designed to meet the following key objectives: to
      create a means for ‘demand-pull’, user-centred input and provide feedback on the ways users
      will take advantages from P2P-Next technologies, and to provide an end-user ‘reality check’ on
      the technologies under development within P2P-Next. In addition this stream will ensure the
      proper test for the P2P-Next platform re-usability, reliability and ease of integration into real-
      work applications. Finally the stream will provide a path to industrial exploitation by
      demonstrating components supporting eventual real-world applications.
     Stream 5 Management and Impact (led by the Project Director – VTT) The management
      stream will ensure the proper conduction of the project, including its impact in the
      general scientific and business scenario. A lot of attention in this stream has been given to
      the dissemination and training aspect, including the future creation of a P2P-Next Federation,
      including main players pro-active in the content distribution domain, in the business as well in
      academic world. This group will act as a future enabler for the project impact, underlying the
      intention to be a real “game-changing” project for the future European competitiveness and
      using a federation approach in mobilising resources across Europe. This activity will be
      described in XXX.



1.3.2 The P2P-Next Flow-chart and general Architecture

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                             P2P-Next

Figure 0.2 gives an overview of the main components that make up the P2P-Next platform.




                           Figure 0.2: P2P-Next Platform Components




1.3.3 P2P-Next components
In the following all the P2P-Next components are organised according to the stream responsible for
the component and a detailed description will be provided in section XXX:
     1. Core Technology components
    2. Content & Metadata components
    3. PC & CE Integration components
Although a component is the deliverable of a particular stream, work done in different streams may
provide input for the same component. In this sense, streams are not isolated, but rather connected
through interactions at the component level. Within each stream work has been organised into
workpackages with a set of defined tasks. As illustrated in Figure 0.3, for Stream 2 work components,
tasks from different workpackages may provide input for the same component.



                                  Figure 0.3: Workpackage Flows
Below, each component is described in terms of its functionality and interaction with other
components, how it is relevant to the objectives P2P-Next the current state of the art in the relevant
area, how the component overcomes existing problems and what the main elements of work needed
to implement the component are. Finally the partners involved in the development of the component
are listed.
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                  P2P-Next
1.3.4 Showcase Approach

The P2P-Next project has identified an effective showcase that demonstrates the added value of the
P2P-Next approach in the business ecosystem. This showcase will be illustrated with a prototype
developed and evaluated in a specific workpackage of Stream 4.
The showcase has been designed to meet the following key objectives:
     To create a means for ‘demand-pull’, user-centred input by allowing end-users to evaluate and
      provide feedback on the ways that P2P-Next technologies could improve their systems and ITC
      frameworks by means of practical applications
     To provide an end-user ‘reality check’ on the technologies under development within P2P-Next
     To test the Framework for re-usability, reliability and ease of integration into real-work
      applications
     To provide a path to industrial exploitation by demonstrating components supporting eventual
      real-world applications in partnership with industry leading suppliers in the market who can offer
      a multiplier effect in deploying results in the widest possible reach.

Process
The showcase will be built using an evolutionary approach, at each stage interacting closely with
Stream 3 in order to test and evaluate user response and the Stream 1 and Stream 2 to inform
technical development. Towards the end of the project, the showcase will inform exploitation, finally
evolving into demonstrators.
The following diagram illustrates this process along with the relationship between showcase and the
other components of the project:



                            Figure 0.4: Showcase Development Approach




The showcase workpackage will adopt the approach described below to ensure consistent results.

1.3.5 Description of Showcase
State of the Art and Challenges


.
Objectives
Technological Innovations and components illustrated in this showcase
The showcase will provide an excellent test bed for the interoperability of the P2P-Next technology
requiring adaptation to the broad range of needs, formats, technologies and software platforms used
by broadcasters, and civil society organizations.Detailed Work Description

WP1 Management
Partners involved: P1 (leader), P3, P5, P7, P8, P9, P10
This activity is horizontal across the technical workpackages. Its overall objectives are to ensure that
the project reaches its goals that the world at large is informed of its progress and that suitable training
is organised in using the project results. Four tasks are involved: Project Management, Administrative
and Financial Coordination, Technical Management and Risk Management.
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
The specific Management objectives include ensuring that the work is done in conformity with the
Commission contract and the Consortium Agreement, negotiating any necessary changes to these
agreements during the project, and managing risk and performing contingency planning so that the
project reaches its goals.

The leadership of the Management stream has been assigned to VTT Technical Research Centre of
Finland (VTT), and the workpackage will be composed of the following tasks:

Work package 1: Management


Work package number         WP 1             Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title          Management
Activity type               MGT
Participant number          1
Participant short name      VTT
Person-months         per
participant


Objectives
     To drive the project and ensure that it reaches its goals
     To provide scientific and technical management, ensuring timely and qualitative performance
     To negotiate any changes necessary
     To manage quality
     To manage risk and perform contingency planning
     To provide timely and efficient administration and financial co-ordination.


Description of work

Task 1.1.1 – Project Management (VTT)
This task encompasses the general coordination of P2P-Next, under the responsibility of project coordinator
VTT. It includes overall coordination, responsibility for ethical concerns, and liaison with the EC and other
external bodies.

Task 1.1.2 Administrative and financial coordination (VTT)
This task is under the responsibility of the financial director and includes managing the budget and preparing
the necessary ongoing financial plans for the project. A Financial Report with a summary cost statement for
each partner will be delivered on a 12-month basis, and a Financial Plan for the following eighteen-month
period will be supplied detailing activities for each partner.

Task 1.1.3 Technical Management ()
The technical directors are in charge of the technical management of the project, ensuring that it remains on
track and reaches its technical goals.

Task 1.1.4 Risk Management and Contingency plans (VTT)
Project risks will be continuously assessed based on input from the members of the project and feedback
received throughout the execution of the project. A Risks and Contingency Plan will be maintained, and
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
appropriate corrective actions decided as necessary, and tracked to completion to avoid or reduce the effect
of any risk detected.


Milestones and expected results
M0:     Signature of the Consortium Agreement
M12: Annual project reports (financial & technical content), and delivery of draft planning for next 18
months.




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
D1.1.1 Quality Plan (M 3)
D1.1.2 Annual technical report (M 12)
D1.1.3 Annual financial report (M 12)
D1.1.4 Draft planning for the next 18 months (M 12)

WP2 Stakeholders and Ecosystem
This workpackage has the following objectives:
    a) Assessment of the legal situation for all stakeholders of P2P-Next, especially with regard to
       the New TV Directive of the European Commission and the pending changes on IPR
       regarding online content and user generated content
    b) Research and development of sustainable business models for the Peer2Peer-Next system
    c) Research and development of business models for various actors and users of the
       Peer2Peer-Next system, ranging from publishers to prosumers
    d) Research and development of a set of payment issues, incl. billing, micropayment,
       subscription, pay view, pay per view,
    e) Research and development of a set of advertising and other free view models
    f)   Development of a selected set of applications and services to be applied within the
         Peer2Peer-Next system up to the level of commercial prototypes


a) Legal and Regulatory Aspects - The New TV Directive
On 13 December 2006, the Members of the European Parliament voted to overhaul the 'Television
without Frontiers' (TVWF) Directive, backing most of the provisions proposed by the European
Commission (EC) in 2005 and adopted by the European Council last November.
The Directive was first voted in 1989, and updated in 1997. It is setting minimal rules for audiovisual
regulation (television advertising, audiovisual production) in the European Union (EU), and creates
common rules for a level-playing field for pan-European TV channels. EU Member States have the
possibility of setting up stricter and more detailed rules when transposing the Directive into national
laws.
The vote, coming after years of industry consultation, is supposed to be an important milestone in the
process of modernizing the Directive, taking into account the digital TV and broadband breakthrough
that have profoundly changed the European market place over the last ten years. Major changes
introduced by the directive concern:

        Introduction of the concept of 'audiovisual media services' which comprises 'linear' services
         (traditional television broadcasting – closely regulated) and 'non-linear' services (including
         on demand video services, much less regulated). The Parliament approved the principle of

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        'non-linear' audiovisual services being submitted to only a common minimal blanket regulation
        (e.g. on the protection of minors and encouraging European production).
       Relaxation of TV advertising (only applicable to linear services, not to non-linear
        services) rules: to authorize 'product placement' in a limited number of cases (films, drama,
        sports); relaxation of insertion rules: in particular the 20 minutes between two ad breaks rule
        was lifted. Under the new text voted by the Parliament, ad breaks can occur 'once for each
        scheduled period of 30 minutes' (it is 45 minutes for most genres today). The limit for total
        advertising time in a given clock hour remains 12 minutes per hour.

       The country-of-origin principle (where a channel is regulated in the country from which it
        operates) is maintained. But national Governments will have easier ways to take legal action
        against audiovisual service providers that would abuse the freedom of establishment to
        deliberately bypass national rules on content or advertising. For example, the country-of-origin
        principle made it possible for some Nordic channels (such as TV3, based in London) or some
        French-speaking channels (such as RTL9, based in Luxembourg) to avoid the demanding
        regulations of Sweden and France.



The Directive is subject to co-decision of the Parliament and the Council (Government
representatives). It is now the turn of the Council. A Common Position is expected to be reached by
May 2007 with the draft to return to the Parliament for a second reading then. Once fully adopted
Member States will have two years time to transpose the new directive into national law. As a result
the new provisions are likely to be fully enforced by 2009 at the latest.
The most significant changes in the new Directive are the introduction of the concept of audiovisual
services, the division between linear and non-linear audiovisual services and the concept of a minimal
blanket regulation applying to both linear and non linear audiovisual services. If the concept is now
politically accepted (despite the opposition of some Member States like the UK), the very definition of
non-linear services (modified by the MPs) is still not fully agreed.
The key change of the new TV without Frontiers directive is to introduce basic principles for all
audiovisual media services, while distinguishing clearly the level of regulation according to the degree
of user control. This means that for the first time – no matter how audiovisual media content is
provided over electronic networks – services would have to comply with basic rules harmonized
across Europe on the basis of the “country of origin” principle.

Most EU Member States already have rules protecting minors from harmful content and outlawing
incitement to hatred. However, these are now to be harmonized EU-wide, so that audiovisual media
service suppliers need only comply with the rules of the Member State in which they are established,
and not with the disparate rules of all Member States receiving their services.

“Audiovisual media services” covers the use of mass media to inform, entertain and educate, but
excludes any form of private correspondence, such as e-mails sent to a limited number of recipients. It
also excludes all services not primarily intended to distribute audiovisual media content. Services that
contain some audiovisual content are not included in the scope of the new directive if this content is
merely ancillary to, and not the principal purpose of, the service. For example, a travel agency
showing a clip of a holiday resort on its website would not be covered by the new directive. Examples
of such ancillary audiovisual content range from animated graphics to small advertising spots or
information related to another product or non-audiovisual service.

The new directive only covers TV-like services and therefore will not include electronic versions of
newspapers or magazines, web sites without audiovisual media content, mere audio transmissions or
radio. With regard to all these services, the Commission did not identify, in its wide consultations, a
need or a justification for harmonized rules at EU level.


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
Non-linear services are defined as “any audiovisual media service where the user decides upon the
moment in time when a specific program is transmitted on the basis of a choice of content selected by
the media service provider”. The distinction between TV broadcast or linear services (“push content”),
on one hand and non-linear or on-demand services (“pull content”), on the other, depends on who
decides when a specific program is transmitted and whether schedules exist.

Until now, on-demand services are regulated mainly by the EU’s eCommerce Directive. This Directive
is based on “the country of origin”-principle, but still allows Member States to make exceptions to this
principle for a wide range of public policy reasons. As a result, EU Member States currently have no
common rules governing on-demand audiovisual services in the key areas addressed by the present
TV without Frontiers Directive.

A recent Commission survey revealed that whilst most Member States regulate on-demand
audiovisual services in the fields of advertising, protection of minors and human dignity, disparities
among these rules may obstruct freedom to supply audiovisual media services throughout the EU
single market. The following aspects of non-linear services

The proposed update of the TV without Frontiers directive would introduce some minimum principles
applicable to non-linear (on-demand) services with regard to:
           protection of minors,
           prohibition of incitement to hatred,
           identification of the media service provider,
           identification of commercial communication,
           prohibition of surreptitious advertising
           clear rules on product placement and sponsoring, and
           some qualitative restrictions on advertising (e.g. for alcohol or targeted at minors).

As all these issues would, under the Commission proposal, now be included in the Television without
Frontiers directive, providers of non-linear audiovisual media services could also benefit in future from
the “country of origin” principle and thus be subject only to the rules in the EU country in which they
are established. The new directive also encourages co- and self-regulatory regimes in the fields that it
covers. These regimes must be broadly accepted by stakeholders and provide for effective
enforcement. It is expected that they will be in particular useful for non-linear services.

The new TV without Frontiers directive complements other directives, especially the eCommerce
Directive. The latter is unchanged and continues to apply, in particular for the rules on liability of
service providers and content owners. The new directive does not introduce any new licensing
requirements, and neither does it introduce any new liability regime for internet service providers.


Audiovisual media service providers will have to comply with the rules laid down by the directive,
whereas internet service providers, acting only as content carriers, will not. An internet service
provider will thus not be deemed liable for audiovisual media content that it simply pipes to its
customers from the web. However, if an internet service provider itself offers a video-on-demand
service, then it will have to comply with the basic principles laid down in the new directive.
While the reform process of the Directive is far from over, it is widely believed that the final text will
look very much like the one voted by the Parliament.
The only provision that may be re-drafted is the Parliament amendment applying the 12-minutes
maximum advertising rule to non-linear advertising. This measure seems highly unpractical as
nobody quite knows how interactive 'time' could be measured. For P2P-Next it will be important to
work out, whether, where and when a system such as the P2P-Next one belongs to the sphere of
linear audio-visual services, whether, where and when it belongs to the sphere of non-linear services,


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whether mash-ups may co-exist and what the relationship between a potentially non-commercial
frame and commercial P2P-technology based subsystems will be.
Of special importance will also be the permission for linear audio-visual services (non-linear services
may carry them anyway) to carry product placement. Some European governments still expect the
measure to bring some new revenues to European producers of TV, film and drama. An independent
study published in September 2005 by PQ Media in the US found that product placement accounted
for $1.8m in 2004 (i.e. almost three per cent of TV advertising).
Constraints for linear services introduced by the Directive are harsh: (viewers would have to be
'warned' of the presence of product placement every 20 minutes) would make it awkward. This
compares negatively with the fact that in times of PVR’s and skipping ads completely AFP (advertising
funded programmers) were the single most growing part of advertising related revenues in the US TV
industry.
The Commission believes that the distinction between linear and non-linear services is sustainable
over time and will accommodate further technological developments such as personal video
recorders. The differing degrees of regulation of content “pushed” by suppliers or “pulled” by users
reflects differences in user choice and control and in the likely impact on society.

The result is that for linear TV, IPTV with a fixed broadcasting schedule or in general live TV the
division between editorial and promotional content and the restrictions regarding the amount of
advertising, product placement, etc. prevail. On the other hand these restrictions do not apply to non-
linear on-demand services. Only the minimum requirements as detailed above apply.

What this means for the TV of the next generation via Peer2Peer networks like those to be fostered
and established by the P2P-Next project is still unclear. To make sure that technology, application and
service developments in the project comply with the New Directive is one of the key objectives of the
workpackage.



b) Legal and Regulatory Aspects - IPR
Under US law "the Betamax decision" (Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc.), case
holds that copying "technologies" are not inherently illegal, if substantial non-infringing use can be
made of them. This decision, predating the widespread use of the Internet applies to most data
networks, including peer-to-peer networks, since distribution of correctly licensed files can be
performed. These non-infringing uses include sending open source software, public domain files and
out of copyright works. Other jurisdictions tend to view the situation in somewhat similar ways.
Many of the files shared on peer-to-peer networks are copies of copyrighted popular music and
movies. Sharing of these copies among strangers is illegal in most jurisdictions. This has led many
observers, including most media companies and some peer-to-peer critics, to conclude that the
networks themselves pose grave threats to the established distribution model. The research that
attempts to measure actual monetary loss has been somewhat equivocal. Whilst on paper the
existence of these networks results in large losses, the actual income does not seem to have changed
much since these networks started up.
Whether the threat is real or not, both the RIAA and the MPAA now spend large amounts of money
attempting to lobby lawmakers for the creation of new laws, and some copyright owners pay
companies to help legally challenge users engaging in illegal sharing of their material. This also poses
a risk to the participants of P2P-Next who engage in content and service production.
Anonymous peer-to-peer networks allow for distribution of material — legal or not — with little or no
legal accountability across a wide variety of jurisdictions. Many profess that this will lead to greater or
easier trading of illegal material and even (as some suggest) facilitate terrorism, and call for its
regulation on those grounds. Others counter that the presumption of innocence must apply, and that
non peer-to-peer technologies like e-mail (for which there are also anonymizing services), have similar
capabilities. Further, the potential for illegal uses should not prevent the technology from being used
for legal purposes. Most people who use P2P programs such as Limewire use it for illegal activity.
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                                                                                             IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
The companies who create p2p-software cover themselves by not allowing people to download it if
they do not accept that it is illegal to do this. However, the programs themselves are designed to be
used also for illegal activity.
In the European Union (EU), the 2001 EU Copyright directive, which implemented the 1996 WIPO
treaty ("World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty"), prohibits peer-to-peer, claiming it
is a violation of the directive. However, not all European member states have implemented the
directive in national legislation. Notably, on December 22, 2005, after discussing the EU directive, the
French parliament passed two amendments legalizing the exchange of copies on the internet for
private use. In a later proceeding, the French government withdrew the article in question and made
illegal any p2p client obviously aimed at sharing copyrighted material.
The European Commission will publish a strategic approach to online content later his year, that is to
                                                                                                         th
extend the practices identified in the Film online Charter to include all types of online content. On 25
April 2007, the European Parliament accepted the IP Criminal Measures directive after its first reading
in a vote of 374 to 278, and 17 abstentions. It left several unexamined rights in the scope, and some
feel it may criminalize consumers and incriminate ISPs. Recommendations from an alliance of
libraries, consumers and innovators
were not followed, although Parliament was clearly divided on several issues. The main changes
introduced are:
        Apart from copyright (piracy) and trademarks (counterfeiting), also the unexamined database
         and design rights are included in the scope, as well as trade names (which do not fall under
         Community Law). Patents and utility models (petty patents) are excluded;
      A weak definition of "commercial scale" was adopted to better protect consumers and the
         young generation;
      Inciting an IPR infringement is criminalized. This introduces liabilities for software and service
         providers;
      Abuse of the measures provided by this directive are punishable, "fair use"-like actions such
         as infringing for the purpose of criticism, research and reporting are removed from the scope,
         and the neutrality of the investigations should be safeguarded.
The directive further proposes that almost all the enforcement measures available to IP owners in any
member state must be available in all of them, and that the application of the criminal law to IP
enforcement be made very much broader. Key elements are:
Copyright: At present, copyright infringement is treated by most Member States as a civil matter in
general, and as a criminal offence only when practiced on a large scale. The Directive would compel
every member state to criminalize all violations of intellectual property that are deliberate and
conducted in the course of a business. The implications for business are subtle but profound.
Intellectual property law has come to be used to back up technical mechanisms and may be tied to
products to enforce price discrimination and control aftermarkets.
Games console makers such as Sony and Microsoft use technical mechanisms to prevent third parties
selling software and accessories unless they pay royalties. The idea is to extend a dominant position
from one market to another using technical mechanisms such as authentication chips that recognize a
`genuine' part. At present, the law on this is unclear.
The EU Software Directive allows reverse engineering for compatibility, while the EU Copyright
Directive gives legal protection to any mechanism that protects copyright (even if it was primarily
designed for another purpose, such as aftermarket control, and its copyright protection function is
there only to avail of the legal protection). Whether the Software Directive will prevail, or the Copyright
Directive appears to be a matter for national implementation of the Copyright Directive.
Trademarks: Manufacturers in a number of industries (from motorcycles through clothes and
spectacle frames to supermarket goods) have used trade mark law against parallel importers. The law
here is complex and unsettled, but contains many precedents and provisions that can be used to
defend monopolies and interfere with free trade. Thus parallel importers are often caught up in
complex litigation with brand owners who seek to push up prices and control markets.
The Communications Industry: There are implications for phone companies and ISPs. In America,
the music industry uses the Digital Millennium Copyright Act against individuals who swap music. This
involves getting subpoenas against phone companies to identify customers using particular IP

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                                                                                              IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                  P2P-Next
addresses. Phone companies and ISPs are having to disclose personal information that identifies
children as young as ten, whose parents then get threatened with drastic penalties.
A deal on liability issues was worked out in Europe in 2000 via the E-commerce directive, but the new
Directive may undermine this. It is likely to operate as a `Euro-DMCA' to strip away the phone
companies' and ISPs' common-carrier status.
Effects of harsher enforcement: The Directive criminalizes all acts of intellectual property
infringement that are carried out deliberately in the course of a business, rather than just serious
cases as at present. It will also make generally available techniques that until now have existed only in
some jurisdictions - such as the UK's Anton Piller and Mareva orders, which respectively allow
searches and the freezing of bank accounts in civil cases, and a Dutch provision that an infringer can
be compelled to recall goods from the market at his own expense.
Effects on liberty: At present, Member States have a long list of `fair use' or `fair dealing' exceptions
to copyright. For example, it is generally permitted for people to make copies of printed works for
private study, and the prices charged to libraries by journal publishers reflect this. It is also generally
permitted to use excerpts from copyright works for satire. Most Member States currently allow the
disabled to break copy protection mechanisms to get access; thus blind people circumvent copy-
protection so that their screen-scrapers can read electronic books out loud to them, even if the
designer of the e-book software did not intend this.
The implementation of the EU Copyright Directive in many countries has diminished fair use rights. In
the UK, for example, the proposed EUCD implementation does not allow the blind to break copy-
protection mechanisms, and it will therefore become a criminal offence to supply them with effective
book readers.
Effects on free software: There may be effects on the free software community, as well. One of the
main reasons that e.g. Microsoft is not completely dominant in the operating systems market is the
competition from free operating systems such as BSD and GNU/linux that are maintained by armies of
volunteers. These groups do not really have the resources to defend against large civil suits; a recent
action against Linux by SCO has caused concern. Until now, Microsoft has forborne to use its own
patent portfolio against its free competitors, but this may change. Tilting the playing field by introducing
the threat of criminal penalties may make life significantly harder for the free software community in
the long term. Many of the developers and maintainers are university graduate students who treat their
work as a training exercise; however, universities are more risk-averse than commercial ISPs when
faced with the threat of copyright lawsuits (even vexatious threats). The elimination of free software
would have serious effects for commercial software based on it (such as Apple's OS/X) and would
likely result in significant price rises. It would also threaten large European public investments in
software based on free platforms.
The lack of a stable legal framework for p2pnetworks has been one of the main causes why the
technology has not yet matured as much as possible. The copyright provisions currently being
implemented need to be carefully assessed to make sure that P2P-Next fully adheres to them but also
that sustainable business models services and applications may be developed in the project.


c) Sustainable Business Models and Issues incl. DRM, payment, pay-view modes, free view
modes, advertising
According to an EITO 2006 study, p2p will become the most important distribution technology by
2010.

According to this study, p2p is best suited to circumvent the bottleneck of a/v mass distribution,
especially at peak times.

In contrast to traditional client-server based streaming, the more members a system or community
has, the more peers in the network, the bigger the library of available digital resources and the more
efficient the file sharing works, the better is the quality of content distributed.

So far, three major uncertainties prevented the full-fledged development of authorized P2P:
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                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
       Missing of a stabilized legal framework
       Efficient technical solutions for rights management
       Business models suited to the content industry

But now, innovative business models are being tested, among them:
    a) Super distribution model
    b) Search based targeted advertising
    c) Subscription
    d) Pay-per-use



Superdistribution
Mass distribution of content with limited distribution costs, content distribution of older catalogues,
possibility to create new forms of distribution through customers. Weedshare acts as intermediary
between artists and customers, licenses music from independent labels and makes it available for
purchase and eventual resale. The project will further develop superdistribution models for the P2P-
Next system.

Advertising
Targeting a large audience in form of banners or sponsored links to be personalized based on e.g.
search performed by the peer, or interstitials before the content’s playback. Qtrax is working to build a
network whereby users view advertisements in exchange for the right to download music. Qtrax pays
royalties to copyright holders but generates its revenues by selling highly targeted adverting. The
project will build a targeted advertising device (server) for all output media and different forms of
advertising combining TV and web-like experiences.



Subscription
Monthly fees for content streaming and/or download are redistributed to copyright holders
based on the number of times a given content is accessed. Mercora lets its members broadcast their
music collection across the net and listen to broadcasts from thousands of other users within a legal
framework. Subscribers pay USD 3.99. Premium users are offered unlimited listening and up to ten
hours of music recording. The project will develop a range of subscription based access and usage
models.

Pay-per-use
Content is sold on a pay-per-use basis. P2P service may be compensated as a distributor. Mashboxx
is a P2P application that seeks to distribute content authorized by the major record labels and which
allows consumers to search for content on most of the leading file sharing networks. Songs, for
example, are available for USD 0.99 per track. The project will develop a range of pay-per-use access
models.

P2Pis about to become the most cost-effective way to circulate content on the web with robust
decentralized networks and users’ willingness to pay. Key to success is that the content industries
accept P2P for distribution of back-catalogue content under a stable legal framework with pricing
schemes based on pay-per-use or flat rate community subscription.

Advertising will play an important role but cannot alone sustain P2P services. Critical P2P success
factors are:
       Interoperability of DRM and P2P protocols,

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                                                                                         IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                             P2P-Next
       Content access on all terminals
       P2P consumers are permitted, under legal constraints to use freely and even re-distribute
        content (super distribution) according to different business models
       P2P prosumers are permitted to mash content, taking existing content on the network to mix it
        with other (own and third party generated) to create new content
       Future integration of P2P services and multimedia Instant Messaging

Critical success factors of p2p deployment that the P2P-Next system will have to meet are:




P2P-Next’s impact on the online content value chain may be profound, ranging from:
    Telecom operators: new revenues in widening broadband utilization
    CE industry: leveraging sales of new multimedia products
    Content/media industry: better circulation/distribution of content through file sharing
    Internet search-find-obtain companies (Google, Yahoo, etc.): extending search activities and
      advertising revenues

For this to come true the following needs happening:
       Stabilized legal framework
       Efficient technical solutions for Intellectual
       Property Rights (IPR) management
       Business models suited to the content industry
       DRM – not only to prevent abuse but also to enable
       Sustainable business models.

Workpackage 2 of P2P-Next will actively contribute to reaching these goals.



f) Applications and Services


P2P-Next will analyze applicable business models, will make arrangements with third parties to have
services and applications up and running within the P2P-Next environment, will develop, trial and
validate a vast array of business scenarios internally, with the help of the P2P-next user group and

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                                                                                          IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
consumer users, and will further develop a set of applications and services that the project feels are
especially necessary to enable the success of the P2P-Next system.
A final decision on which services, applications and technologies to further develop will be made by
month 12 of the project based upon the set of propositions developed in this workpackage.

Of special importance within this regard are:
       Enhanced interaction and transaction capabilities wrt. to TV-like services enabling the roll out
        of multi user interaction and participatory TV of a new dimension
       Effective micropayment and other forms of trusted billing for services and goods
       Effective DRM facilities that fit into the legal environment and address and take into account
        the needs of the stakeholders of P2P-Next (project participants, user group and outside world)
       Inclusion of vast array of user viewing and access models ranging from free view advertising
        backed to pay mode models (subscription, pay per view, pay view, etc.)
       Development of media planning tools to embark on niche publishing across all devices with
        optimal delivery, search and control functions to arrive e.g. at a new level of ratings and
        viewing analysis
       Development of ad and promotional content planning and delivery tools to embark on 360°
        degrees targeted advertising and promotional content campaigns (push and pull, search
        based and linked with the content itself) supporting classical forms of advertising and newly
        emerging forms, such as interactive ads, clickable virtual advertising, etc. and enabling to
        apply a multitude of campaign optimization goals and targeting functions (from qualitative
        awareness building type to quantitative sales channel oriented types with time varying and
        output device varying features and the ability to reassemble scenes on the spot).



Workpackage 2 will firmly connect P2P with the outside world. While the other workpackages focus on
developing, researching, validating and demonstrating the P2P own research results, technologies
and content, this workpackage will take the foreground of the project and will link it with third party
services and applications in a way that the complete offering will make P2P-Next superior to
competing offers on the market.




WP2 Business and legal Ecosystem
Partners involved: Markenfilm (Leader), BBC, EBU, IRT; DACC, etc
This workpackage has the following objectives:
       Assessment of the legal situation for all stakeholders of P2P-Next, especially with regard to
        the New TV Directive of the European Commission and the pending changes on IPR
        regarding online content and user generated content
       Research and development of sustainable business models for the overall Peer2Peer-Next
        system and various actors and users of the Peer2Peer-Next system, ranging from publishers
        to prosumers
       Research and development of a set of DRM and payment issues, incl. billing, micropayment,
        subscription, pay view, pay per view, and inclusion of third party offerings into P2P-Next
       Research and development of a set of advertising and other free view models and related
        tools, and inclusion of third party offerings into P2P-Next
       Development of a selected set of applications and services to be applied within the
        Peer2Peer-Next system up to the level of commercial prototypes (linking own developments
        with third party developments)
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                                                                                              IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                  P2P-Next

WP 2.1 Public Interest and Industry Perspective


Work package number            WP 2.1            Start date or starting     M1
                                                 event:
Work package title             Public Interest and Industry Perspective (WP Leader in bold)
Activity type                  RTD
Participant      21       1          2       3        4       5        6         7       8        9        11
number
Participant               VTT        NOR     DAC      ULAN    JSI      FOL       TUD     STM      KTH      RTV
short name       EBU                         C        CP
Person-
months per
participant
Participant      12       13         14      15       16      17       18        19      20       10       Total
number
Participant      KEF      UNIK       AGP     BBC      PDD     IRT      UOR       FAB     NOK      MFG
short name                LU
Person-
months per
participant


Objectives
The main objective of WP2.1 is to analyze the public interest and the industry perspective. All demands of
those will be analyzed and build into the overall system requirements. Furthermore the workpackage will
undertake liaising with representatives from the major stakeholders in the developments such as the
software industry, content industries, etc.

Work package 2 will focus on demands and requirements given by all involved parties, like content
providers, users, device manufacturers, regulatory parties and others. This includes stakeholder
requirements, content reliability, security and DRM demands, metadata sustainness, the use of open
standards, problem support, system design modularity and enhance ability and other issues related to the
involved parties.


Description of work

Within this WP, the public interest and the industry perspective will be analyzed and requirements from them
will be gathered and channelled into the project work. This will form up one part of a coherent, dynamic set
up of system requirements that will constantly be updated and will span the whole lifetime of the project. The
project will produce comprehensive requirements reports covering all tasks detailed below at monhs6, 12,24,
36 and 48 to provide constant input.

Task 1 - Content Provider Requirements
1.1. Professional content providers

This includes all “professional content inserters”, such as broadcasters, content (re-)distributors like cable
providers/IPTV distributors, or even DVD-A/V content distributors (formerly known as Videotheques etc).

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                                                                                               IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                   P2P-Next
* delivery aspects, like: indivisible, contemporary, unmodified and complete delivery/content distribution
* service-alike representation of content, like known from i.e. DVB-Services, shall be possible
* hybrid-like delivery, including QoS where available
* feedback to the broadcaster/content creator anonymous and reliable feedback and rating (see standards
from e-voting)
* security of metadata, which is strictly bound to the content and that shall not be changeable
* addressing of certain groups of users, like known from genre-based browsing
* open standards conformance
* license free components preferred; replaceable software parts (codecs, protocols etc), allowed by a
modular system architecture design
* GEOlocation support and DRM shall be applicable, if desired (on the fly/by-flag)
* VoD archives should be accessible, with or without billing
* changeable/adaptable UI
* multiple UI - mode options:

       - basic GUI (no details, like a DVB zapping box, only service list and favorites);
        - enhanced GUI (including community, most options on one click);
        - p2p-freak GUI (detailed info about net, peers, traffic, configuration options etc)

* Timing aspects of content delivery. Timing is an integral part of the marketing of content. New episodes of
TV series are shown on prime time slots. Movies premiere on specific dates (and times). As we move to a
content-on-demand approach, it is important that we still are able to support the concept of the premiere, and
thus both to be able to control the release time of content, but also to be able to provide timely access to
customers who want to participate in the premiere event. This calls for a mechanism for pre-distribution, and
subsequent unlocking, of content, so as to avoid overloading the network when demand peaks.

* tv-screen - mode support: remote control usage, like known from common tv
* easy installation for the users


1.2. Prosumers
This includes all “geographically static” end-user devices, having mostly a common PC (or several of them,
when seen per household), including a DSL+ Internet connection and maybe a webcam to create A/V
content with.

* intuitive usage/insertion of own content, no matter which source type, codec etc
* feedback and rating to myself as content creator, as well as
* feedback and rating to the community
* support for time-shifted-viewing, realized via a buffer or the swarm itself as a buffer
* metadata, like ratings, tags, recommendation lists, social preferences, community tagged browsing shall be
accessible and changeable/expansible by the users



1.3. Mobile content providers
This includes all mobile content creators, incl. mobile phone users (having a built-in cam), PDA users, DV
cam users with WiFi support and others as well as professional mobile content creators (mobile advertising,
mobisodes, tardisodes, etc.).

* intuitive usage/insertion of own content, no matter which source type, codec etc
* plug and play across several network types and codecs
* metadata access and distributed content management across several platforms
* interconnectivity, especially within my own, well-designed and maybe even secured and closed HNED-area
* distributed content access
* remote control content recording programming, from i.e. a mobile phone to a pvr at home
* feedback and link-sharing (metadata and i.e. .torrent-links) across mobile networks
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                   P2P-Next



Task 2 - Consumer device manufacturers
2.1. PC / computer manufacturers
This includes all “professional content inserters”, such as broadcasters, content (re-)distributors
like cable providers/IPTV distributors

* open standards conformance
* license free components preferred; replaceable software parts (codecs, protocols etc), allowed by a
modular system architecture design

2.2. Set-Top-Box manufacturers
This includes all “professional content inserters”, such as broadcasters, content (re-)distributors
like cable providers/IPTV distributors

* open standards conformance
* license free components preferred; replaceable software parts (codecs, protocols etc), allowed by a
modular system architecture design


2.3. Mobile device manufacturers
This includes all mobile phone manufacturers, PDA manufacturers, maybe even car manufacturers, maybe
even iPod/mobile music player manufacturers and others

* open standards conformance
* license free components preferred; replaceable software parts (codecs, protocols etc), allowed by a
modular system architecture design


Task 3 - Network operators
3.1. Internet Service Providers (ISP’s)
This includes ISP-related issues

* how to interact across network-boundaries
* how to signal P2P content
* how to measure and profile P2P traffic usage
* how to optimize P2P traffic-related issues, like delay, bandwidth, latency, jitter etc within their own nets
* how to reach the largest number of users and customers, requiring the smallest amount of network
capacity, traffic, hops etc
* how to minimize both aggregate bandwidth required for delivery, but more importantly, how to minimize and
control how off-net bandwidth is utilized. To support this, ISPs would want to participate to guide users to on-
net sources or to sources on other networks with which the ISP has favourable peering agreements.
Additionally, the ISP may want the opportunity to cache data in strategic locations in their networks.
* how to deal with intellectual property issues for cached content. ISPs, unless they are the content provider,
most likely would like to be seen as “common carriers”, even when they technically are the source of the
content, as is the case with cached content. Conversely, content owners need mechanisms in place so as to
ensure them that they are still controlling content, even when it is served from sources not under their direct
control.

3.2. Telecommunication operators
This includes telco-provider -related issues

* how to signal P2P content
* how to measure and profile P2P traffic usage
* how to optimize P2P traffic-related issues, like delay, bandwidth, latency, jitter etc within their own nets

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                   P2P-Next


3.3. Mobile network operators
This includes network provider -related issues

* how to signal P2P content
* how to measure and profile P2P traffic usage
* how to optimize P2P traffic-related issues, like delay, bandwidth, latency, jitter etc within their own nets



Task 4 - Other content provider issues
4.1. Internet Service Providers (ISP’s)

This includes all network provider -related issues

* how to signal own P2P content
* how to profile content usage


4.2. Prosumers

This includes content providing issues seen from the Prosumer - side

* how to signal own P2P content
* how to reach a larger audience




4.3. SME’s

This includes the issues of the SME's

* how to find and be found
* how to signal own P2P content
* how to reach a larger audience
* how to profile content usage


4.4. Traditional commercial and public Broadcasters

This includes all issues related to broadcasters
* how to find and be found
* law issues, depending on the country-laws and restrictions
* GEOlocation
* DRM usage
* measuring ratings




4.5. Webcasters at Format, channel and aggregator level

This includes all issues related to webcasters defined as a/v broadcasters via the internet

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                                                                                        IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next
* how to find and be found
* law issues, depending on the country-laws and restrictions
* GEOlocation
* DRM usage
* Free view and advertising models
* measuring ratings




4.6. Primary and Secondary Rights Holders such as sports clubs and associations, movie studios

This includes all issues related to webcasters defined as a/v broadcasters via the internet
* how to find and be found
* law issues, depending on the country-laws and restrictions
* GEOlocation
* DRM usage
* Free view and advertising models
* measuring ratings
* Mechanisms for efficient distribution. Just as the US broadcast networks often work with local TV-channels
(affiliates) to distribute their content, broadcasters can work with local distribution centers, either
intependently run, or affiliated with local ISPs.

4.7 Business TV and Promotional Content and Advertising Developers and Agencies

This includes all issues related to business TV and promotional content production webcasters
* how to find and be found
* law issues, depending on the country-laws and restrictions
* GEOlocation
* DRM usage
* measuring ratings and effectiveness of campaigns
* Free view and advertising models




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
2.1.1 M6, Requirements Report 1
2.1.2 M12, Requirements Report 2
2.1.3. M24, Requirements Report 3
2.1.4. M36, Requirements Report 4
2.1.5 M48, Final Requirements Report

WP2.2 Business Models


Work package number         WP 2.2          Start date or starting event:   M1
Work package title          Business Models - DRM, Pay View Mode and Free View Mode Models (WP
                            leader in bold)
Activity type               RTD


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                                                                                              IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                  P2P-Next
Participant       10       1        2        3       4        5        6        7        8        9        11
number
Participant                VTT      NOR      DAC     ULAN     JSI      FOL      TUD      STM      KTH      RTV
short name        MFG                        C       CP
Person-
months      per
participant
Participant       12       13       14       15      16       17       18       19       20       21       Total
number
Participant       KEF      UNIK     AGP      BBC     PDD      IRT      UOR      FAB      NOK      EBU
short name                 LU
Person-
months      per
participant


Objectives
This WP will analyze sustainable market opportunities and investigate in future business models that can be
created and evolved based on the P2P-Next system, since this new cross-platform engine can build up a
bunch of sophisticated applications and services that are new to the users and content providers.




Description of work
Market opportunities will be analyzed. Investigation in future business models is being done. He following
tasks will be carried out:

Task 1 – Market watch
The consortium will embark on a regular market watch to be informed about market and application trends as
well as competition and complementary developments in areas touching the project. This includes
concertation activities(e.g. liaising with other EC projects, nationally funded research activities, international
projects outside Europe or commercial RTD and demonstration projects)

Task 2 – User group management
The project will form a user group comprised of academic institutions, commercial organizations that are
potential buyers of the TVNEXT foreground and that are to assist when carrying out the usability measures
during the project.

Task 3 - DRM and billing devices
The project will develop a set of DRM and billing business models to be applied within the p2p-next system.
These will be developed into full-fledged commercial prototype services taking into account of third party
developments (see task 6) in WP 2.5-Application and Service Development.

Task 4 – Pay view models
The project will develop a set of non-advertising pay view based business models to be applied within the
p2p-next system. These will be developed into full-fledged commercial prototype services taking into
account of third party developments (see task 6) in WP 2.5-Application and Service Development.

Task 5 –Free view advertising based models

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                                                                                            IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next
The project will develop a set of free view advertising based business models to be applied within the p2p-
next system.
These will be developed into services taking into account of third party developments (see task 6) in WP 2.5-
Application and Service Development.

Task 6-Third party development arrangements and integration into P2P-Next
In this task we will liaise and make arrangements with vendors of suitable third party services and products to
be included in our own service and application offerings. This may range from ad servers to authoring
systems, rights management systems, media planning tools, authentification systems, encryption systems,
etc. The arrangements will be made solely on the basis on increasing the overall value of the P2P-Next
offering.




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
2.2.1 M6, Business Model Report 1, comprising tasks 1 – 6 in months 1- 6
2.2.2 M12, Business Model Report 2, comprising tasks 1 – 6 in months 7-12
2.2.3. M24, Business Model Report 3, comprising tasks 1 – 6 in months 13 - 24
2.2.4. M36, Business Model Report 4, comprising tasks 1 – 6 in months 25 - 36
2.2.5 M48, Final Business Model Report, comprising tasks 1 – 6 in months 37 - 48



WP2.3 Regulatory Aspects


Work package number            WP 2.3            Start date or starting event:   M1
Work package title             Regulatory Aspects (WP leader in bold)
Activity type                  RTD
Participant       10       1         2       3         4        5       6        7     8       9        11
number
Participant                VTT       NOR     DAC       ULAN     JSI     FOL      TUD   STM     KTH      RTV
short name        MFG                        C         CP
Person-
months      per
participant
Participant       12       13        14      15        16       17      18       19    20      21       Total
number
Participant       KEF      UNIK      AGP     BBC       PDD      IRT     UOR      FAB   NOK     EBU
short name                 LU
Person-
months      per
participant




Objectives
In this WP, all regulatory aspects will be analyzed regarding content creation, delivery, retrieval and
consumption. This will bear in mind restrictions being given by the law, such as GEOlocation and DRM –

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
issues.


Of special relevance are adherence to the 'Television without Frontiers' (TVWF) Directive, the Software
Directive, the Copyright Directive, the eCommerce Directive and the strategic approach to online content to
be released later his year. Furthermore, the IP Criminal Measures Directive/ IPR Enforcement Directive 2 are
of utmost importance to the project.


Description of work
Decision-making on regulatory and policy matters involves two overall forces that drive the hierarchy. On the
one hand there are International agreements, conventions, and resulting legal frameworks that are required
to be implemented.


Task 1- IPR Matters
The WIPO 1996 Copyright Treaty and Competition Law are examples. But policy and actions are also driven
by visions and realities that vary over time. With conventions often based on knowledge and negotiations up
to a decade old, policy incompatibilities can emerge as a) member states implement convention-related
directives, and b) as policy makers adapt to today’s realities, not least in the field of technology.

Key is the assessment and analysis and feeding into the project of the main IPR laws in the EU, US and Asia
that come into effect


Task 2- Audiovisual Services (linear and non-linear regulation) matters
Media and communication policies always reflect a mixture of economic, technological and cultural impulses
and visions. The vision is a society where digital technologies are seen as the key to new and more effective
ways for citizens, businesses and governments to share and store services and products, and partake
actively in everyday life. The implementation involves a patchwork quilt of different types of legislation and
initiatives; often these take the form of policies that seem to move in mutually incompatible directions.
Several examples have been identified in the EU FP6 MusicLessons(contract 006486) project available as
input to P2P-Next.

Key is the assessment and analysis and feeding into the project of the main TV directives (audiovisual
services) laws in the EU, US and Asia that come into effect.

As overall policies such as the Lisbon agenda, and more recently i2010 filter down to the various directorates
of the European Commission, opportunities arise for further problems of coordination. Legal authorities
briefed with the task of implementing the Copyright Directive seek to hinder “illegal down- and up-loading of
content in digital networks”. On the other hand, the main driving force for achieving the spread of broadband
is often the same traffic, for example in file-sharing networks. An analysis of the present situation suggests
that several decision-making entities are affected by the above:
- Legal concerning intellectual property issues,
- Information Society directorate (more recently incorporating audio-visual activities) covering access to
infrastructures and e-applications,
- Internal Market and Competition directorates (sometimes with overlapping responsibilities) looking at
monopolies, mergers, access to the market,
- Culture and the issues of protecting and developing European cultural heritage (with the issue and the
competitive potential of cultural diversity enjoying higher and higher status in the political debate)




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next

Task 3-Further laws
Key will be the assessment of regulations such as the E-Commerce directive, the Software directive and the
forthcoming strategic papers on online content from the EC and their feeding into international and national
law.


Task 4 –Other regulations
There is a constant need in the policy arena to consider not only technological issues, but to focus on the
interaction between technological, economic and social/cultural factors. Cultural issues of range of choice,
diversity etc. cannot be analyzed without taking account of trade and economic issues. Different policies
interact with each other - sometimes incompatibilities arise. Policies must live a dynamic life.
P2P-Next will focus on a number of particular areas where such incompatibilities can be noted. They include
the conflict between the widespread control opportunities that digital copyright law offers content owners (via
DRM (Digital Rights Management) systems), as opposed to the desires to develop new business models,
encourage infrastructure improvements and access (e.g. broadband roll-out), creativity amongst citizens and
innovation that is based on the improvement of existing ideas. Cultural diversity, the most important driver
behind innovative potential in Europe, can become marginalized in the wake of these incompatibilities.




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery

2.3.1 M6, Regulation Report 1, comprising tasks 1 – 4 in months 1- 6
2.3.2 M12, Regulation Report 2, comprising tasks 1 – 4 in months 7- 12
2.3.3. M24, Regulation Report 3, comprising tasks 1 – 4 in months 13- 24
2.3.4. M36, Regulation Report 4, comprising tasks 1 – 4 in months 25- 36
2.3.5 M48, Final Regulation Report, comprising tasks 1 – 4 in months 37- 48

WP2.4 Legislative Aspects


Work package number            WP 2.4         Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title             Legislative Aspects (WP leader in bold)
Activity type                  RTD
Participant       3        1         2       10      4        5          6     7       8       9        11
number
Participant                VTT       NOR     MFG     ULAN     JSI        FOL   TUD     STM     KTH      RTV
short name        DAC                                CP
                  C

Person-
months      per
participant
Participant       12       13        14      15      16       17         18    19      20      21       Total
number
Participant       KEF      UNIK      AGP     BBC     PDD      IRT        UOR   FAB     NOK     EBU
short name                 LU



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                                                                                             IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
Person-
months      per
participant


Objectives
The main objective of WP 2.4 is to analyze all legislative aspects, like privacy, security and others. More
specific, the following points will be investigated:
       The IPR / patent regime as a means of control or as an incentive to innovate?
       The challenges to competition law, and the business environemnt
       Other agreements, contracts and licenses
       Privacy and integrity issues

While WP 2.3 (regulatory aspects) is more focused on the law making side, WP 2.4 is focused on the effects
of regulation on business and consumers.


Description of work
Throughout the 1990s, the emerging policy debate on the potential of a digital networks society stressed the
need to balance two possibly opposing features. The protection of immaterial rights, via the IPR / Patent
regime, should not be so rigorous as to hinder the development of new business models suited to the digital
world. As a more focused debate on e-inclusion, interactivity, consumer as creators etc. developed, the focus
shifted to the need for a balance between content owners, content owners IPRs and the reasonable interests
of consumers.

Technology, however, has made it possible for consumers to circumnavigate content owners´ interests with
the result that cultural diversity has moved from main stream media to the Internet. Technology has turned
content, which has been exclusive to many due to cost and the necessity to have certain hardware (CD
players etc) into collective goods. Major content owners such as global film and record companies have
responded by actively hindering the development of “illegal” alternatives such a P2P networks. At the same
time, major IPR owners have amassed large repositories of content for future use (not necessarily through
future promotion but via hindering others to promote and earn money from the same). Tthe development of
new script based application software and open API:s (web-services) and a new syndication openness has
led to a situation with many new creators and SME:s engaged in improving existing ideas often end up in
conflict with existing rights owners, or unwilling to continue because of doubts abut the identity of possible
existing rights owners.

There are four key areas/tasks that will be considered together:


Task 1- The IPR / patent regime
In the present IPR arena more and more existing ideas reside in the repositories of large content providers
who can restrict any attempted exploitation by outsiders. Such repositories are often collected with the
strategy for exploitation in the far future, or for the purpose of hindering use in new business
environments/models. If such strategies are supported by the legal regime then a serious threat could be
posed to innovation. The IPR and the Patent legal regimes have traditionally lived very separate lives.
Copyright protection is given to a particular realization of an idea created by an individual or groups of
individuals, In other words an intellectual concept. For this reason it enjoys a long period of protection, in the
case of music authors, the individual’s life plus 70 years in Europe.
Patent Law relates to an economic concept providing protection in the market against similar ideas for a
reasonable period of time, to allow the patent holder to recoup investments. Up to 15 – 20 years is seen to
be a reasonable period of time. When large conglomerates with very large repositories of copyrights with a
long life span use these collectively to control emerging business models, then the use shifts from that
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                                                                                            IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next
envisaged by IPR law to that covered by Patent Law. Thus IPR/Patent Law and the issue of collective
dominance by influential conglomerates becomes an important issue.


Task 2- Competition law, TV Directive
Competition and Anti-trust regulators have lacked the analytical tools to differentiate between market share
and market power, as well as the legal instruments to remedy such phenomena. It has been hard to estimate
the market significance of “hidden repositories of IPR” adding to market share. Here a comparison can be
made to industrial companies with no products but who are only managing patent licenses – the so-called
“patent trolls”. Similarly the inability to encompass conglomerates possibility to act jointly and thereby have
significantly larger market power that their collective market shares.

Furthermore, the effects of the EU TV directive and its implementation into national law shall be watched
closely.

Task 3 - Agreements, contracts and licenses.
Today’s contracts between creators and publishers do not give much room for the creators to withdraw or
alter terms. They can allow a rights holder to block the usage of rights without the original creator being able
to seek alternative forms of exploitation. This may hold for a few years in normal industry work but not for
ever. However, new models for copyright protection are emerging such as Creative Commons. Here creators
may act differently and not bind themselves to publishers but give up part of their IPR, i.e. adapt to the
Creative Commons initiative. Much similar innovation can also be seen in the open source and open content
licenses area. The list of open source licenses is long and in practice one unique license for each open
source actor. There are four Creative Commons licenses and we expect that this list will grow also.
Agreements and licenses are used to profile creative operations which compares well with how groups of
industries get together to profile and create a technical de facto standard. In the last case the patent regime
rule. In the first case the legal regime on agreements rule. This regime is very open and in principle any
agreement can be entered unless it is unreasonable. We suspect that the inventiveness on agreements and
licenses will increase and breed diversity. The regulatory regime must reappraise current IPR legislation and
possibly produce new directives on what is reasonable and unreasonable if IPR protection has a primary aim
of spawning diversity and creativity.

Task 4 - Privacy and Integrity Issues.
 Content has moved from being something for an exclusive few to be collective goods through a process
where at first it was easy and cheap to make copies (cassette player) and then through digital copies over
the net (file sharing). Publishers want to maintain control of the whole process. One of the mechanisms for
that is DRM (Digital Rights Management) of various kinds. The effects of various schemes for P2P-Next
shall be analysed critically.




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery

2.4.1 M6, Legal Aspects Report 1, comprising task 1 – 4 in months 1 - 6
2.4.2 M12, Legal Aspects Report 2, comprising task 1 – 4 in months 7- 12
2.4.3. M24, Legal Aspects Report 3, comprising task 1 – 4 in months 13- 24
2.4.4. M36, Legal Aspects Report 4, comprising task 1 – 4 in months 25 - 36
2.4.5 M48, Final Legal Aspects Report, comprising task 1 – 4 in months 37 - 48

WP2.5 Application and Service Development



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                                                                                             IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
Work              WP 2.5       Start date or starting event:   M1
package
number
Work              Application and Service Development (WP leader in bold)
package title
Activity type     RTD
Participant       10       1         2       3       4         5      6        7        8        9        11
number
Participant                VTT       NOR     DAC     ULAN      JSI    FOL      TUD      STM      KTH      RTV
short name        MFG                        C       CP
Person-
months      per
participant
Participant       12       13        14      15      16        17     18       19       20       21       Total
number
Participant       KEF      UNIK      AGP     BBC     PDD       IRT    UOR      FAB      NOK      EBU
short name                 LU
Person-
months      per
participant


Objectives
This WP will focus on developing a set of services and application up to the level of commercial prototypes
that bare crucial to the superiority of P2P-Next. Of special importance within this regard are:
       Enhanced interaction and transaction capabilities wrt. to TV-like services enabling the roll out of multi
        user interaction and participatory TV of a new dimension
       Effective micropayment and other forms of trusted billing for services and goods
       Effective DRM facilities that fit into the legal environment and address and take into account the
        needs of the stakeholders of P2P-Next (project participants, user group and outside world)
       Inclusion of vast array of user viewing and access models ranging from free view advertising backed
        to pay mode models (subscription, pay per view, pay view, etc.)
       Development of media planning tools to embark on niche publishing across all devices with optimal
        delivery, search and control functions to arrive at a new level of ratings and viewing analysis
       Development of ad and promotional content planning and delivery tools to embark on 360° degrees
        targeted advertising and promotional content campaigns (pus and pull, search based and linked with
        the content itself) supporting classical forms of advertising and newly emerging forms such as
        interactive ads, clickable virtual advertising, etc. and enabling to apply a multitude of campaign
        optimization goals and targeted functions (from qualitative awareness building type to quantitative
        sales channel oriented type with time varying and output device varying features and the ability to
        reassemble scenes on the spot).




Description of work
Work will start at moth 6 of the project when the first requirements from wp 2.1 are available. The
workpackage will build commercial prototypes with regard to the following services (see tasks below).

If the requirement analysis reveals that other services are more important for the project these will be added
if necessary at the expense of formerly planned activities – should budgetary constraints dictate to do so).
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                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next

Versions 1.0 of the different services will be available at month 12, v2.0 at moth 24 ,v3.0 at month 36 and the
final version at month 48.

The developed services will be exploited and disseminated according to the regulations of the dissemination
and exploitation workpackage

The following tasks will be carried out:


Task1 – Enhanced Interaction, Transaction and Participatory TV Service
The project will develop a prototype service. This will not be confined to core P2P-Next work but also include
third party products and developments suitable to enhance and improve the P2P-Next commercial launch.


Task 2 – Micropayment, trusted billing service
The project will develop a micropayment and trusted billing service according to the specifics set out in
workpackages 3 and 4. This will not be confined to core P2P-Next work but also include third party products
and developments suitable to enhance and improve the P2P-Next commercial launch.


Task 3 – DRM service
The project will develop a DRM service suited for the stakeholders defined in workpackage 2.1. This will not
be confined to coreP2P-Next work but also include third party products and developments suitable to
enhance and improve the P2P-Next commercial launch.


Task 4 – Pay view service
The project will make available to publishers at all levels suitable devices to develop pay view schemes for
their content channeled into the P2P-next system. This includes subscription models, pay per view/use
models, pay use/view models, combinations with advertising and free view models and will apply to different
levels of content:
a) prosumer generated content
b) professional content that may not be changed, redistributed or otherwise used
c) professional content that may be redistributed, changed, etc


Task 5 – Free view service
The project will make available to publishers at all levels suitable refinancing devices and offerings to
develop free view schemes for their content channeled into the P2P-next system. This includes various
advertising models, sponsoring, e-commerce, interaction models and will apply to different levels of content:
a) prosumer generated content
b) professional content that may not be changed, redistributed or otherwise used
c) professional content that may be redistributed, changed, etc


Task 6 – Targeted ad and promotional content device
The project will develop a targeted ad and promotional content device (server) that will be especially suited
for p2p networks and will be able to manage 360° degrees campaigns according to varying quantitative and

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                                                                                             IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
qualitative optimization functions, suited for different output channels, different types of advertising involving
films, graphical and search based advertising as well as virtual ads.


Task 7 – Targeted editorial content device
The project will develop a targeted niche content publishing and delivery device (server) to optimize and
control publishing of niche content in a way that it can be optimized on the fly for delivery various output
media(mobile, PC, TV, etc) .


Task 8 – P2p-next media planning tool and service
The project will develop a media planning tool and service with which to manage content delivery and
refinancing of it, especially suitable for usage within p2p-networks.




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery

Enhanced Interaction, Transaction and Participatory TV prototype Service
Del 2.5.1.1, M12, Enhanced Interaction, Transaction and Participatory TV Service v1.0
Del 2.5.1.2, M24, Enhanced Interaction, Transaction and Participatory TV Service v2.0
Del 2.5.1.3, M36, Enhanced Interaction, Transaction and Participatory TV Service v3.0
Del 2.5.1.4, M48, Enhanced Interaction, Transaction and Participatory TV Service v4.0

Micropayment, trusted billing prototype service
Del 2.5.2.1; M12, Micropayment, trusted billing service v1.0
Del 2.5.2.2; M24, Micropayment, trusted billing service v2.0
Del 2.5.2.3; M36, Micropayment, trusted billing service v3.0
Del 2.5.2.4; M48, Micropayment, trusted billing service v4.0

DRM prototype service
Del 2.5.3.1; M12, DRM service v1.0
Del 2.5.3.2; M24, DRM service v2.0
Del 2.5.3.3; M36, DRM service v3.0
Del 2.5.3.4; M48, DRM service v4.0

Pay view prototype service
Del 2.5.4.1; M12, Pay view v1.0
Del 2.5.4.2; M24, Pay view v2.0
Del 2.5.4.3; M36, Pay view v3.0
Del 2.5.4.4; M48, Pay view v4.0

Free view prototype service
Del 2.5.5.1; M12, Free view v1.0
Del 2.5.5.2; M24, Free view v2.0
Del 2.5.5.3; M36, Free view v3.0

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                                                                                               IP Proposal
 FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                  P2P-Next
 Del 2.5.5.4; M48, Free view v4.0

 Targeted ad and promotional prototype content device
 Del 2.5.6.1; M12, Targeted ad and promotional content device (server) v1.0
 Del 2.5.6.2; M24, Targeted ad and promotional content device (server) v2.0
 Del 2.5.6.3; M36, Targeted ad and promotional content device (server) v3.0
 Del 2.5.6.4; M48, Targeted ad and promotional content device (server) v4.0

 Targeted editorial prototype content device
 Del 2.5.7.1; M12, Targeted editorial content device   v1.0
 Del 2.5.7.2; M24, Targeted editorial content device   v2.0
 Del 2.5.7.3; M36, Targeted editorial content device   v3.0
 Del 2.5.7.4; M48, Targeted editorial content device   v4.0

 P2P-Next prototype media planning tool and service
 Del 2.5.8.1; M12, P2p-next media planning tool service v1.0
 Del 2.5.8.2; M24, P2p-next media planning tool service v2.0
 Del 2.5.8.3; M36, P2p-next media planning tool service v3.0
 Del 2.5.8.4; M48, P2p-next media planning tool service v4.0



WP NUMBER:        WP2.6      Start date or starting Month 1                         Activity            RTD
                             event:                                                 Type:
WP title:       Risk Assessment and Evaluation (User Group, Peer Reviewers) (WP Leader in bold)


Activity type      RTD
Participant        1        10      2        3         4       5       6        7         8       9       11
number
Participant                 MFG     NOR      DAC       ULAN    JSI     FOL      TUD       STM     KTH     RTV
short name         VTT                       C         CP
Person-
months      per
participant
Participant        12       13      14       15        16      17      18       19        20      21      Total
number
Participant        KEF      UNIK    AGP      BBC       PDD     IRT     UOR      FAB       NOK     EBU
short name                  LU
Person-
months      per
participant


Objectives:
The objective of this workpackage is to evaluate and improve the project work. This includes monitoring risk
and measuring success. This will be performed according to a Quality Assurance and Risk Assessment Plan
(QAP). It includes the major sources of risk, contingency measures as well a set of performance indicators
and will be laid down in parallel to the definition phase of the project. Evaluation of work will be performed in
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                                                                                             IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
three ways:
    a) work will be constantly assessed and evaluated internally by the administrative and technical project
        co-coordinators,
    b) two external (peer) reviewers will be selected to provide the consortium with independent advice and
    c) a user group of will be formed.


Description of work and role of partners:
The workpackage comprises the following tasks:
    T1. Setting up the evaluation committee (incl. selecting + managing peer reviewers + user group)
    T2. Defining and planning evaluation procedures (including the selection of appropriate methods,
       tools and mechanisms)
    T3. Continuous project evaluation (of technology, applications, business processes, workflow issues)
    T.4 Preparing and managing internal auditing (technical, financial, technological, ethical)

T1. An evaluation committee will be set up and organized by the co-coordinator. It will consist of members
from participating organizations plus two external experts.
T2. The task of the committee is to select the appropriate evaluation methods and tools and the peer
reviewers and the user group.
T3. The Evaluation Committee will then jointly with the peer reviewers and the user group assess the project
work. Results of these assessments will be regularly reported on a bi-monthly basis (by the two external peer
reviewers) to the project managers (faster in cases of urgency).
T4. Output of the workpackage will be used to internally audit the project and to come up with a set of
implementation guidelines showing how to best design, implement, customize, phase-in and transfer the
various components of the project. This is considered of importance in order to allow for transferal of the
project results to other organizations, usage scenarios and application domains.
Deliverables:
     ID         Month    Name/ Brief Description
   D2.6.1        M3      Quality Assurance and Risk Assessment Plan
   D2.6.2       M12      Assessment and Risk Report 1 (Incl. Peer Reviewer and User Group Assessment)
   D2.6.3       M24      Assessment and Risk Report 2 (Incl. Peer Reviewer and User Group Assessment)
   D2.6.4       M36      Assessment and Risk Report 3 (Incl. Peer Reviewer and User Group Assessment)
                         Assessment and Risk Report 4 (Incl. Final Peer Reviewer and User Group
   D2.6.5       M48
                         Assessment)




WP3 System Requirements and Architecture



Partners involved: PN (leader),
According to a user-centric design paradigm the user requirements will be based on scenarios and
functional requirements from stakeholders. The architecture and system requirements will build on
these, ensuring that we are putting the user first. A pilot group of users from the participating countries
will be established.
The P2P-Next consortium is composed of 20 key partners. The size of the
consortium ensures we cover all domains in the end-to-end media value
chain.   Due to the consortium size we pay specific attention to minimize
coordination overhead and facilitate common understanding and joined
problem solving.    For efficient cooperation between partners we will use
'wiki'   technology   for  colaborative   document  writing,  specification
drafting, defining module interfaces, etc. A Wiki is an efficient online
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
tool for massive collaborative authoring. In fact, wiki technology played
an indispensable role during the writing of this proposal, allowing all
P2P-Next consortium partners to be included in the process. All electronic
communication between members will be automatically archived and index for
easy future reference within the consortium.
Work package 3 will use an iterative process to define and refine the requirements for the P2P-Next
project, providing an architecture for the technical solutions based on this and actual trials. The
process is thus basically divided in two; first the system requirements must be defined in close
cooperation with users. Second, an architecture that fulfils the requirements can be created. The
process will be iterative, as feedback from testing the more basic functionality will be extremely
important in defining more advanced functionality. The method for user involvement will be interviews
in the start of the project to define basic requirements, and later both interviews and electronic
feedback to respond to trials. Just as the consortium uses a wiki technology for collaborative
document writing, WP3 will also use wiki technology to involve users in the user requirement
documentation. Users will also be invited to participate in discussion forums to share their experiences
with each other across Europe.
In order to define system requirements, use cases will be identified, written and related to user
(stakeholder) goals. As P2P-Next seeks to create a framework for highly diverse users, this process
requires feedback from stakeholders in different ethnographical groups throughout Europe. Both the
use case definition and the end user interviews will require participation from most project partners.
The iterative design process between functional design and system design involve considering best-
practice in the field, state-of-the-art, marked analysis, architectural constraints, etc., and the user
involvement shall assure a service with contents and functionality that are in accordance with the end
users real demands.




If too many diverting use cases are defined, limiting or generalizing will be performed in WP3. After
partial implementation and live testing, some use cases might become redundant and new use cases
might be discovered, which might skew the requirements in one way or another.
Based on the selected use cases, the requirements for the system will be defined, and high risk and
high value goals will be identified. The requirements are then used in the system design phase, which
produces a blueprint of the system. The blueprint will outline a time line for the development of the
system, allowing more efficient risk management of the implementation phase. It is however important
that interfaces and responsibilities and other information shared by the different development work
packages are kept as stable as possible to ensure efficient collaboration between partners.


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                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
Work package 3.1: Scenario and Functional Requirements


Work package number         WP 3.1           Start date or starting event:   M1-M?
Work package title          Scenario and Functional Requirements
Activity type               RTD
Participant number          1           2           3           4
Participant short name      NORUT       VTT         DACC        PDD          UNIKLU
Person-months         per                           3                        2
participant


Objectives
To establish a complete set of end-user and system requirements based on real user needs and to
understand both the functional and non-functional requirements associated with the development of the P2P-
Next platform. The deliverables for this work package will be specifications which will form the basis of the
development and deployment of a number of iterative proof-of-concept implementations. This task will exploit
iterative processes including user involvment, ethnographic study, study of best-practice and state of the art,
design and requirements analysis in order to formulate the requirements specifications. As multimedia
content adaptation will be steered by metadata about the users, devices,
networks, and usage contexts, associated metadata and their adaptation will be
an integral part of the P2P-Next system. Thus, scenarios and requirements for
metadata creation and management as well as content and metadata adaptation will
be derived, and related functionality will be designed into the architecture.
This activity will specify the implementation goals, expected experiments to be conducted, subsequent
outcomes and identified impacts at each iteration. This will provide a framework for the subsequent
architecture design and development (WPX-Y) as well as metrics by which to measure the results.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners

Task 3.1.1: Requirements Specification [MX-MY]
This task will utilize use cases to create requirements specifications. The use cases will be developed as a
co-operative process involving all project partners and a pilot group consisting of users in different
ethnographic groups in all participating countries. Identification of high risk and high value goals. System
requirements and architecture will be based on user requirements that derive from user cases and user
involvement and testing of preliminary versions.


This task will encompass a number of research methods including interviews, systems analysis, ethnographic
approaches, user centred design and naturalistic experimentation to establish a comprehensive set of
requirements for P2P-Next. A significant component of ethnographic study will be used to elicit the end-user
and system requirements. Specifically, this work package embodies the development and elicitation of
“cultural probes” for each of the participants in the phased user trial (WPX). The cultural probes will be used
to motivate the architecture specification (WPX) as well as motivating techniques for evaluation (WPX) and
the phased release of the P2P-next platform (WP5).


Task 3.1.2: Architecture Specification [M-M]
This task will create or update an architecture specification for the P2P-Next project. It is based on the
requirements specification provided by Task 3.1.1, and serves as a foundation for the system design for
P2P-Next (WP 3.2). The architecture specification will...


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                                                                                               IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                   P2P-Next


Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
Requirements specification document [M3], with revisions every 6 months
Architecture Specification document [M4], with revisions every 6 months

WP3.2 Incremental Roadmap and Future-proof Design
Partners involved: PN (leader),
Work package 3.2 will create a design of P2P-Next based on the Architecture Specification document
produced by WP 3.1, Task 3.1.2. The design will be kept modular, allowing partners to develop their
solutions in parallel when possible. A road map will map the design out in time, allowing for several
iterations in the development phase. The roadmap eases project management, as deviations from the
roadmap can be monitored. Being incremental, basic functionality can be developed first, allowing
several iterations of live user testing of the solution. As a result of this testing, the underlying
requirements might change. This might again lead to an updated architecture specification, roadmap
and design. It is expected that only more advanced functionality will be adjusted by these updates, in
order to not disturb the development process of P2P-Next.
The incremental roadmap also allow test users to be included in forming the services provided by
P2P-Next. This is important as P2P-Next will provide users with functionality not earlier available. As
users become familiar to the new possibilities of the P2P-Next platform, their requirements might
change. Functionality believed to be of great value early in the process might be deemed less
important, and other functionality might become more important. By developing the basic functionality
early in the project, actual testing in the Living Lab will be an invaluable help in creating a truly future-
proof design.


Work package 3.2: Incremental Roadmap and Future-proof Design


Work package number           WP 3.2           Start date or starting event:     M1
Work package title            Incremental Roadmap and Future-proof Design
Activity type                 RTD
Participant number
Participant short name                    DACC         UNIKLU
Person-months          per                3            2
participant


Objectives
To lay a foundation for the development of a future-proof system, actively using feedback from Live Lab
testing.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
Task 3.2.1: Incremental roadmap
Create a roadmap with a short release cycle, allowing incrementally more advanced functionality to be
developed and tested. As successful technologies are often used in ways not envisioned by the creators, for
example the success of the Short Message Service (SMS) of the GSM phone network. Even the telephone
itself was not believed to be used as it is now, but was expected to provide services from a supplier to the
customer. In other words, direct phone calls between customers was not believed of great importance.

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                                                                                          IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
The roadmap of P2P-Next will allow live tests of increasingly advanced functionality, allowing actual users to
participate in forming advanced functionality. By expecting such changes, the risk of creating a system that
lacks important functionality is limited and can be controlled.

Task 3.2.2: Future-proof Design
The design of P2P-Next will be modular and map to the incremental roadmap. This allows development of
basic functionality early in the project, adding more and more advanced functionality in a timely fashion. The
design must be modular, allowing partners to develop solutions in parallel when possible.

Task 3.2.3 Constant State-of-the-art tracking (Norut, Delft, ..)
Using the previously described Wiki technology, state-of-the-art and best
industry practices in the P2P and media industry will be continuously tracked
and followed. At regular intervals we will scan scientific conference
proceedings, journal publications, industry newsletters, etc. for relevant
information. This new information will be placed into a common technology
progress view. All information will be publicly available.

Keeping track of the technology progress is crucial for the fast-paced
environment of P2P-Next. In a few months a new emerging technology can provide
new possibilities, and P2P-Next should seek to incorporate and learn from these
advances. The state-of-the-art wiki will also provide the consortium with a
powerful tool in continually validating the high value benefits of the P2P-Next
platform throughout the entire project period.




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
Roadmap with short but iterative release cycles [M5]. Updated every 6 months.
Modular design document [M6] Updated every 6 months.
State of the art Wiki [M2], continuosly updated.

WP4 Peer-to-Peer and IPvNext Networking Fabric
Partners involved: P7(leader), P2, P3, P14, and P15

Work package 4 is the technical core of P2P-Next. WP4 will develop the next generation of P2P
technology which will lift the field from simple “file sharing” with keyword search towards “content
sharing” which seamlessly merges content, communities, communication, and commerce.
We move the P2P paradigm to the next level by providing each peer with the intelligence for full
context-awareness, sophistication to explicitly manage all vital resources (trust, bandwidth, uptime,
storage, groups, etc. ), and use less then 1 % of the users hard disk to memorize people, friendships,
preferences, resource exchanges, and other events inside a small embedded database. Put together;
intelligence, resource management, and explicit memory are the foundations for the P2P-Next content
sharing platform we dubbed: Next-Share. Our Next-Share system is a self-organizing system with
complete decentralisation and thus lacks any central bottleneck or choke point which hampers
performance, induces setup cost, or require maintenance. The scalability of Next-Share is unbounded
due to the academic purity of the architecture. The inherent networking effect of P2P states that a
good P2P system attracts more users and more users make a good P2P system, thus there is strong
convergence to a single leading P2P platform. Networking effects ensure that content, communities,
communication, and commerce will flourish with more participants.
Note that as of 2007 no other P2P system has successfully been able to combine advanced
functionality such as online communities with complete decentralisation. The leading systems such as
Joost, Babelgum, Bittorrent, and Vuze all require central servers for fraud or spam sensitive
functionality such as voting, rating, tagging, sharing ratio tracking, and message boards. These

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                                                                                                          IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                              P2P-Next
existing file sharing system are all monolithic in nature, do not split mechanisms from policies, conduct
no explicit resource management, and in general lack proper functional decomposition. In Next-Share
we apply a modular approach where we build-up a stable trusted platform for people from unreliable
donated resources which include malicious peers.
Each of the modules of Next-Share builds reliable services from underlying basic primitives. Our
                                                                         11
leading design guideline is the end-to-end principle from system design and facilitating locality in the
utmost extreme form. Locality in the context of P2P means, for example, circulating security-related
information only amongst trusted friends (social locality) and share content profiles only with people of
similar taste (semantic locality).
Next-Share composes functionality using layers; from low-level to high-level: keep open TPC/IP
connection to selected peers, track changes of IP numbers from fellow peers, store identities of
encountered peers, check identities with security credentials, observe all upload bandwidth donations,
keep track of identities of altruistic peers, expel parasitic peers, locally record achieved download
speeds, predict Internet performance, etc.
The pivotal and most difficult module of Next-Share will be the world's first decentralized reputation
system. We are confidant that we can achieve this scientific breakthrough by incremental expansion of
simple operational systems. For example, we plan to bootstrap this module by creating a reputation
system which reliably estimates the online probability of a given peers, expand it with an estimator for
the probability that a peer will return the bandwidth donated to him/her, instead of essentially stealing
it. Other attempts have show that the largest pitfall when creating such a system is that the solution
becomes too heavy weight. We specifically avoid complexity when possible and are driven by the
narrow focus of Internet TV with iterative generalization. Except for the Tribler system from Delft
University of Technology, no leading P2P system features strong peer authentication. With such
authentication it is possible to collectively record transactions and build a community of trusted friends
which is resilient against malicious peers. Previous research focused on creating algorithm with global
consensus on reputations [EigenTrust]. We believe this approach is fundamentally flawed, as
reputations and truth should be taken from an egocentric perspective.
The Next-Share platform consists of three components. The first includes the common functionality of
major networking applications, called the “IPvNext networking fabric” for connectivity between
peers. Second is the “P2P data exchange engine” for transfer of data, video, and voice traffic. Third
is the “Micropayments and resource credits” component. IPvNext creates an overlay network which
uses six modules to enhance TCP and IPv4/IPv6 services into a solid building block for networked
applications. In a similar fashion as hand-written assembly (binary machine code) is phased out, our
networking fabric boosts productivity when creating networked applications. When analising the
market leading networked application of the past decade a clear pattern emerges (MSN, Skype,
Bittorrent, etc.). Every of such applications replicate part of the following six functionalities:
     1. Network-awareness
     2. Identity management
     3. Social networks/community management
     4. Resource accounting
     5. Metadata exchange mechanisms
     6. Enabling Content discovery
Based on the P2P-overlay paradigm will incrementally craft modules implementing all six
functionalities, bundled in IPvNext. We ensure usage of our technology by fostering a climate of open
                                                   rd
innovation around Next-Share with abundant 3 party software development. As users, developers,
and entrepreneur see the value of our offering it will drive consolidation. It will no longer be cost-
efficient to build proprietary implementation of the above functionality.



11
        J.H. Saltzer et. al., “end-to-end arguments in system design”, Transaction on Computer Systems, November 1984.

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                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
Objective: provide the networking fabric for driving over 50% of future Internet
traffic
As analysed in the “Impact with market analysis” section it is expected that P2P will be the leading
technology for content delivery. P2P-Next will claim world leadership in this area.




The Figure above shows the modular architecture of Next-Share. Each module will be investigated
within the workpackages WP4.1, WP4.2, WP4.3, and WP4.4. P7(leader), P2, P3, P14, and P15


Work           package WP 4                  Start date or starting M1
number                                       event:
Work package title          Peer-to-Peer and IPvNext Networking Fabric
Activity type               RTD
Participant number          P7          P2          P3          P14         P15         P10         P1
Participant        short TUD            Norut       DACC        AGP         BBC         MFG         VTT
name
Person-months per 152                   45          32          28          12          10          22
participant


Objectives
This workpackage will provide the technological framework for the P2P-Next project. WP4 offers the
functionality of IPSec, IP Multicast, Mobile IP, MSN chat, Skype, and Bittorrent into a single modular package.
Both new and existing Peer-to-Peer protocols will be incorporated, making for a smooth transition period and
interoperability with existing solutions. The IPvNext framework will provide a framework capable of addressing
current limitations to Internet data exchange, human communication, and micropayment solutions. The

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                                                                                          IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
framework will allow application developers to easily create advanced network capabilities without involving
massive overhead in both low-level network coding, as well as holding running costs of such systems
minimal.




Description of work
This workpackage will: design and implement the Peer-to-Peer Engine for data exchange and the “IPvNext”
networking fabric for connecting people, discovery of content, transfer of resource credits, and
micropayments. For micropayment solution we will integrate existing industry standards.


Deliverables:

D.4.1 [M08]: Next-Share platform V1.0
D.4.2 [M16]: Next-Share platform V2.0
D.4.3 [M24]: Next-Share platform V3.0
D.4.4 [M32]: Next-Share platform V4.0
D.4.5 [M40]: Next-Share platform V5.0
D.4.6 [M48]: Next-Share platform V6.0



Workpackage 4.1: IPvNext: network fabric design, implementation, and testing


Work           package WP 4.1               Start date or starting M1
number                                      event:
Work package title          IPvNext: network fabric design, implementation, and testing
Activity type               RTD
Participant number
Participant        short
name
Person-months per
participant


Objectives
This workpackage will create disruptive networking technology called “IPvNext” which will drive convergence
and consolidation for the majority of all Internet traffic.
IPvNext supports networked applications with generic features such as identity management and social
networking. It will compete with the numerous existing proprietary solution in existence and replace it with a
generic solution based on open standards and an Open Source implementation. This IPvNext workpackage
creates the crucial networking fabric component of our Next-Share platform.
IPvNext provides easy connectivity plus the enabling mechanisms and intelligence to understand the social
network of the user (online friends; friends-of-friends, communities), estimate the content preference of the
user, and comprehend the Internet connectivity of the user. The architecture of IPvNext only uses P2P
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                                                                                                             IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                                 P2P-Next
technology. As a consequence IPvNext offers unbounded scalability, no reliance on any central servers, zero-
maintenance, no controlling organization, and near-zero cost. The main drawback is the required complexity
and risk of failure of this ambitious goal. We now provide a complete and detailed definition of IPvNext.
IPvNext network fabric: Offer a secure network connection to a known person which is robust against
eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle attacks, peer failure, network failure, packet loss, change of IP numbers,
network mobility, and blocking by NAT/Firewalls. This secure network connection is used for identity
management, keeping track of the online/offline status of friends, accounting of exchanged resources,
keeping in touch with cooperative people, primitives for exchange of metadata between two peers, and
enabling mechanisms for discovery of content.
Many endeavours with similar grand ambitions as IPvNext have been attempted and failed. From a technical
perspective the large prohibiting factor has always been their all-or-nothing framework type of approach. An
all-or-nothing framework does not allow 'cherry picking' of interesting software modules, thus 'mashups'
require significant software overhaul. For example, when using the JXTA framework or Twisted network
library it is required to also use their threading library or XML parser. We specifically avoid this mistake of
earlier attempts and assume a heterogeneous software environment and even stimulating cherry picking.
From a scientific viewpoint current technology is simply not yet ready for convergence. A converged network
protocol by definition is required to unify several existing approaches and offer emergent benefits. Current
technology requires requires central servers, especially for identity management. The central servers of the
various proprietary solutions prohibit convergence. IPvNext will re-define the state-of-the-art by creating the
first fully decentralized implementation for network awareness, identity management, social networking,
resource account & reputation, mechanisms for metadata exchange, and content discovery enabling
mechanisms.
Numerous software developers now have endured the combination of both the massive overhead of low-level
network coding as well as innovative application development. Our objective is to offer a superior alternative
with IPvNext.


Description of work
Only a small minority of programmers are still crafting software in assembly (binary machine language).
Programming has evolved beyond assembly for reasons of productivity, cost-efficiency, and bug prevention.
P2P-Next will take the first step of evolving networking technology beyond TCP and IPv4. Not by replacing
them, but by building further on their solid foundations.
Our work method is based on experimental research with rapid prototyping and actual usage. Required steps
are: careful observation of current TPC/IP usage, distillation of commonalities, creating generic software for
these commonalities, plus incremental improvement and expansion. Form previous research step one and
                                   12
two have already been completed .

Task T4.1.1: Identity management and peer discovery (Delft, Norut)
To implement this functionality the overlay module uses a unique and permanent identifier for each person
(PermID). Such a PermID is thus the identifier at the network level of a single user who may run multiple
peers. All network fabric functionality is founded on the authentication and spoofing prevention measures in
this task.
PermIDs are important for keeping track of your friends, identifying trustworthy peers, and other higher
IPvNext features. Currently, no P2P file sharing system is able to store extra-functional information about
peers between sessions without a central server. The Skype P2P VOIP system has such a permanent
identifier for each user, but relies on a central login and validation server at a hard-coded IP number.

Task T4.1.2: Secure distributed social networking (Delft, AG-Projects, Norut)
Social networks have already started to play a large role on the Internet, with the advent of social networking
sites. These networks allow a user to find other users with similar interests. Groups of users can then share
12
           J.A. Pouwelse et.al., “The argument for ''IPv8'' convergence based on a decade of measurements on the evolution of
collaborative systems on the Internet”, Journal of Telecommunications Policy, submitted for publication.

                           Proposal Part B: page 53 of Error! Bookmark not defined.198
                                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                               P2P-Next
information, give recommendations or communicate more generally. In this task, a secure, fully distributed
social network module is built into the IPvNext component. It allows implicit or explicit grouping of users
without any central knowledge repository of user profiles. Security measures can allow users to limit their
social interaction, or to create closed groups of nodes, e.g. colleagues. Privacy is maximized by using a local
storage only policy; non-group members do not store, forward, or have any access to private information.

Task T4.1.3: Resource accounting and reputation (Delft, AG-Projects)
The traditional approach of P2P has been pooling the resources of strangers together and creating a reliable
service. However, such a system requires that people behave altruistically and do not free ride. A reliable
mechanism is needed to detect and prevent anti-social behavior in a P2P system. By copying the age-old
mechanism of a group into the P2P world we ensure cooperation. Groups jointly identify both cooperative and
anti-social behavior. Based on this information, group members decide to offer services to peers or to deny
further dealing. This task ensures that we remember the people whom have used our services and pay our
debts back. Seen scientific viewpoint, this tasks will apply techniques from the field of game theory,
                                                       13
specifically “distributed algorithmic mechanism design” to the world of P2P with our additional notion that
people think rationally about their reputation.

Task T4.1.4: Primitives for metadata exchange (BBC, Pioneer, Delft, Norut)
This tasks will create the simple primitive of metadata exchange between two peers. It will define a “wire
protocol” for such synchronization using existing standards when possible. Task T4.1.5 builds upon this
primitive for discovery of content.

Task T4.1.5: Mechanisms for personalised content discovery (Pioneer,BBC,Delft)
Due to the expected large volume of content available within the P2P-Next framework, it is vital that users are
able to locate content of interest to them. Based on the social network of task T4.1.2, both recommendations
and resource discovery can be personalized. This task addresses both resource discovery, content
discovery, as well as ratings, votes, and collaborative tagging. It will utilize both interests and trust between
nodes to provide a personalized service for all users.
An important notion is that this task is limited to the enabling discovery mechanism. The policies are located
outside this Next-Share module. WP5 is responsible for these policies within the application logic steered by
the user interface.


Deliverables:
D.4.1.1 [M08]: “IPvNext” component V1.0
D.4.1.2 [M16]: “IPvNext” component V2.0
D.4.1.3 [M24]: “IPvNext” component V3.0
D.4.1.4 [M32]: “IPvNext” component V4.0
D.4.1.5 [M40]: “IPvNext” component V5.0
D.4.1.6 [M48]: “IPvNext” component V6.0




Workpackage 4.2: Network awareness, locality, and geography
Work package number             WP 4.2             Start date or starting M1
                                                   event:
Work package title              Network awareness, locality, and geography
13
        D. C. Parkes et.al., “Computational Mechanism Design: A Call to Arms”, IEEE Intelligent Systems Journal, Nov. 2003

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                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
Activity type               RTD
Participant number

Participant short name

Person-months         per
participant


Objectives
This work package creates technology for full context-awareness at the network level.
The objective is to create a network-awareness module which enables the IPvNext component to
understands it's position and capabilities in the networking world. This network-awareness encompasses four
dimensions:
     Absolute physical location (geo-awareness)
     Relative network positioning (network link awareness)
     Knowledge of bandwidth, loss & latency (performance awareness)
     Understanding of NAT/Firewall issues (middlebox awareness)




Description of work
Network-awareness becomes vital as computers become ever more ubiquitous and network-enabled by
default. Due to the reliance on the network it must no longer be abstracted away as something which simply
“send the packets at some speed with some reliability”. The result of our work is sophisticated software for
network-awareness.
Task T4.2.1: Network-awareness modeling, probing, and reasoning (Norut, Delft)
By explicitly modeling, probing, and reasoning with “the network”, a wealth of new opportunities arises. This
task will create software enabling the four dimensions of network-awareness. Both passive and active probing
software will be developed which understands and can reason with concepts such ping latencies, outer
gateway IP address, bottleneck bandwidth, traceroute path, and bursty packet loss.

Task T4.2.1: Local networked devices (Norut)
Both users and computers have a special relationship with other users and computers: on the wired Local
Area Network, within wireless radio range, or in close physical proximity. With this task we make this special
relation explicit.
Learning from and interacting with the surrounding computers, devices can give a more personal and
powerful user experience. For example, "adjusting lights in the vicinity" can easily present a few relevant
switches. Using P2P techniques, such switches (or other computerized infrastructure) can be used without
expensive central control units, allowing users to buy, mount and use such units at minimal costs and hassle.
This task ensures that applications using the IPvNext network fabric can discover and use local services, as
well as use locality to build social networks.
Task T4.2.2: Collaborative Geo-awareness database (Delft, Norut)
The most radical, innovative, and ambitious advancement in the field of network-awareness is provided by
this task. We aim to create a collective open database which would link the networking world to the physical
world and provide unprecedented geo-awareness.
Specifically this task will semi-automatically build a database of: Internet router IP addresses with their
geographical location, end-device IP numbers & ranges with their geographical dispersion, and a human
readable label for geographical locations. Examples of the latter are “Eiffel Tower”, “London Internet
Exchange”, or “Conference room 3C”.
We rely on several principles to create this database. First is ensuring that making additions are easy to make

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                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
and nearly effortless. Second is fostering a game-like fun factor, for example, that users can on the computer
screen traverse network paths in their actual physical vicinity, meet others, talk to others, or use the network
pipes as tunnels for a violent multi-user shooter game. Third is building of string matching tools which can
semi-automatically parse Internet router names and translate “LAX”, and “LON”, and “HFV” into their most
likely full-length names.
This tasks is dependent on the reputation module within IPvNext to prevent database pollution and
techniques developed for collaborative content tagging.




Deliverables:
D.4.2.1 [M16]: Network-awareness component V1.0
D.4.2.2 [M32]: Network-awareness component V2.0
D.4.2.3 [M48]: Network-awareness component V3.0




Workpackage 4.3: P2P data exchange engine for data, video, and voice
Work package number          WP 4.3          Start date or starting M1
                                             event:
Work package title           P2P data exchange engine for data, video, and voice
Activity type                RTD
Participant number

Participant short name

Person-months         per
participant


Objectives
Our objective is the creation of a single data exchange engine which can support a multitude of application-
level transport protocols. This multi-protocol data exchange engine is another key ingredient for our objective
of network technology convergence. Our data exchange engine unifies the most important network services
for media delivery within a single interface for unicast, groupcast, low-latency voice, and bulk data services.
We conducted initial experiments in the laboratory to estimate the viability of this novel concept. A potential
problem which could have been a show-stopper is that the software complexity of this engine would become
unmanageable. We turned to the Python programming language which uses a high level of abstraction to
explore the implementation complexity. The results have been satisfying.
A precise definition of our objective follows.
P2P data exchange engine: Build a cost-efficient data distribution grid from the Internet Unicast primitive
which scales from one-to-one exchanges towards one-to-millions using application-level multicasting. The
engine supports traditional P2P file downloads of video, real-time voice communication, and instant
messaging. The engine is fully backwards compatible with the existing industry standards in these field such
as HTTP, FTP, Bittorrent, SIP, and Jabber.




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                                                                                           IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
Description of work
The work of WP4.2 consists of technology development for real-time transport of data in both unicast and
multicast fashion at the P2P level.

Task T4.3.1: Convergence of Web, multimedia and protocols (Delft, Norut)
This task will provide the skeleton of the data exchange engine and develop a common interface. Three
protocols will be supported initially, being: FTP, HTTP, and Bittorrent. The other two tasks in WP4.3 will
expand this skeleton with extensive video and voice services. A key aim of this task is creation of code which
can bridge the domain of client/server and P2P. We aim to showcase this by, for example, seeding content of
the central server “Wikipedia.org” using the Bittorrent P2P protocol.

Task T4.3.2: Unified P2P technology for live streaming, downloading, and progressive downloading
(Delft, Norut, IRT, Fabchannel)
For one-to-many services a multicasting structure is used. We address the two key issues video distribution
in this task. First is overcoming the inherent transient nature of peers which means a traditional highly
structured multicast tree will not work. Instead we use a loosly structured multicast mesh architecture. Second
is exploiting upload capacity of peers while offering Video on Demand compatible services. The market
leading P2P protocol called Bittorrent uses the tit-for-tat principle to avoid complexity. This effective
mechanism is however incompatible with the requirements of Video on Demand where client start
downloading a video file at the start. To overcome the fundamental barter limit we propose the first system
which merges the real-time multicasting world with best-effort downloading, called Give-to-Get.




                              feedback




The Figure above depicts the operation of Give-to-Get where peers download a file and exchange pieces with
others. The unique organizations and feedback mechanism ensures cooperation and high performance.

Task T4.3.3: Real-time voice communication (AG-projects, Delft, VTT)
For real-time one-on-one voice communication the UDP protocol is used when available. Network conditions
are monitored closely using the services of WP4.2 which ensures early detection of connection loss and
congestion. On the voice side we envision support for P2PSIP concepts (new WG formed in Prague
        14
IETF68) . This taks will ensure our data exchange engines support industry standard in this area such as:
     SIP support (RFC 3261)
     SIMPLE support (Presence and IM) (RFC3265, RFC3856, RFC3857, RFC3858)
     DNS naming and addressing support (RFC3263)


14
        See:   http://www.p2psip.org/P2PSIP-Charter-070202-2.php
                      Proposal Part B: page 57 of Error! Bookmark not defined.198
                                                                                          IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
       NAT traversal support for real-time audio and video (ICE and TURN support)
       XCAP support for policy management (draft-ietf-simple-xcap-12.txt)




Deliverables:
D.4.3.1 [M16]: Data exchange engine V1.0
D.4.3.2 [M32]: Data exchange engine V2.0
D.4.3.3 [M48]: Data exchange engine V3.0




Workpackage 4.4: Micropayments and resource credits
Work package number         WP 4.4          Start date or starting M1
                                            event:
Work package title          Micropayments and resource credits
Activity type               RTD
Participant number          P3          P14         P1
Participant short name      DACC        AGP         VTT
Person-months         per
participant


Objectives
Fostering sustainable business opportunities is the prime objective of P2P-Next. This workpackage ensures
the required technological support of commerce is present on the Next-Share platform. The objective is
supporting micropayments between any two peers within Next-Share.




Description of work
This work presents a daunting task due to the severe security risks. This technology is the victim of a
constant stream of hacking attempt. A leak or failure in this technology could be potentially be exploited for
direct financial profit. P2P-Next will not develop new payment technology, but glue existing solutions onto
Next-Share.

Task T4.4.1: Micropayment gateway (DACC,AG-projects, VTT)
A gateway will be developed for micropayments. This gateway software will be released under an Open
Source license. It shall support currently widely accepted payment methods, for example, Paypal, mobile
phone SMS, and a GPRS-based solution.
The 'premium SMS number' or 'reverse SMS billing' method will be used to conduct payments to other
people. The gateway allows people to create an "receive box" such as: “P2P-Cash.org/Happy007" This
address services as a unique, public bank account number. With a browser people can visit this account and
check their current account balance. Each “receive box” has an associated phone number for charging. Thus
people can send money around by, for instance, sending the code "Happy007" to number "+300-3131 ".
Support is envisioned for the short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP); which is the leading non-

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proprietairy protocol in this area.
The exploitation of this Open Source server will be based on building a trusted brand for “receive boxes”,
community building, and having proper arrangements with financial institutions.

Task T4.4.2: GPRS payment application (VTT)
By using the GPRS network a more cost-efficient payment method is conceived. Sending a payment
message over GPRS would cost less than fractions of a €cent. However, the drawback is that users are
required to install software on their mobile phone to enable payments.




Deliverables:
D.4.4.1 [M12]: Micropayment module V1.0
D.4.4.2 [M30]: Micropayment module V2.0




WP5 User Generated/Professional Content and Metadata
Partners involved: PN (leader),

Note: Text in this colour throughout this draft shall NOT be included in the proposal as-is. Partners
are requested to re-factor their prior contributions into the WP5.x tabular scheme targeting final
proposal formatting.
P2P-Next is a large-scale integrating project to develop a new distribution channel for Television in its
many forms (Live Streaming, Video on Demand, Download) based on a number of innovative
enhancement to established P2P technologies. P2P-Next will create a trusted platform that increases
the degree of choice the consumer has over what to watch and when to watch it. P2P-Next will also
allow innovative applications to be developed that make it easier and more fulfilling to find content that
interests the consumer. With P2P streaming technologies, anyone can become a broadcaster and the
markets for niche and user-generated content are expected to prosper and develop with the
introduction of the platform.
The figure below aims to capture the top-level actors and processes that can effect to content items
entering and leaving the P2P-Next environment:




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This work package will investigate and address the challenges of managing content, including both
essence and associated metadata, from the time it is generated and enters the P2P-NEXT medium, till
it expires from that medium. Content can originate from a diverse set of sources including mobile
phones, DV cameras, converged remote control/camera devices, analogue or digital fixed media; all
the way through to high-end professional production equipment. A number of different actors will be
involved in the contribution of media to the P2P-NEXT system – not only traditional studios and
broadcasters, but content consumers themselves and perhaps most importantly new players whose
business models and position in the value chain are yet to be determined, but whose emergence will
be driven by the introduction of P2P-NEXT infrastructure.
P2P-NEXT fundamentally shakes up the economics of media distribution. As content naturally
becomes more abundant and highly-available on the medium, improvements will be necessary in how
the consumer discovers and consumes content. Higher levels of control become possible for the
consumer, compared to traditional broadcast systems or even state of the art VoD deployments, due
to their severe scalability and operational cost restrictions. The relative profusion of capacity and the
random access, or on-demand, nature of content residing within the P2P-NEXT medium will enable
consumers to undertake a range of new browse and search behaviours. It is the purpose of WP5 to
investigate and propose the content technologies (as compared to the networking and P2P
infrastructure foundations) that will enable the compelling set of demonstrators in the Living Lab to be
developed as part of WP6 that show what is possible.
One example of a behaviour made viable, or at least less painful and more scalable, by the
introduction of P2P-NEXT would be that of building programmes from segments of other programmes
on the fly – e.g. “build me a programme with the highest rated collection of footage relating to the
Ancient Aztecs”, further the user may wish to limit segment sizes in such a query to a defined limit in
length to suit their viewing preferences – e.g. snacking or long-term, which will likely by driven by the
type of device and environment in which the content is likely to be consumed. WP5 must answer the
questions of how to represent such queries using the TV-Anytime metadata foundation chosen by the
consortium, and in addition how the results of such a query can packaged for delivery to the variety of
consumer devices and locations in a consistent and interoperable manner using the P2P-Next
medium. In the general case, any item of content may be navigated and consumed in terms of chunks,
or segments, and the challenge for the consortium is to define easy ways for the consumer and the


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professional alike to enhance content residing on the medium with the necessary metadata to support
these behaviours. [See WP5.x MicroNavigation]
WP5 will define how legitimate content items within the P2P-Next medium are structured and
packaged. Legitimacy is central to the eventual commercial success and large-scale penetration of
P2P-Next, since it must promote and support access to content that respects the needs of commercial
rights holders and, in a world of expanding UGC, the intensions of the originator of any item of
content. It is widely acknowledged by thought-leaders in the field of DRM that traditional rights and
usages that people have enjoyed for centuries can be mapped to the digital space for the benefit of
both end users and entrepreneurs; DRM is not them enemy but purely an enabler if it is applied in an
open and interoperable way. Packaging of the essence and metadata into a content item is a key
component of WP5. State of the art solutions must be considered, gaps identified if any exists, and a
solution that works for commercial and non-commercial interests defined. WP5 will undertake an
assessment of existing state-of-the-art solutions in order to derive an optimal set of metadata and
packaging parameters to support the end-user applications and integrate with key features such as
hash-check structures required of the underlying P2P medium.
Each content item ingested onto the P2P-NEXT medium shall be given a unique identification for
entire its lifecycle. WP5 will investigate and define a technique for the creation of this unique identifier.
It’s temporal and structural relationship to other metadata throughout the content lifecycle will be
another key investigation of the project. Where multiple version of essentially the same editorial
essence or metadata is ingested onto the medium then a related challenge will be the task of de-
duplication or refinement (explicit in the case where content is effectively removed from the medium in
favour of a superior version) or implicit where content is merely rendered inaccessible to the user
community according to a filtering scheme or alternative approach. At grass-roots level we foresee a
need to be able to identify the most favoured “version” of any given item of content scored according
to quality or quantity of essence and related metadata. A scoring and filtering system based on
scientific metrics shall be developed as part of WP5. Search and browse actions should always favour
the superior version of content with respect to the consumer context (location, device, intention) and
content score.
With respect to metadata standards it is expected that solutions for descriptive aspects, rights
expression, taxonomy and environmental adaptation will be derived from previous works such as TV-
Anytime, MPEG-7 and MPEG-21. During the course of the execution of WP5, detailed research will be
undertaken to converge elements from within these standards to identify a core metadata set and
extension points as necessary to meet the requirements emerging from the demonstrator end-user
application development.
A core metadata set shall be hosted and queried within P2P-Next and without external centralised
dependencies – i.e. in a fully distributed manner (with no single point of failure or contention) which is
consistent with how content is represented, distributed and consumed. WP5 will form the requirements
for this core metadata representation and query interface but the actual design and implementation of
this capability will be a task for WP4 and one of the key dependencies of WP5.
A secondary metadata challenge will be how to link the consumer to other metadata verticals (e.g.
established metadata providers like Muze, AMG, and IMDB for example, in a consist way to maximise
the business model opportunities and market potential for value added metadata services within P2P-
NEXT framework. This is where the Signpost concept originated by the Kendra Initiative shall be
developed into a concrete and fully distributed implementation. WP5 will define the requirements for
this work to be implemented in-terms of the distributed system capabilities created in WP4. [See
WP5.x Signpost Requirements and Design]
PC-based tools will be designed and developed as part of WP5 to enable the packaging of content
with rich associated metadata, prior to ingest to the P2P-NEXT medium. Optimisation of the process
of attributing structural, temporal and rights metadata to the raw content essence in a standard way
will be essential to ensure take up of the system capabilities as a whole – and in-turn enabling the
applications driving the future business models of P2P-NEXT to succeed. Applications will of course
exist on CE terminals to enable direct submission of content in a PC free environment, together with a
subset of useful metadata where desired by the originator of the content. One difficulty for WP6 to
explore will be how to optimise the user interface for this activity in environments where data entry
options are limited – in adherence to the packaging standards defined within this work package.

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 [See WP 5.x P2P-Next Content Item Packaging and WP5.x PC Tools for P2P-Next Content
Ingest with Rich Metadata Expression]

The P2P-NEXT project is intended to impact positively on ongoing standardisation work in key
industry forums such as: DVB, EBU and DLNA. As such effort will be undertaken to harmonise with
their existing work and future aspiration as far as is practical, and beneficial, towards the fulfilment of
the P2P-NEXT vision. In particular the opportunity to leverage DVB file formats, right expression and
enforcement solutions consistent with DVB-CPCM will be a central consideration of the work package.
P2P-NEXT will require a DRM mechanism to enable both commercial and non-commercial usage to
prosper. A substantial piece of work exists to evaluate candidate interoperable DRM solutions and
integrate with the strongest and most flexible candidate on an open source basis. The challenges here
are many-fold, not least of which will be integration with the secure computing platform of either P2P-
NEXT or the underlying community of devices used for the storage of secret keys. Integration of DRM
technology will enable the protection of content, or restrictions of usage (e.g. in the case of a home
movie creator wanting to only allow consumption by their immediate friends and family), that will be
essential to broad take up and adoption of P2P-NEXT. P2P-NEXT stands to be exemplary in its
embracement of DRM technology for the benefit of the corporation and the end-user, and as such be
a key advocacy player taking this positive message to the larger public and business community. The
final challenge with regard to the interoperable DRM solution would be to consider integration with the
CPCM (Content Protection and Copy Management) model and infrastructure emerging from DVB
since much significant work has already been undertaken towards creating an open standard for the
field.
Continuing on the theme of relationships with standardisation activities, P2P-Next will endeavour to
integrate with DLNA standards for home networking. DLNA has already proven itself by defining an
interoperable home networking environment, but currently does not focus on integrating with P2P
infrastructure. Another challenge to be met by WP6 shall be to identify key extension points within the
existing DLNA standards and ecosystem to meet the end-user demands for easy creation and
contribution of content, together with seamless onward distribution of content entering the home via
the P2P-NEXT medium where the point of consumption may be any room and via any device profile
(e.g. PC, STB, iDTV, Handheld).

Note: previous Wiki material should be rewritten now and structured appropriately into WP5.x
scheme with details according to the sections and tables below: WP5.x Content
Packaging (title TBC with Johan)

Work package number          WP 5.x           Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title           Content Item Packaging
Activity type                RTD
Participant number
Participant short name       BBC          Kendra      Pioneer     KLU
Person-months


Objectives
Explore requirements and define a solution for how to package content items before they are ingested into
the P2P-Next medium in respect of:
       Essence (AV Sync. H.264 SPTS)
       Core Metadata
       Signposts


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Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
<TODO>

WP5.x Content Ingest with Rich Metadata

Work package number        WP 5.x          Start date or starting event:     M1
Work package title         PC Tools for Content Ingest and Rich Metadata Expression
Activity type              RTD
Participant number         BBC         MarkenF     Delft      KLU
                                       ilm
Participant short name
Person-months


Objectives
Tool to manage the essence and metadata mark-up processes associated with preparing a content item for
ingest and sharing via the P2P-Next medium.

Compliance for content items – bitrates, metadata WFF, minimum rights expression, hard and soft metadata,
minimum baseline,


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
<TODO>




WP5.x P2P Targeted Advertising and Promos

Work package number        WP 5.x          Start date or starting event:     M1
Work package title         PC Tools for Content Ingest and Rich Metadata Expression
Activity type              RTD
Participant number         MARK        BBC
Participant short name
Person-months


Objectives

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<TODO MarkenFilm and BBC>
Viewing and advertising system for P2P
Dwell time
Optimising function




Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
<TODO>




WP5.x Encoding and Adaption

Work package number        WP 5.x           Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title         Encoding and Adaptation
Activity type              RTD
Participant number
Participant short name     STMICR        Delft     KLU         Kendra
Person-months


Objectives
Incorporation of scalable video coding and multiple description video/audio encoding techniques from a
codec and metadata perspective.




Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
<TODO>
Previous Wiki material for cross-reference:

   1. Open standards codec adoption (H.264 vs. Dirac); facilitate/utilize scalable codecs (e.g., MPEG-4
      SVC/BSAC)
   2. Challenge of remaining device agnostic with respect to current hardware decode acceleration
      technologies

Long-term patent and licensing issues need to be born in mind (e.g. Dirac patent violations not policed as
yet...)



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WP5.x Metadata Aspects
Note: this WP title needs reworking and I suspect this WP may also be broken down into more distinct
WP with focused titles (e.g. see WP 5.4)
Work package number          WP 5.x           Start date or starting event:     M1
Work package title           Metadata Aspects
Activity type                RTD
Participant number           KLU          MarkenF     BBC          Kendra       Delft
                                          ilm
Participant short name
Person-months


Objectives
<TODO Participants will list tasks and if necessary fork off independent WPs>


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
<TODO>
Previous Wiki material for cross-reference:

    1. Strong identification of content assets (e.g. ISAN - a unique, internationally recognized and
        permanent reference number)
    2. Community generated / scraped metadata / pre-assigned metadata by creator/originator
    3. Tools for mark-up of content including segmentation of content for repackaging/remixing activities
    4. Distributed P2P database for aggregating and unifying metadata from various sources
    5. Integration with existing taxonomies like TV-Anytime Classification Scheme (c.f. MPEG-7)
    6. Integration with existing multimedia schemes like MPEG-21 (unification with MPEG-7 and TV-
        Anytime metadata); enabling Universal Multimedia Access and coding-format independence (cf.
        MPEG-21 DIA)
    7. Usage of "metadata" within end-user applications - in particular the bridging of top-down taxonomies
        and bottom-up folksonomy schemes
    8. Addressing issue of limited interactivity of remote control-based interface in relation to metadata (e.g.
        generation may be limited in lean-back environment but quality control can be promoted and made
        easy for the user who only has a remote control by intelligent application design)
    9. [SM] Ideatioof content description and query languages (an ontological solution could be the best
        one) that will be the core of the filtering phase of the search engine, in order to permit the user to find
        as resources as possible (increasing the recall of the process) but limited only to those really
        interesting the user (augmenting the precision of the process).
    10. [UNIKLU] Different types of metadata
             o content-related metadata: provides descriptive information about the media resources (e.g.,
                 MPEG-7, MPEG-21)
             o context-related metadata: provides descriptive information about the usage environment
                 (e.g., MPEG-21 DIA)
             o timed vs. non-timed metadata: whether metadata should become available at a certain point
                 in time or valid throughout, for example, the whole session
             o static vs. dynamic metadata: metadata is constant (e.g., during a session) or may change
                 (often)
    11. Metadata for content adaptation [VTT]: In next generation peer-to-peer media distribution different

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        services should be available to the end users regarding to the type of used terminal or access
        network connectivity. Since the variety of network capacity and terminal properties vary remarkably
        the services must offer different modes of operation according to the given limitations of each
        session. The service content will be designed in a hierarchical manner, so that basic level of service
        provides a minimal required usability or quality for the service. This basic level can then be extended
        by additional layers of information that will enhance the functionality or quality of the service.
        Example of such hierarchical presentations includes upcoming H.264 scalable extension video
        codec. Adaptive content services need a metadata support that enables describing the content and
        its different modalities so that the service content can adapt the terminal type or network
        connectivity. MPEG21 and MPEG7 standards can be used as basis for the work.
             o Defining the requirements for metadata adaptation logic that allows modifying the content of
                  the service according to the end user terminal and connectivity properties
             o Specification of metadata taxonomy of metadata suitable for content adaptation
             o Metadata development
    12. [PSNC] Content management based on technical metadata: Metadata generally describe properties
        of the content, either literally content through attributes such as genre, or the form, e.g. encoding bit
        rates. In addition metadata should capture also information regarding the context of content usage
        such as expiration data, modes of use that are permitted by the author etc, referred to as technical
        metadata. This information is used for managing the content and its distribution. For example,
        reaching content expiration date should result in content being withdrawn from the system. Tasks
        related to technical metadata include defining the scope of technical metadata, defining mechanisms
        for creating such metadata and content management functions that implement content access rules
        defined in technical metadata.

[SM] Work package 5.3 will investigate how to describe content information of Audio/Video streams and
resources, and it will realize a language in charge to do so. The candidate languages to be the basis for this
description language should have the following requisites: • Extensible • Standardized • They should have a
well defined query language • They should be ontological, in order to take advantages from the possibility to
perform reasoning on ontologies The query language, in particular, should have the possibility to perform
complex queries, including, e.g., relational and logic operators.

In the initial design phase, the focus will be on defining the requirements and description objectives of the
language: in particular, first 3 months will be used for this task and also to develop a deep research about the
state of the art of ontological content description and about existing framework/languages on this topic.
Following 9 months will be used to define a prototype of the content description language and of the query
language too, in order to reach the capability to perform simple queries within the search engine (of which
the first version will be also available in month 12). Further 6 months will be required to develop the final
result and to improve the integration of the description and query languages within the search engine.

[i2CAT] i2CAT will contribute in metadata definition and usage. It will work on the use of MPEG-21 and
MPEG-7 standards as the transaction and metadata formats. It will contribute in building a distributed
architecture, where Web Services (SOAP-based) and P2P (JXTA-based) will be the communications tools
between all the elements of the workspace. i2CAT will also provide a Personalization and Content
Management service offering tools for the creation, management, search and suggestion of the content
entities, as well as a set of cataloguing tools.

The Content Digital Item (CDI) will be the smallest indivisible content entity in terms of transactions within the
P2P-Next project. A CDI is formed of a collection of Items, and each Item contains a set of Components
which represent different variations (coding formats) of the same content. Regarding the network
characteristics and terminal capabilities of the content consumer and the media properties (MPEG-7
technical descriptions) of each component, one of these variations will be delivered. If none of them is
suitable, an online transcoding would be made. Our initial approach of the DIP part of MPEG-21 will be the
use of DIMs to indicate to the cataloguer which operations can be performed to each element in a DI and to
wrap all the necessary arguments to produce a WS call to the Content Management module. Even though,
alternative DIP approaches, more focused on the consumer, are being planned. Regarding the content
cataloguing (MPEG-7 content features creation), i2CAT will make an effort to increase the usability of the

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description input forms, and also to provide tools for temporal decomposition of the content descriptions.

The search and suggest algorithms will be fairly similar. They will produce a list of CDI references ordered by
the level of occurrences between the Content Features of the contents and the filtering criteria. The
difference between these two procedures lies on the way the filtering criteria are gathered. In the case of a
search, the user explicitly types the filtering criteria in a form. Otherwise, in the case of a content suggestion,
the filtering criteria are generated from the most common facets of the content the user consumes. In order
to provide this information to the Personalization module, Event Reports will be sent from the client
application every time a user consumes a DI. I2CAT is currently improving these algorithms by enabling
distributed searches over different databases using JXTA.

Finally, i2CAT will focus on the transmission of MPEG-21 Digital Items, which is a part of MPEG-21 called
"Digital Item Streaming - DIS".




WP5.x MicroNavigation and Segment-based Querying

Work package number           WP 5.x          Start date or starting event:     M1
Work package title            MicroNavigation and Segment-based Querying
Activity type                 RTD
Participant number
Participant short name        KENDRA
                              (VK Media)
Person-months


Objectives
Integration of MicroNavigation metadata into the metadata scheme of P2P-Next so that it may be leveraged
by applications.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners:
<TODO>
Previous submitted email by Brendon Kenny (VK Media sub-contractor to Kendra Initiative):
The concept for micro navigation is all about breaking down whole videos and attaching event icons and
property icons to enable you to navigate through video and across associated/linked video and also links to
other mediums be they websites or PDF files PowerPoint etc. Thus creating the possibility of journeys of
discovery from within video in much the same way as you can journey through Napster and various artists
etc.
E.g. You are watching a film and you want to visit other films with maybe the same actor, film location or
other genres etc, in a very simple fast environment.
Then with the possibility of living or dynamic metadata attached within content for contextual advertising
which grows, adapts or changes through the lifetime of the content and also is relevant to the person viewing
the content, changing the whole DRM upside down as content owners would see real benefit in making sure
their content got to as wide as audience as possible allowing real open access to content.
I also see a future with push (linear) content and pull (broadband) content living hand in hand together on
PVR's letting the viewer have access to content that has never even been broadcast e.g. Olympics you want

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to see little jimmy from the next village take part in the long jump but he never makes it to the broadcast
programme yet he has been filmed allowing access via pull content supported via sponsored adverts
relevant to the individual these would be measurable and could also be local, opening a whole new
advertising model with localised adverts sponsored links etc.
Also being able to rate the content for parental control not by entire programmes but by individual clips.



WP5.5 Signpost Requirements and Design

Work package number           WP 5.5          Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title            Signpost Requirements Capture and Design Specification
Activity type                 RTD
Participant number
Participant short name        KENDR      Pioneer
                              A
                              (Muze)
Person-months


Objectives
Move this to requirements work package or split between WP3 and WP5…
Enabling a universal catalogue of content to emerge under the philosophical guidance of the Kendra Initiative
via the definition and design of the Signpost concept.

Kendra Signposts will assist:

       Content owners to describe and advertise their digital media.
       Content consumers to find and purchase the digital media that they want.
       Search engines and applications to provide richer and more accurate search results.

Kendra Signposts will:

       Provide a standardised framework with which to richly describe digital media files and live streams.
        Content owners, aggregators and online stores will be able to publish detailed information about the
        digital media they are selling/hosting.

       Work across all digital media types (audio, video, images, text) and will provide general and specific
        metadata tags for each media type - this is not a one box fits all solution. Content owners will be
        provided with tools to build Kendra Signposts from their existing data stores and will be in complete
        control of this information by hosting the Kendra Signposts. To assist with discovery, Kendra
        Initiative will provide a simple index of Kendra Signposts listing pointers to the metadata files/feeds.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners:
<TODO>
Material incorporate directly from Kendra Initiative Wiki for reference and repackaging in near future
by KENDRA participant:



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Kendra Signposts are:

       Files or feeds that contain detailed and rich information about digital media.
       A machine-readable format describing digital media assets (files and streams) and where you can
        get them. A digital media asset could be a movie, song, live or on-demand video or audio stream,
        text, image, game, etc.
       Are based on a flexible framework that means the same information can be represented in a number
        of ways: placed in an HTML web page (like microformats), a feed (like RSS) or a file (like robots.txt).
        It could be strict XML but it doesn't have to be. What is important is that the names for tags stay the
        same no matter how the information is contained/wrapped/presented. As far as is known [correct if
        wrong] this is quite unique to Kendra Signposts - the information can be represented in a number of
        ways and still be interoperable.

Rationale:

       Kendra Initiative's goal is "Simplify and streamline buying and selling digital content by driving
        industry adoption of open protocols." Which in turn will "Enable interoperability between service
        providers, media applications and devices - every link in the content value chain." What better way to
        "enable interoperability" than for everyone to use the same terminology to describe the content they
        are publishing. Hence, the Kendra Signposts ecosystem - cross-media metadata syndication for
        content search and discovery.

Feedback:

       What do you think of the idea in general?
       What industry specific tags would you want in the metadata standard?
       What would you find useful information to publish and search for?
       Do you currently syndicate/publish metadata (information in a structured machine readable form)
        about the content you create or host?
       If you create content do you publish facts like where you can buy it, who the actors were, where it
        was recorded, who the drummer was, all those juicy little facts?

FAQ:

       What is the major difference between Kendra Signposts and Gracenote?
          o [I'm getting our contact at Gracenote to confirm that these answers are correct given that this
               writer is not intimately aware of all that Gracenote does.]
          o Gracenote has many different business lines but I'm assuming we are really talking about
               their CD Data Base (formerly CDDB).
          o The CDDB deals with music recorded on CDs. Kendra Signposts deals with all digital media.
          o The CDDB has a huge catalogue of tracks and albums. Kendra Signposts, as yet, has none
               because the system is not up and running yet but, when it is, it will have a huge number too -
               mostly from open databases like Music Brainz, etc.
          o The CDDB stores everything centralised on their own servers. Kendra Signposts will be
               published/stored by the content owner, aggregator or anyone providing the metadata.
               Kendra Initiative will initially host a list of pointers (URLs) where people can
               advertise/register their Kendra Signposts - this will aid the process of discovery in the first
               instance and enable search engines to concentrate on metadata query formation and result
               display.
          o The CDDB provides a top level of metadata like you get in iTunes. Kendra Signposts will
               enable one to richly describe the content in many ways. Like the kind of detailed information
               presented in IMDb: the band members on each song and what they played. We'll extend the
               metadata vocabulary with every iteration of the standard.


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
Driving Adoption:

       Kendra Signposts are worthless without people using them.
       Tools to create Kendra Signposts from existing datastores must be easy to use.
       We must build the whole ecosystem in demonstration form from day one: index of Kendra Signposts,
        tools to build Kendra Signposts and a simple search engine.

Technical Overview

Kendra Signposts ecosystem:

       Object Model
           o The abstract representation of objects (such as "track") and how they all fit together.
       Representations
           o Standard definitions of Kendra Signposts for industry accepted containers (such as XML,
                microformats, RSS, ATOM, RDF).
       Mapping
           o Description of how one can map to and from elements within other metadata standards that
                already exist (like MP3's ID3 tag). Kendra Signposts will not be a superset of all metadata
                standards - the elements within Kendra Signposts will be industry requested. This will not be
                a system for live translation between different metadata schemas - just a document
                suggesting ways to convert to and from Kendra Signposts.
       Tools
           o Reference tools to encode and decode Kendra Signpost (in various representations).
                Plugins for existing and established systems, databases and so forth.
       Search Engines
           o To complete the ecosystem loop.

Updates:

       Updates will be frequent and keep pace with demand for tag requests and new ways to describe
        content.
       Tag will be requested via web forms.

Roadmap:

       0.1 define a really simple small set of tag that will work for all media types.
       Build a really simple demonstrator with RSS. Drupal has built-in RSS out and it has an aggregator
        module (RSS in) too.
       Go out to industry asking for tag recommendations.
       0.2 incorporate some of the new tags.
       0.3 keep building up the schema...

Trust: How much we trust the Kendra Signpost (or any source of data for that matter) is based on:

       Where the Kendra Signpost is located: if it's on the same server or owned by the same people that
        host the content it's pointing to then trust will be high.
       Many Kendra Signposts saying the same thing: repeating the same information about the media will
        whack up the trust level. Like Google page ranking - partly based on the number of links to a
        website.

       Who links to the Kendra Signpost: if the server that hosts the content points back to a Kendra
        Signpost (reciprocally) which describes the content on that server then that's pretty heart warming

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
        too.




WP6 PC Integration and Demonstrators
Partners involved: P8 (leader), P13, P18, P16?
This WP will develop a PC platform consisting of standard PC hardware, software libraries and
applications that enable users to exploit peer2peer technology for multimedia streaming and
downloading.

Obj1 – integration of last generation video codec to get maximum efficiency at low bitrates, to
compensate for network unpredictable throughput and to adapt to display/memory/power of
receiver.
Current generation video encoders yield low quality at low bitrates. Furthermore, transcoding is often
required when the available bandwidth is insufficient or when the decoded video does not match
receiver capabilities such as display size, memory or (computational) power.
The objective of this WP is to exploit last generation video encoders that yield high quality at low
bitrates and, at the same time, produce layered bitstreams: H.264/SVC (scalable video codec). The
standardization of this codec is on-going and not yet closed. P2P-Next will be kept up-to-date with the
approved specifications.
Layers can be simply dropped to reduce frame-rate and/or spatial resolution and/or quality of decoded
video. In the simplest case there’s an enhancement layer which is dependent on a base layer. As an
example, the base layer can carry SDTV (720x576) while the enhancement (combined with the base)
can carry HTDV. No simulcast is needed. The delivered quality is superior.
Layers can also be dropped entirely (coarse grain scalability, CGS) or can be truncated at a packet
level (medium grain scalability, MGS) or can be truncated at the bit level (fine grain scalability).
At the transmitter side: adaptation to the available bandwidth without the need for transcoding. At the
receiver side: the media is encoded once and adapted / decoded in many different ways depending on
the capabilities of the receiver. Adaptation can take place also in the network.
Adaptation is done automatically based on the content and on the context. Metadata annotations play
a key role (see WP5).




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next




Video codec evolution from the well-known MPEG-2 deployed in DVDs and terrestrial/cable/satellite
network to the newest efficient H.264 and the future Scalable Video Codec (SVC).




Scalable video coding: encode once, decode in many different ways be selecting portions of the
bitstream. No transcoding required to change frame-rate, spatial resolution or quality.

Obj2 – integration of media-independent algorithms to compensate for network losses: digital
fountains based on random low-density parity check codes for application-layer forward error
correction.
Congested network or transmission errors may cause packet losses which are critical for time
sensitive applications such as video streaming. When time is not an issue and when transmission are
point-to-point, automatic repeat requests (ARQ) may be used. When complexity is not an issue and
when the amount of losses can be forecasted, forward error correction (FEC) may be used effectively.
Redundancy packets can be created by XORing groups of data packets. One erasure can be
recovered xoring remaining packets in a group (including the redundant packet). A standard exists for
transmission carried by RTP packets over UDP: RFC2733.




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next




RFC2733 standard by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): data packets (green) are XORed
together to create redundant packets (cyan). Several schemes are possible, both systematic and non-
systematic.
Digital fountains extend this scheme. Data packets to be xored are chosen at random and do not
follow a precise scheme. The number of data packets to be xored together is chosen at random or
following a given probability distribution (e.g. often few packets are xored together, rarely many
packets are xored together). Pseudo-random number generators are used. Decoding can be complex
(Gaussian inversion of encoding matrix) or simple (message passing, using data packets).
Experiments have shown that the number of packets to be received to recover original data is almost
always slightly more than the number of original data packets, that is the overhead is negligible (few
percent). This forward error correction scheme is rateless, that is redundant packets can be computed
continuously, therefore adaptation to the loss rate detected on the netword is easy.
Efficiency is so high that this technology will be adopted in 3GPP networks.
The use of digital fountains is especially useful when data is broadcasted to many receivers that
experience different loss patterns; also it is especially useful for downloads of carousels as there’s no
need to wait for the carousel to be repeated, when a sufficient number of packets is received the
original data is recovered.

P2P-Next project will include digital fountains as a recovery mechanism which is independent of the
nature of the data (on the opposite, the mechanism described in objective 3 is media-dependent). The
developed scheme will be free of intellectual properties (unlike the scheme adopted in 3GPP).

Obj3 – integration of media-dependent algorithms to compensate for network losses: standard
compatible multiple description video coding.
An alternative solution is to exploit resiliency tools that may be available in the video codec (e.g.
redundant slices for H.264) or use algorithms such as multiple description coding: the video is split
(e.g. by separating odd/even frames, or odd/even rows) and each portion is encoded to yield a so-
called “description” which is independenty decodable. The more descriptions decoded, the higher the
quality.
Multiple description coding is useful to handle varying bandwidth/throughput and in case of
losses/erasures due to congestion (as for Internet) and uncorrectable errors (as for wireless
channels).
       It greatly improves loss/erasure resilience because each bitstream can be decoded
        independently, making it unlikely to have the same portion of data corrupted in every
        description. Layered coding such as SVC can also improve error resilience but only when the
        protection level for a given layer can be adapted to its importance so that the base layer is
        more protected.
       Eases management of variable bandwidth/throughput by transmitting a suitable number of
        descriptions/layers. It must be noted that, when neither SVC nor multiple description is used,
        an expensive transcoding process is needed to match the channel capacity.
       Exploits path diversity
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next




Top row: single description; bottom row: four multiple descriptions created by separating odd/even
rows and taking every other pixel. Same aggregate bitrate, same average packet size. Left: lost
packets highlighted in green; right: lost packets concealed.

Foreseen applications are:
       it could allow a sort of error resilience in the peer-to-peer streaming. If any of the connected
        servers could not deliver the bitstream chunk in time, the other descriptions could allow an
        easy and effective concealment of the missing information;
       adaptation to lower resolution/power/memory capabilities for different devices: a client can
        choose to decode as many descriptions as it is interested in;
       easy picture in picture decoding: replacing the decoding and scaling chain with a simpler
        decoding of a single description;
       graceful degradation of image quality: FEC solutions are specifically thought to be used for a
        maximum BER. If the BER exceeds the specifications, the error recovery is not possible. MD
        achieves a slow degradation of image quality, which is appealing in practical cases;
       adaptation to varying bandwidth, as the descriptions can be sent on independent channels
        and may be dropped if needed. Moreover, all the description are equally important (as no
        "base-layer" data is vital for decoding the other streams) thus unequal error protection is not
        required;
       divide-et-impera approach for high resolution coding: instead of encoding a single high
        resolution video, the encoding computational requirements may be distributed on several
        lower resolution encoders;
       enhanced carousel (for videos repeatedly distributed), instead of transmitting several times the
        same video, a resolution update of the clip can be delivered multiple times;

Obj4 – integration of media-dependent algorithms to compensate for network jitter / variable
delay: audio adaptive playout / time-stretching.
Internet networks do introduce wildly variable delays. To smooth network characteristics usually large
buffers are used at the receivers side: the buffer is filled up to an optimal level, usually 50% before
starting the playout. This pre-roll reduces the interactivity. No TV zapping is possible. Nevertheless the


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
amount of pre-roll can be insufficient: playout is stopped in case of buffer under-flows, which is very
annoying.




By slowing down pre-roll time is reduced, the playout can start earlier but the buffer continues to be
filled up to the optimal level; also by slowing down when the channel is blocked underflows are
avoided hence the playout is not stopped.
The most effective technique to compensate for the jitter is to use adaptive playout: playout last longer
or shorter than the original media sequence.
       For video it is easily done by varying the display frame rate accordingly (frame repetition or
        frame dropping) – more sophisticated techniques may be used however such us motion
        compensated interpolation.
       For audio it is done by cut-copy-paste of pitch periods (also known as WSOLA: waveform
        similarity overlap-and-add). The duration of the audio segment is changed without affecting
        the perceived pitch.




Top row: original audio segment. Middle row: stretched by varying sample-rate, pitch is changed
noticeably. Bottom row: cut-copy-paste of pitch periods, the duration is changed without affecting the
pitch.
Foreseen application:
       Reduced pre-roll time / early start and reduced buffer underflows probability
       Effective audio loss concealment (stretch to fill the gaps)
       Slow down to increase intelligibility
       Speed up to compress




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                             P2P-Next
Audio loss concealment techniques. Adaptive playout can be used to fill the gaps by stretching
neighboring packets. The output quality is very high.

P2P-Next will be one of the first system embedding this technology which is also being standardized
by 3GPP for next-generation of mobile networks.




Architecture of next generation of 3GPP terminal. Adaptive playout is controlled by monitoring network
statistics (packet interarrival time), buffer fullness, content of audio packets (voiced/unvoiced
segments).

Obj5 – integration of peer2peer network fabric, codec, LDPC digital-fountain application-layer
FEC, multiple description video coding, audio adaptive playout, video LAN client (VLC).
Taking into account the outcomes of WP3 (scenarios and use cases), WP4 (peer2peer network fabric)
and WP5 (metadata management), all software models will be integrated and tested on a PC running
Linux.
The PC system will connect via WLAN 802.11a/g to mobile devices from STMicroelectronics and set-
top-boxes to test video streaming over wireless channel.
Foreseen phases:
       integration and technical tests
             o integration of all the functionalities;
             o review of the specifications and interconnections;
       final test and validation
             o final integration;
             o validation of all the functionalities;

Obj6 – integration of zoomable user interface
Command line interfaces (CLI) are very powerful but they are suited only to expert / advanced users.
Graphical user interfaces (GUI) are intuitive but what you see is all you get: you cannot automate
manipulations as in scripts, you cannot indicate what is not immediately visibile, etc. Today the user
interface is crowded by windows, icons, menus you can point at; the graphics is fancier (animations,
transparency) but not useful (high-resolutions screens often display as much information as an old 80-
by-25 character display).
Zoomable user interfaces (ZUI) exploit a natural way to organize / navigate files. You can zoom out to
get the overview or zoom in to details, as desired. There is no need to open the application, load the
data, edit, save the data and close the application. Just zoom in, edit and zoom out when you are
done.




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next




Left: classical explorer view of hierarchical data; right: zoomable view of the same tree.

Foreseen application:
       Zoomable view of photos, videos, etc
       Zoomable electronic program guide: get the summary of a group of video channels, then
        zoom on selected channel
       Zoomable view of the content of USB memory sticks plugged into the set-top-box
       Zoomable view of the content of the mobile device via wireless connection: phonebook
        entries, photos, etc.




Examples of zoomable user interface: top-left zoomable agenda; bottom row zoomable views of filing
system and hard disk content. Center: zoomable view of a news map.

Work package 6.1: Last generation video codec (H.264/SVC)


Work package number          WP 6.1           Start date or starting event:    M01
Work package title           Last generation video codec (H.264/SVC)

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next
Activity type                RTD
Participant number           P8          P13        ?
Participant short name       STM         UniKLU     ?
Person-months         per    10          8          ?
participant


Objectives
Obj1 – integration of last generation video codec to get maximum efficiency at low bitrates, to
compensate for network unpredictable throughput and to adapt to display/memory/power of receiver.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners

STM contributions to the software will be:
       MPEG-4/AVC (H.264): encoder and decoder, main profile, to be run over the PC-based platform.
       SVC (Scalable Video Codec): encoder and decoder with H.264/AVC-compatible base layer, to be
        run over the PC-based platform.

UNIKLU contributions to the software will be:
       Metadata generation and management modules (for content- and context-related metadata).
       Description-driven MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA) system, consisting of
           o a generic Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (ADTE) based on an optimization-based
                approach, i.e., taking MPEG-21 DIA AdaptationQoS (AQoS) description, Universal
                Constraints Descriptions (UCD), and Usage Environment Descriptions (UEDs) as input and
                delivering adaptation decision and parameters to the Adaptation Engine,
           o a generic media resource (content) Adaptation Engine (AE) performing the actual media
                adaptation based on the decisions provided by ADTE, utilizing [generic] Bitstream Syntax
                Descriptions ([g]BSDs),
       supporting dynamic and distributed adaptation as required for a P2P-Next system.
       Coding formats that can be supported are, e.g., MPEG-4 Visual (ASP), H.264/MPEG-4 AVC&SVC,
        BSAC, JPEG2000, MC-EZBC, ...
       Other content adaptation components for less scalable or non-scalable media coding formats, e.g.,
        simple transrating, transcoding, and transmoding (changing the modality of a media item).
       Content quality and utility model that guides adaptation decisions toward better content
        personalization.
       Media data and associated metadata communication/streaming modules.
       UNIKLU will make use of, and extend, the expertise and some software components – as far as
        available to this consortium – that have been developed as best practice solutions in the successful
        FP6 STREP project DANAE (IST-1 507113; Dynamic and distributed Adaptation of scalable
        multimedia coNtent in a context-Aware Environment).


Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
M06 preliminary H.264 codec
M12 H.264 encoder/decoder
M18 preliminary SVC codec
M24 Scalable Video Codec (SVC)


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                         P2P-Next

Work package 6.2: LDPC digital fountains for application-layer FEC


Work package number         WP 6.2           Start date or starting event:     M12
Work package title          LDPC digital fountains for application-layer FEC
Activity type               RTD
Participant number          P8          ?
Participant short name      STM         ?
Person-months         per   8           ?
participant


Objectives
Obj2 – integration of media-independent algorithms to compensate for network losses: digital
fountains based on random low-density parity check codes for application-layer forward error
correction.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners

STM contributions to application-layer forward error correction (FEC):
       Phase I: RFC2733 to protect RTP/UDP streams
       Phase II: LDPC digital fountain to protect RTP/UDP streams
           o pseudo-random numbers generators and packet format to keep transmitter/receiver
                synchronized
           o random encoding for file download (encoding done on the entire file)
           o random encoding for streaming (encoding done on portions of the file)
           o simple decoding by message passing (large files splitted in many packets)
           o complex decoding by Gaussian inversion (small files splitted in few packets)
           o adaptive decoding based on memory/power available at the receiver




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
M18 RFC2733 for RTP/UDP
M24 preliminary LDPC digital fountain for RTP/UDP, decoding by message passing
M36 adaptive decoding by message passing / Gaussian inversion
M42 LDPC digital fountain for RTP/UDP
Work package 6.3: Standard-compatible Multiple Description Video Coding


Work package number         WP 6.3           Start date or starting event:     M01
Work package title          Standard-compatible Multiple Description Video Coding
Activity type               RTD
Participant number          P8          ?


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
Participant short name      STM          ?
Person-months         per   8            ?
participant


Objectives
Obj3 – integration of media-dependent algorithms to compensate for network losses: standard
compatible multiple description video coding.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners

STM contributions to standard-compatible multiple-description video coding:
       pre-processor for descriptions generation before encoding
       post-processor for descriptions merge after decoding (error/loss concealment)
       H.264 decoder with integrated post-processor


Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
M06 pre/post-processing for multiple description split before encoding / merge after decoding
M12 H.264 decoder with integrated post-processing


Work package 6.4: Audio and Video Adaptive Playout


Work package number         WP 6.4           Start date or starting event:    M06
Work package title          Audio and Video Adaptive Playout
Activity type               RTD
Participant number          P8           ?
Participant short name      STM          ?
Person-months         per   6            ?
participant


Objectives
Obj4 – integration of media-dependent algorithms to compensate for network jitter / variable delay:
audio adaptive playout / time-stretching.


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners

STM contributions to adaptive playout:
       Video adaptive playout by frame repetition/dropping
       Audio adaptive playout by WSOLA (waveform overlap-and-add)
       Synch Audio/Video adaptive playout based on network statistics and loss patterns


Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next
M12 Audio adaptive playout
M18 integrated Audio/Video adaptive playout


Work package 6.5: Integration of components


Work package number          WP 6.5            Start date or starting event:   M06
Work package title           Integration of components
Activity type                RTD
Participant number           P8          P13
Participant short name       STM         UniKLU
Person-months         per    20          6
participant


Objectives
Obj5 – integration of peer2peer network fabric, codec, LDPC digital-fountain application-layer FEC,
multiple description video coding, audio adaptive playout, video LAN client (VLC).


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners

EVERY PARTNER WILLING TO INTEGRATE SOFTWARE ON PC PLATFORM MUST ALLOCATE
PERSON-MONTHS TO THIS WORK PACKAGE

STM will integrate VLC (Video LAN Client) server-client library:
       integrating the STM H.264/SVC scalable encoder and decoder;
       with modifications to VLC streaming modules in order to deal with scalable streams
       integration with Tribler

UNIKLU will integrate the functionality developed and tested in WP 5 (see UNIKLU descriptions for WP 5.x
Encoding and Adaptation and WP 5.y Metadata Aspects in a separate document) into the testbed(s) of WP6
in order to enhance the overall P2P engine and demonstrators. This means that contributions are being
made to the common components repository and to the PC-based demonstrator according to the efforts
given in the headings.


Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
M12 intermediate integration v.1
M18 intermediate integration v.2
M24 intermediate integration v.3
M30 intermediate integration v.4
M36 intermediate integration v.5
M42 intermediate integration v.6


Work package 6.6: Zoomable User Interface



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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                  P2P-Next
Work package number         WP 6.6             Start date or starting event:   M12
Work package title          Zoomable User Interface
Activity type               RTD
Participant number          P8           P18          ?
Participant short name      STM          UoR-         ?
                                         CRAT
Person-months         per   6            6            ?
participant


Objectives
Obj6 – integration of zoomable user interface


Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners

UoR-CRAT contributions to user interface:
      Graphical User Interface to create and manage metadata contents over P2P networks.
      The interface allows the specification of several multimedia metadata information in only one
       ontology.
      The acquired data are the input of a Content Discovery framework, based on standard ontology
       languages (like OWL) in charge of classifying and filtering them accordingly to the user context
       (terminal capability, user profiles and preferences).

STM contributions to Zoomable interface:
      multi-platform java application for zoomabile visualization of filing system content
      application to realize mosaic summary of video channels
      application to realize electronic program guide (hierarchical guide)
      application to micro-navigation


Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery
M18 zoomable mosaic of video channels
M24 zoomable micronavigation system (chapters in video sequences)




WP7 CE Integration and Demonstrators
This WP will develop a CE (Consumer Electronics) platform consisting of hardware, embedded
software stack and applications – code named “Tribus” - that enables consumers to enjoy the broad
range of content consumption, social interactivity and content contribution opportunities made
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                             P2P-Next
available by the introduction of the P2P-next medium; whether or not they have a PC in their home.
The audience for P2P-next content and services may thus be enlarged dramatically and a broader
demographic may be catered for.
Obj1 – development of a consumer electronics device that gives consumers direct access to
the P2P-next medium without requiring a PC for intermediation purposes
The objective of Tribus is to create a low-cost, environmentally sound (low powered) and simplified CE
device. The figure below introduces the guideline design for Tribus set-top-box:




Figure 5 Tribus Set-Top-Box
Tribus will allow the P2P-next project stakeholders to evaluate how adoption of the facilities of the
medium could manifest in the CE market place from hardware, software, application and usability
perspectives. A key investigation shall be how the limited performance and input capabilities of such
as device constrain the operation and usage of the P2P-next medium, and how best to present its
services to the consumer via current generation HDTV panels.
Complementary to the all-Digital simplicity of the Tribus device, will be a new and simplified remote
controller, shown in the figure below:




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next




Figure 6 Tribus Remote Control
The reader will notice that this remote control is dramatically simplified. Multiple functions are
attributed to individual buttons. Access to specific functions will be arbitrated by the context of the
application utilised at the moment of use, further communicated by on screen visual cues for the
meaning and functionality of the buttons, and also via a MODE (M) button. The overall layout is
inspired by that often found on a mobile phone keypad due to the high-level of cognitive embedding of
this concept and interface and the need to make data entry of numbers and words as convenient and
inline with current experience as possible.
The Tribus hardware receiver and remote control will be developed as WP7.1 and delivered in M12 of
the P2P-next project [see WP7.1 definition for more details].
Once a consumer receives a Tribus box they need to make the requisite connections to the Internet
and boot-strap themselves into the P2P-next medium. This will be a multi-stage process that must be
both simple to execute and functionally complete from the perspective of enabling the consumer to
access and consume content that interests them with as little aggravation as possible. Hence the
following key of objective of the WP:
Obj2 – applications to enable self-provisioning and effective boot-strapping of a new consumer
into the P2P-next community via Tribus and their remote control
Over the course of the P2P-next project the overlay network infrastructure and services will be
developed with the result that a number of key APIs (candidates for standardisation) shall be
identified. These APIs shall represent the generalised services of P2P-next, as harnessed by the
various target platforms PC, TV (i.e. STB, PVR or iDTV) and Mobile devices. It is envisaged that as
the APIs emerge from the WP4 constituency, that WP7 will translate the capabilities into applications
and user interfaces targeting CE users, with their relative limited input methods (i.e. remote control).
The next objective for this work package then will be to optimise the user experience and usability of
P2P-next by CE devices and show-case the capabilities of the P2P-next afforded to these types of
device
Obj3 – applications to enable access to the content and services of the P2P-next medium but
via a simplified user interface accessible via a remote control (continuous integration and
utilisation of the core Tribler capabilities and APIs)
One of the ground-breaking achievements of P2P-next shall be its ability to support a rich array of TV
experiences ranging from traditional Live TV consumption to a variety of streamed, fully on-demand
media consumption patterns. CE device users are already familiar and competent with standard EPG

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                    P2P-Next
services like the 7-day grid you see from traditional broadcasters and service providers today. The
P2P-next project introduces a richer scheme of metadata with its adoption of TV-Anytime as a fixed
ontology for rich description of content, and more interestingly a P2P-next incorporates a vast
collection of free-form community generated metadata in the form of so-called tags and Folksonomy.
The next challenges for the CE integration work package shall be to investigate the optimal marriage
of these completely different mechanisms for content discovery and promotion.
How can the user most effectively navigate to and from the following metadata domains?
       Traditional EPG (title, description, genre and time) – as currently represented by DVB-SI or
        TV-Anytime metadata from the BBC;

       State of the art descriptive metadata capabilities as harness by P2P-next content WP –
        namely TV-Anytime;

       Freeform Folksonomy and tag clouds generated and QA filtered by the Tribler user
        community.

The challenge here is not limited to manual utilisation of these data repositories, but also how the
automated processes of recommendations and promotions can leverage the combined power of
expression of these repositories. Hence WP7 shall feedback to WP4 and Obj4 is defined:
Obj4 – applications that showcase the possibilities that arise when P2P-next content and
services are partnered with a traditional linear TV experience, and more specifically how the
traditional EPG experience can be enhanced by the presence of social network derived
metadata, and richer TV-Anytime structured metadata, as associated with on-demand content
source material.
If one looks across the varied demographic of TV consumers today we see the complete range of age
groups, technical capabilities, interests and affinities. Unlike in the PC environment, which tends to
assume a high-level of technical competence, the end-user application developments relating to
Tribler must target the entire range of requirements of TV consumers. Thus, there is an imperative for
WP7 to produce a range of user interfaces that span the simple to the complex; the interest focused to
the general interest. Obj5 of this WP aim to fully explore the options and challenges of implementing
these requirements:
Obj5 – investigation into the requirement for adaptive user interfaces according to preference
and/or experience-level of the consumer
Furthermore, applications shall be investigated and developed that give accordance to the family
member who is the main driver of the application, their current context, and the shared audience of the
Living room vs. the solitary user in their bedroom as is appropriate for the situation at hand:
Obj6 – support for multiple family members profiles and preferences, respecting their varying
usage contexts, within a typical family home
A small run of 10 units of Tribus will be design and manufactured initially for distribution amongst the
participants wishing to evaluate the performance and basic functionality of P2P-next on CE. Also,
these initial units will be utilised for early development and integration testing in relation to the software
stack and applications described in the work packages.
Soon after the Living Lab is established, 500-2000 units of “Tribus” will be progressively manufactured
and deployed in consumers homes in order to evaluate the impact of the change of context from lean-
forward PC experience, to the lean-back and less participatory environment of the average consumer
living room or bedroom.
Obj7 – manufacture of between 500 and 2000 in staged releases to the Living Laboratory
Needless to say, Pioneer shall attend to the need for all “Tribus” devices to obtain CE mark
certification, covering safety, emissions and EMC, since the devices will reside in consumer’s homes.
Obj8 – online updates to CE firmware and consideration of how viable a continuous modular
update capability would be for CE devices - inline with philosophy of continuous software
updates advocated by the Tribler PC community


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
During the course of the project, Tribus hardware units shall be dispersed between consortium
member’s laboratories and in consumer homes within the Living Lab. According to the iterative
development schedule planned for the platform, middleware and applications code, 6 monthly updates
will be required to the CE firmware in order to leverage the latest features supported. As such, another
key objective of the WP shall be to investigate both the means of updating Tribus units in the field,
using the P2P-next medium itself, and how that process may be broken down into its application and
platform portions (of which the manufacturer typically wants control), and the Tribler core or
middleware portions, which as we know from PC usage can update rapidly in response to bugs or
security exploits. This is indeed a complex problem with potentially serious economic consequences
for manufacturers which needs to be fully investigated.
Obj9 – logging of usage of the P2P-next medium (content and services)
In addition, for trialists that agree, logging of CE-based usage of the P2P-next content and services
shall occur and the statistics intermittently uploaded to the servers of Delft University (or another
nominated server) for further analysis. The objective of this process shall be the capture and
understanding of certain consumer behaviours through the course of the Living Lab experiments,
enabling researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the CE usage profile as compared to say the
PC-centric usage profile. A high-level timeline is presented below with the key phases and
dependencies of the WP defined:




Figure 7 Top-level Work Breakdown for WP7
As you see the project work in relation to CE integration and demonstrators shall be phased into 3
parts corresponding to which middleware and platform capabilities are made available to end-users.
       Phase-I aims to create a baseline proof-of-concept platform that shows that Tribler on a CE
        device of the lost-cost profile of Tribus is both possible and effective from a users point of
        view. It shall be possible for all stakeholders to connect, provisions themselves onto the P2P-
        next medium and begin to consume both Live TV and on-demand content in both SD and HD
        H.264 format with the Phase-I Tribus prototype.


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
       Phase-II will develop Tribus to integrate the DRM and Micropayment facilities and further
        enhance applications inline with Tribler core enhancements developed by WP4 – preliminary
        integration and testing of DLNA home network facilities shall also be undertaken in this phase
        although full exploitation of these within the Living Lab shall not be necessarily achieved or
        viable until phase-III development cycle takes place.

Phase-III will aim to complete the package of work for CE integration by integrating the state-
of-the-art facilities of DLNA and bringing their functionality to the Living Lab environment. End-
users shall be able to contribute video to the P2P-next medium directly via their Tribus STB or
via a DLNA networked capture device with the associated process of preview and metadata
annotation supported via the Tribus box (without the need for a PC intermediary). WP7.1
Tribus Hardware Platform and Remote Control

Work package number         WP 7.1          Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title          Tribus Hardware Platform and Remote Control
Activity type               RTD
Participant number
Participant short name      PIONEER                 DACC
Person-months               48                      (TBC next week)


Objectives
Development of a low-cost, environmentally friendly, fully Digital, TV-centric hardware demonstrator with
simplified remote control device and option to support video input devices such as a webcam, together with
network interfaces enabling PC-less access to the P2P-next medium (via the Internet) and access and
cooperation with other storage, contribution and consumption devices residing on the home network.
Obj1 – development of a consumer electronics device that gives consumers direct access to the P2P-
next medium without requiring a PC for intermediation purposes




Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
Pioneer shall undertake the following work in cooperation with a sub-contracted HW design company (Tata
Hardware Design):
       PCB design, testing, debugging and validation based on the requirements itemized below;

       Cosmetic design and mechanical design services based on the guideline design included in this
        proposal text;

       CE mark testing incorporating EU compliance checks on safety and EMC; and

       Production and supply of (10) Tribus units to consortium members for software development
        and integration testing purposes during the period between platform availability and the need
        produce 500-2500 devices for the Living Lab (starting with an initial 500 units and progressively
        producing and adding more devices as appropriate or necessary)

The implementation of Tribus will occur within a 9-12 month period.
Specific requirements of the Tribus hardware platform are itemized in the table below. In addition a guideline
cosmetic design for the board and remote controller is provided with dimensions along with a prototype
environment overview.

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                        P2P-Next

Guideline cosmetic and mechanical design
The diagram below presents the vision Pioneer has for Tribus board including the dimensions, key inputs
and output interface and cosmetic design:




A naïve block diagram is included below. Disclaimer: at this stage this is intended only to communicate
viability of the mechanics in terms of scale/dimensions in relation to the key components (SoC, RAM,
PCMCIA, IO and Flash) and not representative of any serious analysis/design process – which shall be a
necessary part of the work involved to produce Tribus.




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                       P2P-Next

Itemized requirements:
1.3.5.2 Processor
          Req.          Description
          HW-CPU-1      ST Microelectronics STx7109 HDTV Set top box decoder H.264/AVC & MPEG-2




1.3.5.3                                                                                   SDRAM
          Req.          Description
          HW-DDR-1      2x256Mbit of video memory on LMI video bus (Samsung K4H561638H or
                        compatible)
          HW-DDR-2      2x512Mbit of system memory on LMI system bus (Samsung K4H511638D or
                        compatible)




1.3.5.4                                                                                   Flash
     Memory



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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                       P2P-Next
          Req.          Description
          HW-NV-1       2x64Mbit of Flash EEPROM (Spansion S29GL064A or compatible) on EMI bus.




1.3.5.5                                                                                    Ethernet
          Req.          Description
          HW-LAN-1      10/100Mbit Ethernet LAN Interface - SMSC 9117 or compatible on EMI bus.




1.3.5.6                                                                                    PCMCIA




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                       P2P-Next
          Req.          Description
          HW-PCC-1      PCMCIA card interface




1.3.5.7                                                                                   Video
     and Audio
          Req.          Description
          HW-AV-1       HDMI output

          HW-AV-2       SPDIF optical output




1.3.5.8                                                                                   Mass
     Storage (HDD)




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next
           Req.             Description
           HW-HDD-1         1xSATA data interface for HDD




1.3.5.9                                                                                         USB
                  Req.             Description
                  HW-USB-1         2xUSB 2.0 type-A socket based on an internal 2-port hub integrated onto the PCB.




1.3.5.10
     UART




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                       P2P-Next
              Req.             Description
              HW-URT-1         1xfast UART port for serial debug / monitoring. Using external RS232 dongle
                               through port in rear panel of unit (see indicative diagram below):




1.3.5.11
     Power
              Req.             Description
              HW-PWR-1         1xexternal power supply to supply power for board components according to
                               voltage levels on schematics and via DC regulation array (inc. SATA @ 5V)




1.3.5.12
     Cooling and Ventilation




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                        P2P-Next
             Req.             Description
             HW-CASE-1        No fans. Heat sinks & ventilation holes as required




1.3.5.13
     Front Panel
             Req.             Description
             HW-FP-1          See diagram below:




                              Front-panel is simply and consists of only IR eye, status LED (BLUE) and power
                              button.




1.3.5.14
     Rear Panel




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next
 Req.            Description
 HW-RC-1         See diagram below:




                 Rear-panel will consist of PCMCIA slot, optical SPDIF terminal, HDMI terminal,
                 USB 2.0 terminals, Ethernet terminal, UART dongle slot and DC-power input.




1.3.5.15       Remote Controller
 Req.            Description
 HW-RC-2         IR remote control of design and scope according to diagram below:




DACC shall contribute an external USB device that enables secure identification and authentication of users
of the P2P-next system… (TBC next week or removed)

<TBC by DACC with man-month estimates >


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                 Note: (M) button is apage 95switch during data entry to toggle between numbers
                 and letters. During normal navigation of the user interface the (M) button
                 corresponds to MENU and BACK operations dependent on context.
                                                                                            IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next
WP7.2 CE Integration and Demonstrator Development

Work package number         WP 7.2           Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title          CE Integration and Demonstrator Development
Activity type               RTD
Participant number
Participant short name      PIONEER                  STMICRO                 DACC
Person-months               162


Objectives
This work package covers the entire software development process and lifecycle in relation to the “Tribus”
platform during its lifetime – starting as an internal laboratory prototype and emerging as a key demonstration
platform for P2P-next and vehicle for the Living Lab trials.

Following a process of functional analysis and requirements definition to distil they key use cases and
behaviours, based on the overall system requirements and business models explored in other key work
packages (WP2 and WP3), an architecture and modular design will be produced. These activities will occur
in parallel with the “Tribus” platform readiness work. Once the platform stabilises a series of software
iterations shall be commenced, adding progressively richer facilities to the CE platform and end-user
applications.

Every 6 months, commencing M6 of the project, a new iteration of the middleware and application
development work will complete, that shall introduce new feature of the P2P-next platform to the end-user.
Each feature shall be represented via a tuned and optimised remote control driven application.

Overall, the objectives of the CE-based software development activities shall be to implement the following
as defined and elaborated during the WP7 introductory text:

       Obj2 – applications to enable self-provisioning and effective boot-strapping of a new consumer into
        the P2P-next community via the remote control

       Obj3 – applications to enable access to the content and services of the P2P-next medium but via a
        simplified user interface accessible via a remote control (continuous integration and utilisation of the
        core Tribler capabilities and APIs)

       Obj4 – applications that showcase the possibilities that arise when P2P-next content and services
        are partnered with a traditional linear TV experience, and more specifically how the traditional EPG
        experience can be enhanced by the presence of social network derived metadata, and richer TV-
        Anytime structured metadata, as associated with on-demand content source material.

       Obj5 – investigation into the requirement for adaptive user interfaces according to preference and/or
        experience-level of the consumer

       Obj6 – support for multiple family members profiles and preferences, respecting their varying usage
        contexts, within a typical family home

       Obj7 – manufacture of between 500 and 2000 in staged releases to the Living Laboratory

       Obj8 – online updates to CE firmware and consideration of how viable a continuous modular update

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next
        capability would be for CE devices - inline with philosophy of continuous software updates advocated
        by the Tribler PC community

       Obj9 – logging of usage of the P2P-next medium (content and services)




Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners:
Pioneer shall be primarily concern with the following RTD tasks in relation to the Tribus platform:
Task 1: Platform readiness – this is a project lifecycle in itself which starts when the hardware design
requirements have been fixed. In parallel with the hardware design process (WP7.1) the software
development lifecycle starts. Initially effort is put in place to make available to the hardware group a software
test suite that can be used to debug the prototype hardware and to verify correct operation of all sub-systems
of the platform. Typically this consists of simple test routes to verify correct operation of the processor, RAM
and ROM normally using a JTAG interface. A software test package usually consisting of the O/S, drivers
and test harness is then used to validate the operation of the video, audio and other interfaces. The software
used for this phase is will be a subset of the software to be deployed in the final demonstrator and also used
during Living Lab production for quality assurance checks.


Drivers for the SoC are normally provided by the manufacturer in the case of ST this is known as STAPI,
specific drivers for other parts of the system are developed and tested in-house. ST provides a new STAPI
release every 6 to 8 weeks, this contains bug fixes and enhancements and needs to be integrated into the
project and re-tested. For the Tribus project we expect regular deliveries of video and audio codec firmware
which will need to be integrated and tested, any new functionality introduced will be exposed though STAPI.
New hardware specifically for Tribus for example WiFi adapters, solid state mass storage devices, secure
USB identity dongles, NAS/SAN drivers will be developed/integrated and tested.

We expect platform readiness work to be a half-time activity for the purpose of budgeting throughout the first
3 years of the project and as such commit 18 man-months to this task.

Task 2: Middleware integration – The middleware provides non-hardware specific functionality such as
Tribler core services, TV-Anytime metadata management, DRM system integration and management,
resources management, DLNA home networking services and a GUI control framework.


Apart from integration the various components described above, the Pioneer engineers will seek to optimise
their implementation from two perspectives: refinement and streamlining of algorithms and APIs determined
by applications designers, and looking downwards, analysis and refinement of how the modules of the
middleware are implemented in terms of the platform OS, driver and specific CE hardware capabilities.




Pioneer expect middleware integration and development spanning all software processes from requirements
to testing and deployment into the Living Lab, to be a fulltime task for 1-2 Pioneer engineers and as such
commit 72 man-months to this task.

Task 3: Applications development - The application layer sits above middleware and provides the final
product functionality and user experience. The full scope of applications to be developed as part of the P2P-
next project cannot be known fully at this time. Needless to say, Pioneer’s objectives are to demonstrate the
new business models and consumer value proposition supported by the P2P-next platform beyond the
current state of the art. To achieve this aim, Pioneer will continuously integrate, test, optimise and leverage

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                           P2P-Next
emerging APIs from the WP4 University of Delft developers and other consortium partners for the purpose of
developing a rich and exciting set of applications.

Pioneer expect application development to require fulltime commitment of between 1-2 engineers during the
course of the project from M1, since a process of application requirements and use case analysis shall
precede the commencement of iterative software releases scheduled for M6, and this can happen in parallel
with the Tribus hardware design and platform readiness work. As such, we commit a figure of 72 man-
months to this task.

Three senior engineering staff within Pioneer shall be committed to the integration and development of
middleware and applications for this WP. In addition, the platform readiness engineering work shall be
delegated to a resident consultant called Richard Marsh from Marsh Consulting Ltd. Richard has worked with
Pioneer for over 7-years integrating drivers and middleware onto new hardware platforms based on ST Micro
SoC technology. The following diagram summarises the layered software architecture and staff allocation
envisaged to allow fulfilment of the WP objectives during the project:




Tribus operating environment
The diagram below shows the Tribus receivers relationship with the Internet access point, other Tribus
receivers in various locations around the home network, and the consumers display device:




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                                                                                        IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next




The figure below summarises the phasing, timeline and iterations of the WP as it relates to the 3 key
software activities, the underlying hardware development by WP7.1 and the Living Laboratory which
depends critically upon the output of WP7:




Note on related standardisation, dissemination and exploitation activities: in parallel with all WP7
activity, effort will be expended by Pioneer and other consortium staff to promote and advocate the adoption
of P2P-next as an open standard for P2P television via forums such as the DVB, EBU and emerging industry
groups concerned with the new media marketplace such as Kendra Initiative. Such activities shall be

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                                                                                             IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
factored into the dissemination and exploitation plans of the project.

Note about scope and objectives:
Although the list of objectives for this WP is finite, their combined scope is broad. It expected that a series of
innovative show-case applications that cannot currently be predicted will be developed over the course of the
project although that may not be necessarily the focus of this work package.

As an example showcase application, consider the following “Shared TV Experience” concept application as
a concrete proposal:




During shared experience television, the viewers is given the option to watch multiple Live PIP (Picture-in-
Picture) streams in complement to the “main event”, which could be a live Rugby match e.g. The
supplementary video streams may correspond to friends at home, friends in the pub who are using their
mobile phone cameras to stream live footage of their experience of the game. Or indeed small enterprises
may be setup that provides semi-professional, supplementary coverage of events either from the grounds of
the event or merely adding commentary from another location.

Now, you can imagine what happens when a try is scored. Everyone concerned on the multi-screen
experience demonstrate their anger or enthusiasm, or both, for the event in a huge “Shared Experience”
moment! The consumer at home may also attach a camera to their Tribus receiver and upload live to other
people in their social circle so they can participate and share their emotional reaction to events…


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                    P2P-Next



ST Micro shall work in close cooperation with Pioneer specifically in the area of H.264 codec extensions for
the Omega decoder platform within Tribus and their middleware control software as integrated into the
FFMPEG library and VLC (Video LAN Client) software.

<TBC by ST Micro with man-month estimates>



DACC will also work in close cooperation with Pioneer to integrate platform support for their secure
identification hardware (USB with SIM e.g.), AAA functionality and payment methods as manifest at the
middleware layer, including definition of APIs for exposure to the applications.

<TBC by DACC with man-month estimates >




< END OF WP7 CE Integration and Demonstrators >


Work package 8: Living Lab Trials


Work package number           WP 8             Start date or starting event:      M1
Work package title            Living Lab Trials
Activity type                 RTD
Participant number            4
Participant short name        ULANC        PDD         VTT          KTH
Person-months           per   60
participant


Objectives

The primary goal of the Living Lab Trials WP will be to deploy a series of test-beds/trials in order to evaluate
the effectiveness of the P2P-Next approach when applied to a variety of services, across a heterogeneous
networking infrastructure targeting various user terminals/devices. These extensive field trials will help to
provide concrete results relating to the implementation when deployed over a large infrastructure.

Initially, evaluation will be laboratory based and will exploit the infrastructures provided by VTT and Lancaster
University. However, the user-centric aspect of the project will dictate that the experiments will quickly be
trialled on a live infrastructure. This will be achieved by exploiting the large regional networking infrastructure
designed and deployed across the North West of the UK and which is wholly owned by Lancaster University.
This provides the P2P-Next project with a large user community on which to carry out trials and
measurements. Whilst the Living Lab WP spans the entire project duration, it will naturally be focused
towards the delivery of platforms at key project milestones.

The overall goal of this work package is to facilitate a large scale public test-infrastructure. This will facilitate
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next
large-scale experimentation and assessment of the proposed system architecture between all project
partners and the end-user community across all intended platforms. The iterative deployment process will
permit feedback into the wider development cycle and the dissemination track. It is envisaged that the
evolution of the Living Lab will consist of the following key stages:
1. Preliminary laboratory based implementation (for project partner use and test)
7. Initial “live community testbed” for initial end-user trial purposes
8. Final (i.e. second iteration) live implementation suitable for longer evaluation and analysis




Task 8.1: Testbed Phase 1[M12-M16]

In the early stages of this task, research and experimentation with readily available components and
hardware will be carried out; this will provide a base for the laboratory testing between partners using
Lancaster’s test infrastructure, UPB’s RoEduNet (Romanian Education Network) infrastructure and VTT’s
Converging Networks Laboratory (CNL). This comprehensive set of text-networks provides an environment
for testing multimedia applications on real multi-access networks. The main focus of CNL is to provide a
facility for laboratory testing and hosts equipments to run live network cells (such as 3G cells, wireless
broadband and different Wi-Fi networks (WLAN b/g/pre-n), research tools such as QoS measurement tools
and network simulators. CNL is also connected with a public city-wide WLAN 802.11 b/g and the facilities
allow system testing conducted on three levels, i.e., on live networks, stand-alone network cells in the lab,
and simulations. UPB’s (via RoEduNet) also have significant experience in the in the domain of monitoring
systems, being a partner in the MonALISA project, together with the California Institute of Technology and
CERN. MonALISA is a monitoring framework for distributed systems, currently running in more than 300
sites world-wide and UPB will seek to extend the MonALISA framework for use by the P2P-Next project.

Task 8.2: Testbed Phase 2 [M17-M24] (ULANC, PIONEER)
This task will move from task 8.1 and bring P2P-Next to version one, where a complete set of functionalities
will be operating and be ready for deployment to the live test infrastructure (ULANC and VTT). This will move
the laboratory based solution and experiments to the public and will establish a working solution in differing
operating scenarios based around the home/community environment. This will permit the functionalities to
be analysed outside of a controlled environment and within a genuine operating environment.

This task will enable the ethnographic study of the community in order to establish further requirements,
observe behaviour (post introduction of technology and services). This means we can not only measure the
impact from a technology perspective (traffic shaping) but also examine the social impact and also address
Quality of Experience issues (QoE) for future iterations.         Pioneer will develop devices targeting
STB/PVR/iDTV profiles will feature innovative user applications to manage the content made available.
Diagnostic tools will be development and integrated into the device in order to validate the open standards
developed as part of the project.

Task 8.3: Testbed Phase 3 [M28-M30]             (ULANC, FAB)
The last stage of development will refine the preliminary versions of the P2P-Next platform architecture
(protocols, algorithms and applications/services) to optimize on usability and performance – based on the
previous experiments’ results. This version will be shipped as the final proof-of-concept for the project and
will be the version which forms part of the final user-centric study and large scale analysis. At this stage of
the analysis, we seek to evaluate all system and user services and the performance of the underlying
communications platform. This will include analysis of live streaming, micro payment technology (FAB),
Quality of Experience (ULANC). X, Y, Z


Deliverables:
D.8.1 [M]: Analysis of the initial prototype implementation:
This deliverable collects results on an initial prototype trial tests in order to refine the general P2P-
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                      P2P-Next
Next architectural specifications based on actual system behaviour.              This will highlight any
refinements which need to be made to the overall specification.

D.8.2 [M]: Analysis of the initial live prototype implementation:
This deliverable collects measurements from the initial public release and user trial to be input to
WP3-WP6, in order to refine the general architectural specifications based on genuine user
involvement.

D.8.3 [M]: Analysis of the final end-user trial of the system:
This deliverable will provide results pertaining to the public trial of the P2P-Next platform and will
involve both ethnographic study and measurement techniques to capture both qualitative and
quantitative datasets. This deliverable collects the performance figures measured on the iterative
prototypes deployed.

Milestones:
Milestone 8.1 [MX]: Lab-based Prototype.
At MX the initial laboratory version of the testbed is operative and available to all partners.

Milestone 8.2 [MX]: Live TestBed Trial.
At MX the P2P-Next prototype will be available to the end-user community for the first public value
test.

Milestone 8.3 [MX]: Final Release.
At M36 the final demonstration prototype testbed is shipped.

WP9: Dissemination and Exploitation
Work package                WPX               Start date     or   starting   M9-M33
number                                        event:
Work package title          Dissemination and Exploitation
Activity type
Participant number
Participant        short    ULANC
name
Person-months        per
participant


Objectives:
The overall goal of this work package is to disseminate the major findings and project results through
a number of mechanisms: High quality International journal and conference publications, white
papers, internal reports, data-sets, workshops and demonstrators.



Description of work:
Work Package Leader: ULANC
Other partners: X, Y, Z

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next

Task 8.6: Demonstration [M35-M36]
During the final 2 months of the project, this task will prepare a specific demonstration in order to
show the capabilities of the P2P-Next infrastructure and to expose the results of the research activity
in the most effective way to a wide audience.

Perhaps this should be a separate workpackage marked DEM? Thoughts?



Deliverables:

D.7.1 [M35-36]: P2P-Next Final demonstrator system and application:

Milestones:

Milestone 8.3 [M36]: Final Prototype Demonstrator.
At M36 the final demonstration prototype testbed is shipped.



Work package 9: Dissemination
Partners involved: PN (leader),
Work package 9 will …




Work package number          WP 9            Start date or starting event:    M1
Work package title           Dissemination
Activity type                OTHER
Participant number
Participant short name
Person-months          per
participant


Objectives




Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners
Ideas for Work Package 9: Dissemination

WP7 Dissemination and communication activities Partners involved: VTT (leader), NN, NN (those
involved in WP reporting)

The main focus of dissemination work package will be on full utilization of the results and findings during and
after the end of the project. This is one key point of a successful project. The dissemination work package
will focus broadly on dissemination and communication of the state of the project as well as key results and
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
development. The dissemination will create awareness and interactions between the consortium and other
parties, both in industrial and academic interest groups.

The objective is to disseminate, [Silvano Mignanti - UoR: SM] at national and international level, the main
results to various parties and target groups such as content providers, broadcasters, telecom operators,
home and mobile equipment vendors, universities and research organisations [SM] as well as project
partners, users in particular. A special attention will be paid to reach SMEs in involvement and utilization of
the results. The table below lists the dissemination activities that will be used during the project.
Dissemination work package will take care of co-ordinating scientific papers, publications and publicity,
workshop arrangements and communications (brochures, online presence and publications, [SM] flyers, CD-
ROMs), [SM] (optional) courses and lectures, as well as reporting and further analysis of the work package
results.

[SM] Therefore, the dissemination activities will cover:

       Communication actions: the production of brochures, describing the goals, stakes, technologies
        and the consortium will be launched early for creating initial awareness and interest for teh action;
        these communication messages will otherwise be disseminated through the portal, developed for
        providing also a centralized access to the services, contact names, and project's documentation. The
        portal will become an important piece of the communication plan as it will rapidly allow estabilishing
        links with interested parties, being them partners, users, third parties. A newsletter will be set up for
        interested users.
       Workshops and seminars: partecipation to IST cluster events and european concertation meetings,
        the participation in workshops and conferences organized by IST, W3C and other important
        international organizations is planned to increase the dissemination impact; this will be completed by
        the set up of a workshop and a seminar, at the end of the project, to enable a more targeted
        message accompanied by demonstrations.
       Publications: the project results will be disseminated by paper submissions to the major national,
        European and wordlwide journals and reviews.
       (optional) Training: training activities could consist mainly in classrooms, seminars and workshops,
        web lectures and an e-learning platform.

Each work package report and other publications, such as white papers and best practice reports, are further
analysed and an executive report will composed in co-operation with each work package including a small
scale cross analysis between different work packages. En example of a cross analysis is content vs.
regulative aspects.

The final report of the project will edited based on the executive summaries of each work package. The aim
is to write the final report so that reading does not require deep technological background information. The
first task of this work package is further define the dissemination tasks and establish procedure to co-
ordinate dissemination activities.

[SM] Dissemination activity will start at the beginnin of the whole project, and it is supposed to produce, after
a few months (M 4), a deliverable detailing the dissemination plan of the project.

The project is also expected to have a significant impact on standards. An activity will be started at the
beginning of the project initially to plan the more effective way to submit contributions. Throughout the
project, the activities of standards working groups will be monitored. Project work in progress will be
presented to relevant standardization groups and key results will be submitted as contributions to the
standards process.




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                      P2P-Next
                                                                                                            Responsible
Activity                  Objective                Target group             Approach
                                                                                                            project partner
Project             online
                           Public     awareness,                            Communication        of   the
presence     [SM]     web                          All interested parties                                   xx
                           results                                          project, project status
portal
                         Short presentation of
Brochures, [SM] flyers,
                         the project and its All interested parties Project marketing                    xx
CD-ROMs
                         goals
                         Distributing know-how Professionals, event Project              presentations,
Workshops/events                                                                                         xx
                         and networking             participants           findings and results
Publications [SM] and Public           awareness, General public and Submission of papers and
                                                                                                         xx
white papers             results                    professionals          articles
                         Public        awareness,
Publicity                                           All interested parties Press releases                xx
                         results
                                                    Industry,
                                                                           Executive        summaries,
                         Executive       summary, professionals,
                                                                           white papers, and other
Analysis of the results fast           commercial researchers,                                           xx
                                                                           public reports available at
                         utilization of the results European
                                                                           the project web site
                                                    Commission
[SM]           Courses, Improve dissemination                              Creation of courses for
lectures,     e-learning activities and project All interested parties both e-learning platform xx
platform                 knowdlege                                         and lectures.
                                                                           Active      and       passive
                                                                           participation within selected
[UNIKLU]                 Interoperability, public All           interested
                                                                           standardization        bodies xx
Standardization          awareness, results         partners
                                                                           (e.g., IETF, MPEG, W3C,
                                                                           ...)




Workpackage 9: Dissemination (TBD)

Objectives

- To compose the key findings (executive summary) from the reports and results of the different work
packages, perform a small scale cross analysis between the work packages and publish a final report.

- To create prerequisites for external dissemination and to disseminate the results of the project to all
interested parties

Description of work

Task T9.1: Detailed planning and setting up dissemination activities

- The first task is to further define the dissemination plans and schedule. The activities of T7.1 include: - The
form of online presence will be chosen: www site, blog or wiki or a combination and an online platform for
project online presence will established accordingly. Here, all foreseen publishing needs will be taken into
account.

1) A project brochure will be designed at the beginning of the project.

2) A schedule for public work package reports will confirmed.
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next
3) A preliminary plan for participations in scientific and commercial events, such as conferences and
exhibitions, including a preliminary plan for publishing press releases will done.

4) A plan for arranging public seminars during the project. One or two seminars will be arranged in the middle
or at the end of the project to disseminate the main results to the public.

Task T9.2: Analysis of WPs results This task will contain analysis of results from different work packages.
Our intention is to examine the results and findings of work packages and to concretise and sum up the key
findings in able to speed up the commercialization and utilization of the results. This analysis will be done in
co-operation with the work package owners and reporters. The outcome will be an executive summary for
each work package. These executive reports will be reported in two deliverables (D9.2, D9.3)

Task T9.3: Project results (final report) The deliverable of this task will be the final report of the project.
Executive summaries and other work package reports such as white papers and best practise reports will be
used as input for the report. These reports will be analysed including a small scale cross analysis between
different the work packages.

Task 9.4: Coordination of dissemination This task will co-ordinate and report all external dissemination
activities based on the plan (T9.1). In addition, all changes in the original dissemination plan (D9.1) will be
reported within in this task. The reporting consists of participations in conferences, exhibitions and seminars.
In addition, appearances in public media, such as TV and news medium will be reported. This task will take
care of organising seminars and writing condensed seminar reports and updating online platform reflecting
the work done in the project. E.g. all public reports will be published on online.

[SM] Task T9.5 (optional): Standardization. Through this task, the activities of standards working groups will
be monitored. Project work in progress will be presented to relevant standardization groups and key results
will be submitted as contributions to the standards processes.

Milestones and expected results

M3 Dissemination plan ready, web presence established.

[SM] M4-18 Dissemination activities will be expected to be continuous for the entire duration of the project

M4 Dissemination plan ready, web presence estabilished

[SM] M9 (optional) E-learning platform setup

M12 (optional) First courses ready

M15 (optional) All courses ready

M18 (optional) All firsth-phase courses finished

M18 Evaluation of project results completed and final report published, final exploitation and utilization plan
elaborated.




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                            P2P-Next

D9.1: Detailed dissemination plan. Report and web presence.

D9.2: Executive summaries for work packages e.g. WP2 - WP4. Report.

D9.3: Executive summaries for work package e.g. WP5 - WP8. Report.

D9.4: Final report. Public report.

D9.5: Co-ordination of dissemination activities. Report for M1- Mx (month in the middle of the project)

D9.6: Co-ordination of dissemination activities. Report for Mx - M (last month 18 or 24?)

[SM] (optional) D9.7 Standardization plan

(optional) D9.8 Standardization report



 Table 1.3 a:              Template - Work package list

                                           Work package list


 Work              Work package title                  Type of      Lead             Lead     Person-    Start       End
                                                              16                                               19
package                                               activity      partic          partic.   months    month       month1
     15                                                                 17                      18
  No                                                                no.             short                             9
                                                                                    name

WP 1       Management

WP 2       Stakeholders and
           Ecosystem

WP 3       System Requirements and
           Architecture

WP 4       Peer-to-Peer and IPvNext
           Networking Fabric


15
                 Workpackage number: WP 1 – WP n.
16
                 Please indicate one activity per work package:
                 RTD = Research and technological development (including any activities to prepare
        for the dissemination and/or exploitation of project results, and coordination activities); DEM =
        Demonstration; MGT = Management of the consortium; OTHER = Other specific activities, if
        applicable in this call.
17
                 Number of the participant leading the work in this work package.
18
                 The total number of person-months allocated to each work package.
19
                 Measured in months from the project start date (month 1).

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                                P2P-Next

WP 5         User
             Generated/Professional
             Content and Metadata

WP 6         PC Implementation,
             Integration and Demo

WP 7         CE Implementation,
             Integration and Demo

WP 8         Living Labs

WP 9         Dissemination &
             Exploitation

             TOTAL


Table 1.3 b:                  Template - Deliverables List


                                              List of Deliverables

                                                                                     21
     Del. no.      Deliverable name                         WP no.          Nature                    Dissemi   Delivery
     20
                                                                                                      -nation   date23
                                                                                                      level
                                                                                                      22        (proj.
                                                                                                                month)




20
                 Deliverable numbers in order of delivery dates. Please use the numbering convention <WP
number>.<number of deliverable within that WP>. For example, deliverable 4.2 would be the second deliverable from work
package 4.
21
                    Please indicate the nature of the deliverable using one of the following codes:
          R = Report, P = Prototype, D = Demonstrator, O = Other
22
                    Please indicate the dissemination level using one of the following codes:
          PU = Public
          PP = Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services).
          RE = Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services).
          CO = Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services).

23
                    Measured in months from the project start date (month 1).

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                             P2P-Next
Table 1.3 c:                 Template - Work package description

                                      Work package description


Work package number                                   Start date or starting event:       M1
Work package title
                24
Activity type
Participant number
Participant short name
Person-months             per
participant


Objectives




Description of work (possibly broken down into tasks) and role of partners




Deliverables (brief description) and month of delivery




Table 1.3d Summary of staff effort

         A summary of the staff effort is useful for the evaluators. Please indicate in the table number
         of person months over the whole duration of the planned work, for each work package by
         each participant.

         Identify the work-package leader for each WP by showing the relevant person-month figure in
         bold.




24
           Please indicate one activity per work package:
           RTD = Research and technological development (including any activities to prepare for the dissemination and/or
exploitation of project results, and coordination activities); DEM = Demonstration; MGT = Management of the consortium;
OTHER = Other specific activities, if applicable in this call.

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                           P2P-Next
            Partic.     Partic.      short         WP1               WP2       WP3             …            Total
             no.        name                                                                               person
                                                                                                           months
               1
               2
               3
              etc
             Total




Table 1.3e Template - List of milestones


Milestones are control points where decisions are needed with regard to the next
stage of the project. For example, a milestone may occur when a major result has
been achieved, if its successful attainment is a required for the next phase of work.
Another example would be a point when the consortium must decide which of several
technologies to adopt for further development.


                                                                                      25
Milestone          Milestone          Work package(s)                 Expected date                Means of
                                                                                                              26
 number              name                involved                                                verification




25
         Measured in months from the project start date (month 1).
26
            Show how both the participants and the Commission can check that the milestone has been attained. Refer to
indicators if appropriate.

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                     P2P-Next

2. Implementation
2.1 Management structure and procedures
       (Describe the organisational structure and decision-making mechanisms of the project. Show
       how they are matched to the complexity and scale of the project.)




2.1.1 Overview

P2P-Next is a complex project with 9 Workpackages and 21 partners. The workpackages have been
clustered in functional components called Streams, which reflect the specific structure of the
Integrated Project. These can be seen in the diagram below.


                                     Stream 1. Stakeholders &
                                          Requirements



                                                                     Stream 5. Mgmt and impact
                               Stream 2. Content & Metadata

                              PC                             CE

                            Stream 3. The P2P-Next Framework



                             Trial                          Trial

                                     Stream 4. The Showcases




                         Figure 2.8: The P2P-Next Sub-project Clusters


From certain points of view, the Sub-projects are quite independent and can progress without
continuous interaction with the other components. In order, however, to ensure that integration does
occur at the right time, specific Directors have been nominated in charge of these functional
components. Together with the Project Director they constitute the Executive Committee of the
project.
The partners’ interests are represented by a General Assembly, to which the Executive Committee
reports. This Board, which is composed of one representative per partner, ultimately validates the
major decisions concerning the project, and is also the ultimate decision-making body for any issue
concerning the proper operation of the Consortium. In normal circumstances, it is only expected to
meet annually.
The main role of the Executive Committee is to make propositions to the General Assembly of the
project on the project work plan, budgets, and other matters necessary for the project advancement
and success.


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                   P2P-Next
The project organisational structure and decision-making mechanisms will be formalised in a
Consortium Agreement, which all partners will sign before the start of the project.

2.1.2 The General Assembly
The General Assembly, which is chaired by the Project Director, is composed of one institutional
representative appointed by each of the partners. It is this Board that ultimately validates the major
decisions concerning the project. The General Assembly is the arbitration body for all decisions
proposed by the Executive Committee. Thus, any Contractor may submit for arbitration by the General
Assembly any decision by the Executive Committee it deems to be contrary to its interests. The
General Assembly is also the decision-making body for any issue concerning the proper operation of
the Consortium. In principle, approval by the Board shall be given by mail vote, upon proposition by
the Executive Committee. It is anticipated that formal meetings of the Board will only be necessary
under exceptional circumstances. The matters to be acted upon by the Board may include:
        The political and strategic orientation of the project;
        The Consortium’s “Work Plan” and “Plan for using and disseminating Knowledge” and their
         regular updates;
        The Consortium’s budget and the financial allocation of the EU’s contribution between the
         various activities on the one hand, and between the various partners on the other;
        The annual validation of the realised expenditure in accordance to the budget;
        Any changes in the Consortium membership.

2.1.3 Executive Board Directors
The Executive Committee is composed of the following directors.


    Director           Sub-          WPs Involved          Responsibility
                       project
    Project Director   Stream 5                            Overall responsibility, interface to EU, risk
                                                           management
                                                           Chairman of the Executive Board
                                                           Responsible for Communication, dissemination or
                                                           project results
    Technical          Stream 1                            Design and development of P2P-Next general
    Director           Stream 3                            Architecture aimed at ensuring easy to use
                                                           aggregation of all P2P-Next components.
                                                           Responsible for the continuous technologies
                                                           watching during the whole project life cycle.
    Scientific         Stream 2                            Responsible for the scientific advancement of the
    Director                                               project with respect to the State of the Art in the
                                                           field.
                                                           Identification and selection of technologies for
                                                           inclusion in the P2P-Next general architecture,
                                                           management of selection process
    Innovation         Stream 4                            Development and implementation of three user
    Director                                               scenario applications (P2P-Next Showcases) to
                                                           show the advancement in the State of the Art that
                                                           P2P-Next will bring.
                                                           Responsible for the valorisation and exploitation
                                                           strategy for the Consortium.
                                                           Specification of how P2P-Next results can be
                                                           replicated in other contexts.

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                               P2P-Next
    Director        Sub-          WPs Involved        Responsibility
                    project




                                     Table 2.1: P2P-Next Directors


The responsibilities of the Executive Board include to:
       Ensure proper integration between the Sub-projects;
       Define and update the Work Plan;
       Make progress reports on the state of advancement of the Project;
       Establish the Project Deliverables for the Commission;
       Propose the Project budget to the General Assembly as well as the allocation of funding
        between the Contractors;
       Propose and implement the competitive selection procedure for any new Contractors;
     Make proposals to the General Assembly for changes in the consortium membership.
The Executive Committee shall more generally propose any and all decisions required for the proper
conduct of the project. The composition of the Executive Committee at the start of the project will be
defined in the Consortium Agreement.

In addition to his members the Executive Board can consult in its meetings and during project duration
three more managers, i.e. Administrative Co-ordinator, Ethical Co-ordinator and Communication Co-
ordinator.

Workpackage Teams are composed of participants involved in carrying out the work of the relevant
Workpackage. The workpackage leaders co-ordinate the tasks within their sector of activity, integrate
the work of the partners, control and update planning of the tasks, organise thematic meetings as
appropriate, monitor production, co-ordinate work with other workpackages, stimulate scientific and
technical exchange within their workpackage. They report to the appropriate Sub-project Director.
The Workpackage leader’s role, which assumes significant project management tasks, is to:
       Present progress reports on the state of advancement of the Workpackage;
       Make proposals on programmes to be conducted and the arrangements for performance, the
        orientations of the Workpackage and of the Work Plan;
       Make proposals on the allocation of Workpackage tasks, financial needs and allocation among
        the Contractors, the need to bring in new Contractors;
       Prepare and validate Workpackage Deliverables;
       Identify Contractors presenting financial or technical risks within a Workpackage and inform the
        Executive Committee;
       Inform the Executive Committee of any other difficulty arising in connection with the conduct of
        the Workpackage;
       Ensure the scientific monitoring and co-ordination of the Workpackage and ensure its
        implementation.

In order to strengthen Project Management, a specialised Quality Management (QM) function will be
deployed across all project Tasks. The goal will be to set up a QM System (QMS) that spans all
activities and involves all Partners so as to ensure that there are clear and common views on Quality
Standards, Procedures, Records and Indicators. The QM function will work closely with the PD but will
report directly to the Executive Committee so as to ensure the appropriate independence of action and

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next
leverage on the project. A section of the Consortium Agreement will spell out the QM function authority
and the obligations of the Partners.
The QMS and its associated surveillance/improvement processes will be defined in a Quality Plan
(QP). Periodic auditing will be retained as a surveillance mechanism. The main QM activities will
include:
     Deployment of the P2P-Next Quality Management System spanning all Project Tasks;
     Deployment of a ‘specialized’ Web-based Contents Management System to support QMS
      activities, documentation, records;
     Production and maintenance of a Quality Plan identifying Standards, Procedures, Records;
     QM training and partner’s involvement programme.

In order to avoid and mitigate risks, a specific process will be part of the project management. It will
be composed of the following steps:
1.    Identification – Identification of risk with relevant competencies to evaluate it;
2.    Evaluation – Evaluation of risk, probability, and its impact;
3.    Reduction actions plan – Planning of actions to avoid risk, manage and reduce them;
4.    Monitoring and revision – Continuous revision of Risk Plan, during all project duration;
5.    Success/Failure Feedback - Learning by experience.
As tools in the process, two report tables will be used:
1.    A Risk Assessment Report, in order to manage a proper risk evaluation and identification
2.    A Risk Action Report, in order to manage the proper risk mitigation action plan.
This process is described in more detail in section Error! Reference source not found..



2.1.4 Consortium Agreement
The P2P-Next Consortium Agreement will be signed before the project starts. It will include:
     Specific arrangements concerning intellectual property rights to be applied among the
      participants and their affiliates, in compliance with the general arrangements stipulated in the
      contract;
     Management of knowledge generated by the project, and rules for knowledge transfer;
     The internal organisation of the consortium, its governance structure, decision-making
      processes, reporting mechanisms, controls, penalties and management arrangements. In
      particular, conflict resolution procedures will be specified;
     Arrangements for the distribution of the Community contribution among participants and among
      activities;
     Rules for partners joining and leaving the consortium;
     Provisions for the settlement of disputes within the partnership;
     Other provisions deemed necessary to ensure a sound management of the project.



2.1.5 Information Flow
In principle, the communication strategy shall guarantee that at any given time within the lifetime of the
project, the necessary information is provided in a timely manner and adequate for the different
internal and external target groups. The communication objectives are the following:
     Information are provided at the right time and form to the right target
     Involved people are aware of deadlines and understand their tasks/duties
To implement the above schema will use a set of communication tools, including:

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
     Meetings: Specific meetings for different purposes will take place. These include physical
      meetings, web meetings and audio-conferences.
     Distribution lists: Several distribution lists will be set up in order to liase with all the relevant
      individuals working for the project. They will be accessible from the intranet.
     Project Internal Web Portal: The coordinator will set up a secure Web Portal for exchange of
      sensitive information within the project as well as with the Commission. This will include
      agenda, minutes and internal reports. Progress monitoring reports and reports to the
      Commission will be placed here unless they should be publicly available, in which case they will
      be on the Pubic Web Portal.
      Project Public Web Portal: The public portal will be a show case for P2P-Next and its
       achievements, including all Web based applications which are produced. It will give access to
       the project’s public documents.
With respect to the project meetings, the project kick-off meeting marks the effective launch of the
project. It reinforces the sense of common purpose of all partners, and identifies the responsibility of
each in the endeavour. Unresolved technical issues are identified and debated; co-operation between
workpackages is initiated. The management exposes what is expected of each in terms of results,
performance and reporting. The detailed course for the first 18 months of the project is confirmed and
fine-tuned. Other project meetings are timed with the preparation of the annual reports and rolling
updates of the detailed 18-month implementation plan. They will involve all the participants, and take
place at Month 12, 24, and 36. They will be complemented and prepared by Executive Committee
meetings to be held in the same time frame. Additional Executive Committee meetings will be
convened as required. Topical working meetings will be organised by the workpackage leaders as
needed for the progress of their tasks.

2.1.6 Conflict Resolution
In general, it is expected that the instructions of overall co-ordinating tasks will be followed by the
concerned WPLs, or that conflicting views will be solved bilaterally. In the exceptional case that
conflicts cannot be solved on WP level, the Executive Board (Stream Directors) may be called by the
respective WP-Leader and asked to solve the conflict.
It is expected that the co-ordinating tasks will seriously consult the concerned WPLs before making
any decision and especially ensure that no heavyweight overhead is generated. The goal and thus the
metric for the co-ordinating tasks is always to improve the overall functioning of the IP as a joint
project and to improve the quality, consistency and impact of the project results.
If the Executive Board cannot solve a conflict it must delegated to the GA. The GA will make a final
decision. This decision is then binding to all management bodies. The Executive Board will be in
charge to ensure that all pending conflicts will be resolved within reasonable time frames. The Board
shall make a decision within 10 working days. If the GA needs to be involved, they shall make a first
decision within 20 working days.




2.1.7 Risk Assessment and Control

Risk assessment is an integral part of the P2P-Next Management process mentioned above (section
xx). The management will identify those factors that are critical to the success of the project and will
engage actions to control them. The diagram below shows the main features, which foresees two
stages, namely, Risk Assessment and Risk Control:




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next




                                      Figure x.x: Risk Management


Risk Assessment can take place at any time during the project. It allows project managers to:
1.    Explore the entire project plans and identify areas of uncertainty;
2.    Analyse how those areas of uncertainty can impact the performance of the project, either in
      duration, cost or meeting the users' requirements;
3.    Prioritise risks, so as to establish which risks should be eliminated completely (because of
      potential extreme impact), which should have regular management attention, and which are
      sufficiently minor to avoid detailed management attention.

Risk Control also has three tasks, as follows:
1.    Take whatever actions are possible in advance to reduce the effect of risk. It is better to spend
      money on mitigation than to include contingency in the plan.
2.    For all those risks which are deemed to be significant, have a contingency plan in place before
      it happens;
3.    Measure, monitor and track the effects of the risks identified and manage them to a
      successful conclusion.

As tools in the process, two report tables will be used:
1.    A Risk Assessment Report, in order to manage correct risk evaluation and identification
2.    A Risk Action Report, in order to manage a proper risk mitigation action plan.


Kinds of Risk
Initially, three kinds of risk will be monitored in P2P-Next.
1.       Management Risk
2.       Technological Risk
3.       Finance and administrative Risk

As the project develops, the Executive Board will decide which other risks need to be managed, such
as, for example, market-dependent risks.

Management Risks

 Risk description      Evaluation                               Resolution

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Risk description         Evaluation                                   Resolution
Consortium has no        Impact High, Prob. Low                       Previous experience between single partners
harmony.                 There are many reasons to believe that       has been very positive and should be
                         harmony will be the core of consortium,      maintained at consortium level.
                         ranging from personal friendships to         Whole project meetings and workshops will be
                         company alliances and recent                 held to ensure that good communications are
                         experiences between partners.                established between partners.
Too many diverging       Impact High, Prob. Medium. The P2P-          The Executive Board has been especially set-up
objectives between       Next management structure has been           to avoid and manage this kind of risk. It will
technical and            specifically designed to minimise this       stress the integrated nature of the project and
scientific objectives    risk and to ensure proper collaboration      push the different technical partners to follow the
and Showcase             between the different streams.               specified directives.
objectives

The Showcase is          Impact High, Prob. Low.                      The highly qualified partnership will perform
not of interest to the   The Showcase is key in showing that          continuous market watch activities to identify
market.                  the P2P-Next platform is providing true      changes in the market.
                         innovation.                                  The presence of user representatives inside the
                                                                      project will ensure the possibility to increase
                                                                      integration between market and technical
                                                                      perspectives.




Technological Risks
Risk description         Evaluation                                    Resolution
Technical problems       Impact Medium, Prob. Low.                     The design phase of the project will be led by
arise during P2P-        Modules could be developed                    partners who have significant experience in
Next development         independently by the various partners,        user-centred design. The system architecture is
                         without a detailed discussion about their     designed in the light of maximum flexibility to
                         functionality according to the                simplify the integration of all technologies
                         specification document.                       available. A first step in the integration phase is
                                                                       foreseen for performing a preliminary
                                                                       integration of some fundamental components
                                                                       and for discussing and evaluating problems.
The complexity of        Impact High, Prob. Low.                       The experience of the technical partners is
integration              The complexity that could arise from the      essential to solve this problem. Great attention
compromises              architecture may be a problem. The            will be given to the proposed solutions and to
system                   implementation of the base technology         the base technology that has been used.
performance.             needs to be effective to give an effective
                         response to users.
The technical            Impact High, Prob. Low.                       The P2P-Next partnership includes academic
components do not        The P2P-Next Framework is dependent           partners, leaders in their various sectors, who
allow a competitive      on high calibre components                    have already identified the key technological
platform to be put       technologies.                                 areas where progress over state of the art can
together                                                               be made.



Finance and Administrative Risks
Risk description         Evaluation                                    Resolution
One of the partners      Impact Low, Probability Low                   The Executive Board will decide whether the
leaves the               Each of the P2P-Next partners has a           uncovered project activities can be carried-out
consortium               very specific technical or managerial         by one of the other partners. If this is not
                         role. If one of them decides to withdraw      possible another partner will be recruited,
                         it may happen that some of the planned        according with a General Assembly decision,

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 Risk description      Evaluation                                   Resolution
                       activities can no longer be carried out.     under proposal of Executive Board.
                       Given the good reputation of the P2P-
                       Next partners we consider this
                       possibility very unlikely.
 One of the partners   Impact high, Probability Low                 The Executive Board will propose to the
 is not able to        In the Consortium Agreement a special        General Assembly the action to be taken,
 provide contractual   attention will be dedicated to this risk,    including the possibility of a budget re
 deliverables          including a specific procedure for           allocation, deciding whether the uncovered
                       Partners not able or willing to fulfil its   project activities can be carried-out by one of
                       obligations in term of deliverables and      the other partners. If this is not possible
                       time schedule.                               another partner will be recruited.


3.1 Competition and Risk – SWOT Analysis of Project

The goal of P2P-Next is to build a fifth generation P-2-P network that may drive more than 50 % of the
future Internet usage. The key system shall be open source with commercial subsystems, in various
business models being possible and desirable.

1. Timing of project results and competition
The goal of the project is nothing else but highly ambitious. It operates in a market environment in
which time-to-market is the shortest and in which usually American players or players aiming at going
public quickly dominate (Joost and Babelgum). This contrasts negatively to the slow research
environment in which the project is operating.

To make sure that P2P-Next is quick enough, the project will start to exploit the results from month 12
onwards. A decision on the legal entity to be formed will also be made by month 12 with the legal body
being fully operational at month 18.



2. Consortium management and size
The project consists of 21 participants from different European countries and with different objectives
of participating. This is at the very end of what can be managed through an instrument such as an
Integrated Project.

The consortium leaders decided to have the project as big as it is on purpose to make sure that the
major stakeholders in Europe are well represented. An effective decision making system based on
majority votes combined with effort in project adjusted voting and decision (???) rights, clear
provisions for conflict resolution and issues such as redistribution of efforts, inclusion and exclusion of
partners, etc., coupled with the experience of the key personnel to manage such ambitious
international undertakings will guarantee that the project meets its objectives.

3. Copyright issues and legal controversy
Although file sharing is a legal technology with legal uses, many users use it to download and upload
copyrighted materials without permission, which can be copyright infringement if done without
authorization for improper purposes. This has led to attacks against file sharing in general from many
copyright owners.
There has been great discussion over perceived and actual legal issues surrounding file sharing. In
circumstances where trading partners are in different countries with different legal codes, there are
significant problems to contend with. What if a person in Canada wishes to share a piece of source


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code which, if compiled, has encryption capabilities? In some countries, a citizen may not request or
receive such information without special permission.
P2P-Next has devoted a full workpackage to make sure it adheres to the copyright lawof the European
Union and world-wide.

4. Attacks on peer-to-peer networks
Many peer-to-peer networks are under constant attack by people with a variety of motives. Examples
include:

       poisoning attacks (e.g. providing files whose contents are different from the description)
       polluting attacks (e.g. inserting "bad" chunks/packets into an otherwise valid file on the
        network)
       defection attacks (users or software that make use of the network without contributing
        resources to it)
       insertion of viruses to carried data (e.g. downloaded or carried files may be infected with
        viruses or other malware)
       malware in the peer-to-peer network software itself (e.g. distributed software may contain
        spyware)
       denial of service attacks (attacks that may make the network run very slowly or break
        completely)
       filtering (network operators may attempt to prevent peer-to-peer network data from being
        carried)
       identity attacks (e.g. tracking down the users of the network and harassing or legally attacking
        them)
       spamming (e.g. sending unsolicited information across the network- not necessarily as a
        denial of service attack)

A special task has been assigned to ensure the safety of the P2P-Next system.

5. Consumer Risks
Some file sharing software comes bundled with malware such as spyware or adware. Sometimes this
malware remains installed on the system even if the original file sharing software is removed, and can
be very difficult to eliminate. In many cases such malware can interfere with the correct operation of
web browsers, anti-virus software, anti-spyware and software firewalls, and can cause degraded
performance on affected systems. Such malware is typically bundled with proprietary software, and
not those in open source. In most cases it is possible to easily remove adware and spyware by
running spyware removal programs. Such programs can often remove malware without influencing the
functionality of the file sharing software.




2.2 Individual participants
        (Maximum length for Section 2.2: one page per participant)



2.2.1 Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is an impartial expert organisation. Its objective is to
develop new technologies, create new innovations and value added thus increasing clients'

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competitiveness and competencies. With its know how VTT produces research, development, testing
and information services to public sector and companies as well as international organisations.
With its staff of 2780 VTT experts VTT provides high-end technology solutions and innovation
services. From its wide knowledge base, VTT can combine different technologies, create new
innovations and a substantial range of world class technologies and applied research services.
Through its international scientific and technology network, VTT can produce information, upgrade
technology knowledge, create business intelligence and value added to its stakeholders. VTT's
turnover in 2006 was 217 Million €.
Our expertise areas relevant to current project include:
     Multimodal user interface techniques
     Utilisation of context information for mobile user interfaces
     Content adaptation and terminal profiling
     Development and testing of mobile services
     Media technology
     Mobile end user interaction, user experience and user studies



Research professor Ilkka Norros is a probabilist by education and has 19 years experience in
research on network communication and traffic modelling and performance analysis. His team is a
member of the Euro-FGI Network of Excellence. Currently, he leads two major national research
projects, working on algorithms of the broadband infrastructure and on the dependability of IP
networks. He has written and co-authored several well-known papers.

Dr. Marko Jurvansuu graduated from the University of Oulu and received a Ph.D. degree in 2001. He
has been working with the field of telecommunication since 2001 at VTT Technical Research Centre of
Finland. He is currently a senior researcher with team management responsibility and supervises
VTT's Converging Networks Laboratory. He has been actively involved in various European and
national research projects such as Easy Wireless and Candela under EUREKA/ITEA domain as well
in IST projects such as Ambient Networks. He is a chairman of transparent networks thematic group
under GIGA research program funded by Finnish Funding Agency of Technology and Innovation
(Tekes). His research interests include network convergence, QoS measurement and control and
development of B3G (Beyond 3G) test networks.

Johannes Peltola, Research Team Leader in Multimedia Processing team at Telecommunication
field in VTT has received his M.Sc. in electrical engineering from the University of Oulu in 1998. His
career at VTT started in 1995. His research topics include multimedia signal processing algorithms in
application for source compression, content analysis and joint source channel coding. He is leading
the research team that covers most of the multimedia signal processing algorithm research and
implementation work in VTT Telecommunication cluster. He has participated to several international
IST and EUREKA/ITEA framework projects such as, IST-JOCO, IST-PHOENIX, ITEA-CANDELA, IST-
CALLAS, and ITEA-MAGELLAN.

Janne Vehkaperä, received the M.Sc. (Eng.) in electrical engineering in 2004 from the University of
Oulu, Finland. He joined VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Oulu, in 2002, where he is
currently working as a research scientist and aiming towards the Ph.D. degree. His experience comes
from IST and EUREKA/ITEA projects such as ITEA-CANDELA, IST-PHOENIX and IST-WEIRD. His
main research interests include scalable video coding, video error resilience and cross-layer aspects
of video transmission.

Jukka-Pekka Laulajainen has been working for VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland since
2004. He received his Master of Science (Tech.) in telecommunications from the University of Oulu,
Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Finland, in 2005. Besides working as research
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scientist at VTT, he is doing his postgraduate studies at the University of Oulu in the area of
information networks and mobile services. His main research interests include Quality of Service of
multimedia services in IP networks and he has been involved in several European projects (e.g. ITEA-
MAGELLAN, IST-WEIRD) and currently leads wireless and QoS research cluster in IST FP6
Games@Large.

Antti Heikkinen received his Master of Science in electrical engineering from the University of Oulu
(Finland) in 2003. He has been working at VTT since 2001. His research topics include video coding,
adaptive video delivery and video communications in wireless networks. He has working several
projects such as EUREKA CANDELA (mobile video and content analysis), EUREKA MAGELLAN
(Multimedia Application Gateways for Enterprise Level LANs), IST-PHOENIX and IST-ANEMONE.

Ms. Hannele Antikainen, Research Scientist, M.Sc. joined VTT 1987. Her research interests are
media processes and electronic data exchange in publishing industry. She follows media technology
and writes regularly articles on the latest technology developments in VTT’s publications. She
received his Master of Science (Technology) degree from Helsinki University of Technology in 1984.



2.2.2 DACC Systems AB (DACC)
DACC Systems AB – a Swedish privately owned company – was established in 2002 in order to solve
the problem of simple and secure access to and payment for Digital Media and Services on the
Internet from any type of terminal or Internet Appliance in a cost effective way.
DACC System AB offers a cost-effective AAA (authentication, authorization, and accounting) system.
It is designed for applications like media distribution e.g. games, video, and music, W-LAN access,
VoIP, broadband access etc.
DACC Systems AB has expertise in
      requirements capture and specifications of services
      business models for content distribution
      Open Source and Open Content business models
      development of AAA systems
      network management
      telecom access and transport networks
      service level agreements



Ph D Lars-Erik ERIKSSON, born 1945. M.Sc. 1969 in Electrical Engineering and 1975 Ph.D. in
Telecommunication Theory at KTH. Guest researcher 1975-76 at Philips Nat. Lab. in Holland. 1976-80
Researcher at The Institute for Telecommunication Theory, KTH, developing fibre-optic systems
theory. Acting professor 1978-79. 1980-90 employed at Swedish Telecom building up research teams
in data communication and protocols, information security, image compression, speech technology,
fibre-optics and human factors. In 1990-95 active at Corporate Strategy at Telia AB with
responsibilities such as business intelligence, business strategy. 1996-98 Technical Director at
Ericsson Telecom AB. 1998-2000 Managing Director for Ellemtel Utvecklings AB. Consultant during
2000-01. 2001-05 Director of the Swedish Centre for Internet Technologies. 2002 one of the founders
and owners of DACC Systems AB. Active senior consultant since 2005.


Torbjörn Johnson, born 1945, M.Sc. 1968 in Electrical Engineering at KTH.
Since 2000 active as Senior Consultant and from 2002 CEO and one of the founders and owners of
DACC Systems AB.
1998 – 1999 General Manager of Ericsson's Home Communication Unit developing consumer
oriented products, 1995 – 1998 Director of New Technologies and Concepts at Ericsson Telecom,
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1994 – 1995 General Manager of Total Solutions Development at Ericsson Telecom, 1991 – 1994
General Manager of New Products in Business Unit Local Switching at Ericsson with special
responsibility for broadband systems development, 1988 – 1991 Product Manager at Ericsson's
Nordic Region responsible for all Operator Products, 1985 – 1988 Marketing and Product Manager for
Ericsson's Network Management System AOM101, 1974 – 1984 International Project Manager for
Network Management Systems at Ericsson, 1968 – 1974 Project Manager at Ericsson for Process
and Production Control Systems for the Paper and Steel industries.



2.2.3 Lancaster University (ULANC)
Lancaster University’s Computing Department is an internationally renowned team of researchers
investigating all aspects of communications and distributed systems. Its constituent researchers are
particularly interested in contemporary challenges in this area, including support for multimedia and
quality of service, the challenges of mobility/ubiquitous computing and problems arising from the
increasing levels of heterogeneity exhibited by such systems. One of Lancaster’s great strengths, as
acknowledged by the International Review of UK Research in Computer Science, is the focus on
pragmatic systems research. Another great strength is the critical mass of the team and the coverage
of a broad range of technical areas from the application through the middleware to the underlying
(highly heterogeneous) network.

The Computing Department is now part of InfoLab21, a Lancaster University initiative, with major
funding from the North West Development Agency and the European Regional Development Fund, to
establish a world-class Centre of Excellence for research, development and commercialisation of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT). A key aim of this Centre is to promote and
accelerate technology transfer between the ICT research in the University and the local and regional
industry, especially small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Also linked to InfoLab21 are the
University's many other experts in ICT-related work, most notably the excellent Information Systems
Services (ISS) and the University's world-class Management School. ISS provides ICT services to the
students and staff of the University and is also developing and rolling out CLEO, a communications
network spanning Cumbria and Lancashire that is one of the most technically advanced in the world.
Within ISS is the Network Research and Special Projects Unit (NRSP), which exists to provide a
bridge between research and the regional ICT infrastructure and support the development of network
based applications within Lancaster University and for the region, and which will be collaborating on
the project demonstrator.

The Computing Department at Lancaster University has a long history of cutting edge research in the
general area of networking and protocol architecture. Further research at Lancaster has been
investigating the design and implementation of next generation middleware to meet the requirements
of emerging distributed applications. Lancaster was a pioneer in the area of QoS architectures during
the mid 1990s, and in more recent years has done leading edge work on multimedia caching,
multimedia indexing and content management (MPEG-7), IPv6 and mobility, and application level
multicast and overlay networks. The Department has considerable support from the EPSRC (the UK
national research council), from the European Commission, and directly from industry.

Dr. Nicholas Race has been a Research Lecturer within the Computing Department at Lancaster
University since 2001. He works jointly with Computing and the Information Systems Service (ISS)
under the umbrella of the Network Research and Special Projects Unit (NRSP). The group was
established to enhance research partnerships and conduct innovative, yet practical-based research
using the large-scale regional network that the University has established. His research interests lie
within the areas of mobile and ubiquitous computing, multimedia content delivery and autonomic
wireless mesh networks. He has received both the University's Commercialisation Prize (for
overseeing the development of the IPv6 protocol stack with Microsoft) and the Community Prize (for
the ongoing work in Wray village).


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Dr. Keith Mitchell has been a Researcher within the Computing Department at Lancaster University
since 1997. He has published over 35 refereed papers in the areas of mobile, distributed and
ubiquitous computing with a specific focus on adaptive and context-aware systems and applications.
He has been active within the research community for over 10 years and has been involved in a
technical programme committee member for a number of international conferences and workshops,
including ACE, Mobile HCI, BCS HCI, WMCSA and NetGames.



2.2.4 Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI)
Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) is the biggest research institute in Slovenia. In view of its activities and
status, JSI plays a role of a kind of national institute, complementing the role of universities and
bridging the gap between science and applications. At present the Institute, totalling about 770, has a
research staff nearly 550: more than 360 have doctorates and 175 have permanent professorships or
temporary teaching assignments at the universities.
Laboratory for Open Systems and Networks, one of JSI’s departments, has a long tradition of
research and development in the fields of computer networks, telecommunication technologies,
components and integrated systems and information society services and applications. Currently, the
main R&D activity focuses are next generation networks, information security and privacy,
multilingualism in ICT systems, and architectures and protocols for intelligent environment. The
laboratory has participated so far in many EU driven research activities, most recent and relevant to
the proposal topic are summarized below. Networking and security were addressed in the FP5 FAIN
(Future Active IP Networks) project and FP6 DIADEM FIREWALL (Distributed Adaptive Security by
Programmable Firewall), Privacy, security and trust issues in networking are being dealt with in the
FP6 SERENITY (System Engineering for Security and Dependability), DAIDALOS (Designing
Advanced Interfaces for the Delivery and Administration of Location independent Optimised personal
Services), PROLEARN (Network of Excellence in Professional Learning) and iCamp (Innovative,
inclusive, interactive & intercultural learning campus) projects. Members of the laboratory are active in
various standardization bodies, such as ICTSB, CEN, ETSI, ISO and IETF. The Laboratory is also a
member of the eMobility, NESSI and NEM European Technology Platforms.


Dr. Tomaž Klobučar is a researcher at Laboratory for Open Systems and Network, Jožef Stefan
Institute, an assistant professor at Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security, University of Maribor, and
head of SETCCE (Security Technologies Competence Centre) research group. He studied
mathematics at University of Ljubljana, and later computer science and informatics at the same
university. His main interests are information security and privacy and computer networks. Lately, he
has been actively involved in several FP projects, such as SERENITY, DAIDALOS, ELENA, iCamp, or
PROLEARN. His publication list includes over 50 books, journal papers and conference contributions.
He is also a member of various conference programme committees and involved in organisation of
scientific events, such as NATO workshops on advanced security technologies in networking or
Communications and multimedia security conference.

Dr. Dušan Gabrijelčič is a researcher at Laboratory for Open Systems and Network, Jožef Stefan
Institute. He studied electrical engineering at University of Ljubljana, where he received a diploma and
doctoral degree. His main interests are in information security, network security, general protection
systems and future communications system security design. He has been involved in several
domestic and EU FP projects such as FAIN, FP5), where he has designed and prototyped a security
architecture for active networks, DIADEM FIREWALL where he has worked on programmable firewall
interfaces to increase flexibility and efficiency of the countermeasures to threats, or SERENITY where
he is addressing the standardization effort of the security solutions designed by the project. His
publication list includes a number of publications in books, journals and conference proceedings.




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2.2.5 Delft University of Technology (TUD)


Delft University of Technology (TUD) is the oldest university of technology in The Netherlands, and
performs research, and offers a wide range of bachelor's and master's programmes. The university
has a total number of employees of about 5,000, total number of students of about 13,000, and total
revenue of close to 400 million Euros per year. The number of computer science students is about
850.
TUD hosts the world’s largest group in experimental P2P file sharing research, called the Tribler
team. The Tribler team is a multidisciplinary research group linking several faculties. It consists of 18
full-time members, 5 full professors, and other experts from computer science, electrical engineering,
mathematics, and industrial design. This team created the Tribler P2P system (www.tribler.org). With
over 100,000 downloads of the Tribler Open Source software, it serves as a living laboratory and
proving ground for next-generation P2P technology.

Dr. Ir. Johan Pouwelse, is an assistant professor at Delft University of Technology, specialized in
Peer-to-Peer file sharing. He is coordinating the Tribler research team. Dr. Pouwelse delivered a
statement for the Federal Trade Commission in Washington, was asked to testify in several P2P-
related court cases, was a visiting scientist at MIT during the summer of 2003, and recently spent a
few months at Harvard Business School to study the economic impact of movie downloads on
Hollywood.

Dr. Dick Epema, is an associate professor of computer science. He holds an MSc and a PhD in
mathematics from Leiden University and an MSc in Computer Science from Delft University of
Technology in the Netherlands. He is currently an associate professor in the Parallel and Distributed
Systems group in Delft. In 1987-1988, the fall of 1991, and the summer of 1998, he was a visiting
scientist at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York. In the fall of
1992 he was a visiting professor at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. He has written over 40
papers in performance analysis, scheduling, and resource management in parallel and distributed
systems, in grids, and in P2P systems.

Prof.dr.ir. Henk J. Sips is a full professor of computer science, and he is the leader of the Parallel
and Distributed Systems Group at the TUD. He holds an MSc in electrical engineering and a PhD in
computer science, on the design and programming of parallel computers. He has contributed to the
design and implementation of compilers for sequential and parallel languages, and has been the
project leader of projects dealing with subjects ranging from parallel languages and computing to
wireless computing.

2.2.6 STMicroelectronics (STM)

STM is a broadband silicon manufacturer. STM is organized in products groups:
       Applications specific groups (ASG): automotive product group (APG), computer product group
        (CPG), mobile multimedia communication (MMC), home entertainment displays (HEG).
       Industrial & Multi-segment sector (IMS): micros memories smartcards (MMS), analog power
        and MEMS (APM)
       Flash memory group (FMG)

R&D is common to all these product groups. It is kept at a very high level, well above 16% of net
revenues which amounts to almost US$ 10 billions. R&D and is made of:
       technology R&D (silicon)
       system R&D (systems): Secure Entertainment Multimedia Platforms (SEMP)



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SEMP research group is focused on audio/video encoders such as MPEG-2, H.264 (MPEG-2
successor with doubled efficiency), VC1 (the Chinese standard), SVC (Scalable Video Codec), robust
decoders with error concealment, trans-coders, algorithms suited for streaming such as audio
adaptive play-out, multiple description coding, low-complexity distributed coding, application-layer
forward error correction (FEC), digital fountains, smart automatic repeat requests (ARQ); plus
integration with cryptographic technologies and digital rights management (DRM).

STM today is one of the largest suppliers of set-top box manufacturers. STM is interested in
                                                              1                               2
developing new off-the-shelf components and complete solutions with the right set of features
                       3                 4
required by new markets and new customers .

    1.   Complete solutions: customizable dual std / gaming / recording set-top boxes.
    2.   Right set of features: set-top boxes wired to internet, acting as wireless home hubs.
    3.   New market: fast growing, created by Peer-to-Peer technologies.
    4.   New consumers: not only manufacturers, but also service providers and viewers.

STM is willing to catch this opportunity by leading multi-platform implementation and integration in the
P2P-Next project.

Fabrizio Simone Rovati received Electronic Engineering degree from Politecnico of Milano in 1996.
He has, since 1995, joined STMicroelectronics working on digital video processing algorithms and
architectures. He moved to STMicroelectronics Ltd, Bristol (UK) for a period of two and an half years,
until October 1998, where he worked mainly on architectural studies of digital TV de/multiplexing and
decoding Systems-on-Chip, studying coprocessors micro architectures, system bus structures and
related coprocessors-memory traffic profiles and methods to improve overall throughput. He than
moved back to Agrate, where he joined AST System R&D group, working on motion estimation
algorithms and architectures for digital video encoding systems, and multimedia streaming
technologies for adaptive and robust delivery. He is currently leading the multimedia research team in
AST.
During his career he has authored or co-authored 15 British, European and U.S. granted patents, 7
international publications in conferences or technical journals. He has been contract professor at
Politecnico of Pavia University during academic year 2001-02, teaching “Digital Electronics II”. He
gave several lectures at Politecnico of Milan on digital video compression algorithms and
architectures.

Andrea Vitali graduated in Electronics at the Milan Polytechnic, in 1999, after more than one year in
STMicroelectronics as designer of digital multi-standard decoders for analog TV. He joined
STMicroelectronics’ Advanced System Technology labs in 2000, working on real-time hardware
prototyping for video algorithms.
He also worked on non-standard still picture / bayer-pattern compression and on multiple description
video coding. He published several papers on these topics. He holds patents granted in Europe and
USA in digital video processing, still picture compression, digital modulators and silicon sensors
(automotive market).
He is now working in the field of robust source coding, joint source channel coding, adaptive
multimedia play-out, metadata for multimedia signals, graphical interfaces.
He gave lectures on Digital Electronics at Pavia Polytechnic in 2002. Since 2004 he is also external
professor at Bergamo University, Information Science department, where he is teaching
Microelectronics.




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2.2.7 The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
The Royal Institute of Technology (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan), KTH, is responsible for one-third of
Sweden's capacity for engineering studies and technical research at post-secondary level. Our
university has over 11,000 undergraduate students, 1,500 active postgraduate students and a staff of
3,100 people. KTH is a public university, mainly funded by government grants. It was founded in 1827
and it is the largest of Sweden's universities of technology.
The Telecommunication System Lab (TSLab) is one of the laboratories of the KTH School of ICT,
located at the KTH campus in Kista. It consists of some 20 faculty members and graduate students.
They combine expertise in technology, economy, social science and social behavioural science. The
lab offers an open and creative environment or research and education. The prime competence is in
developing communication systems from a user perspective.
TSLab owns and/or has access to multiple test beds for communication, including fiber to the home
apartment housing networks, wireless access networks and long-haul transborder optical fibre
networks, including a submarine fibre connection from Sweden to Latvia.

Prof. Roger WALLIS, born 1941 in Rugby, UK. Education: Rugby School, Trinity College, Cambridge
(MA), Stockholm School of Economics, and Gothenburg University (Department of Journalism and
Mass Communications) - PhD. Professional Activities: 1965 Founder Member of the Scandinavian
Institute for Administrative Research (SIAR), later to become SIAR-Bossard. 1970 - 1976 Founder
member of the MNW music group in Sweden. 1976 – 1994 BBC News Correspondent Sweden. 1986-
1987 Visiting Distinguished Professor of Telecommunications, San Jose State University, CA,
USA.1994 - 1999 Director of the Multimedia Research Group, City University Business School,
London. Speciality: emerging digital delivery channels, IPRs, electronic commerce. 1999 Elected
Executive Chairman of the Swedish Society of Popular Music Composers (SKAP) 2000 Appointed
Professor Multimedia, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, Media Technology
Research Group. 1989 - Board member of the Swedish Copyright Collection Society, STIM.
2003 member International Programme Committee of the EU-supported e-Challenges Conference.
Author of numerous books, chapters and conference papers on the development of the music and
news industries, and in particular their responses to digital technology for producing, storing and
distributing content and related policy/regulatory issues
Professor Wallis has been actively involved in two recent policy-related projects. Firstly the EU funded
"Music Lessons" project (FP6 Scientific Support Activities) involving policy issues arising from the
Music Industry's response to the emergence of digital technology. Secondly and more recently he has
been working with a Swedish funded programme looking at similar regulatory and IPR issues
regarding innovation and the open source/open content movements.

Björn Knutsson is an associate professor of Communication Systems at KTH. His research interests
include scalable and adaptable network applications, distributed systems and network security. His
current and previous work include distribution and guided transcoding of multimedia content.

Björn Pehrson is a professor and head of the Telecommunication Systems Laboratory at KTH since
1992. His research interests include high-performance networks and distributed interactive learning
environments, including multipoint videoconferencing. He is currently involved in the establishment of
sustainable broadband markets in developing regions involving research in these areas.



2.2.8 Markenfilm GmbH & CO KG (MFG)
Markenfilm was founded in 1957 and since then has become of the largest and most successful
commercial film companies in the world. Besides Markenfilm itself the Markenfilm Group is composed
of seven other majority-owned 7 subsidiaries targeting various spheres of editorial and promotional
content. Markenfilm productions have won numerous awards in Cannes, ADC (the Art Director’s
Club), etc.
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Markenfilm’s client list is composed of the Blue Chips of spenders in advertising comprising customers
such as Volkswagen, Daimler, IKEA and BAT Gauloises.

Markenfilm has been a participant of the FP6 STREP project LEMATCH.

Mh4 is a subsidiary of Markenfilm. Activities range from technical productions such as live
productions, Internet streaming and non-scripted entertainment to format development, business TV
and TV-PR.

BM8 is another subsidiary of Markenfilm focusing on non-classical advertising ranging from viral
marketing and below-the-line formats to online advertising and mobile campaigns. Like in LEMATCH,
Markenfilm plans to include participation of the 2 subsidiaries MHoch4 and BM8 via the membership
model of the EC.

Bernhard Jungwirth has held various posts in the German media industry since the late 1990’s,
among them:
   1. Deutsche Fernsehnachrichtenagentur GmbH – Editor in Chief
   2. ZET.NET AG - Head Streaming
   3. CNN Germany - Senior editor
   4. Hamburg 1 TV – Senior editor.

He is now managing director of Mh4 and has been technical manager for the Markenfilm Group in the
FP6 project 511758 LEMATCH.

Thomas Look was head of sales, marketing and new business at ddp Deutscher Depeschendienst
GmbH, the second largest news agency in Germany until the end of 2006.

He was technical co-ordinator of the FP6 STREP 511758 LEMATCH, dealing with interactive
programming format development and the development of a novel sports production platform for live
and on-demand content. In the period from 1998 - 2003, he was CEO of Sportart GmbH and ALTUS
Media AG, one of the largest Internet streaming companies in Europe in the period from 1998 - 2003.

He joined Markenfilm to focus on issues such as IPTV, mobile TV and Internet TV and will coordinate
and shape all Markenfilm activities in the project. Thomas Look has a background in corporate finance
and venture capital and together with a network of corporate advisors also provides management
advice and funding to a range of start-ups in the digital media domain.



2.2.9 Kendra Foundation (KEF)

Kendra Foundation: Kendra Initiative, an international media, technology, academic and industry
alliance, researches, recommends and develops enhancements to the digital media marketplace that
facilitate interoperability between and revenue generation for content owners and service providers; to
enable consumers to use any device or application to browse, search and purchase content from any
content catalogue, seamlessly. The cross-industry stakeholder group is currently investigating content
description, search, visibility, discovery, delivery and payment whilst developing and trialing
prototypes.

Daniel Harris... Daniel Harris is an entrepreneur and Internet content expert. Daniel is currently leading
an initiative, which he founded in 1999, to promote an open content marketplace for the Internet,
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called Kendra. Daniel has worked extensively in the UK Internet industry. In 1996, Daniel co-founded
Cerbernet and served as CEO till late 1998. Under his watchful eye Cerbernet grew to become the
UK's leading independent broadband Internet Service Provider. Cerbernet was acquired for over 4M
GBP by First Telecom early in 2000 - at the height of the dotcom bubble. Daniel then worked for
Atlantic Telecom as their Content Delivery Adviser till early 2001.

Neil Harris... Neil has designed a wide variety of technical and software solutions in a range of fields
including the film, TV and telecommunications industry. With a background in mathematics and
computer science, he was a founder of and later managing director of Sohonet, whose award-winning
high-speed network interconnects the film and media industries of Hollywood, London, New York, New
Zealand and Australia. He was also a key member of two other companies (Lightworks and the
Computer Film Company) which in each case used innovative software to pioneer new digital markets
and applications.
Neil has received a scientific and technical Academy Award for his work on the Lightworks digital film
editing system, and a BKSTS technical and scientific award for contributions to the media industry.



2.2.10    AG Projects (AGP)

We are a software vendor specialized in serving companies like cable operators and Internet service
providers. We provide simple solutions for their complex problems.
Our focus is the delivery of SIP infrastructure that complements fiber to the home deployments, triple-
play and converged fixed/mobile communication services. Delivery includes the analysis of
requirements, tailoring of solutions to meet the requirements, project management, training and
support activities.
We believe in the end-to-end principles that drive the Internet. Our software reflects the philosophy:
Network is unaware of the applications, this makes it scalable
Nothing should be done in the network that can be done in an end-system
Quality of Service (QoS) is a matter of bandwidth availability and not of central control
Our experience spans signaling protocols, high availability platforms, addressing and numbering
systems, service provisioning, accounting and disaster recovery. Understanding the whole value chain
that makes possible the present and future Internet applications, we are able to create cost-effective
infrastructures that are easyly scalable and cost effective to maintain. We have a rich operational
experience with our own products.
We have long time commitments with all our customers. We typically support our customers for
several years.


Adrian Georgescu, Founder and Chief Executive Officer

Adrian received a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from Bucharest Polytechnic University
in 1996. He worked in Engineering for Tomrad Communications and Esprit Telecom. He subsequently
held several positions in Operations with Global Telesystems, Ebone and KPNQwest. In 2002, after
several years of diversified and progressive management experience within Telecom and Internet
industries, he established AG Projects. Adrian Georgescu is co-chair of the Dutch ISOC Internet
telephony work group, member of the ETSI ENUM special task force and member of the management
team of th OpenSER project.

Dan Pascu, Chief Technology Officer

Dan received a Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Telecommunications from Bucharest
Polytechnic University in 1995. Dan has many years of experience in design and implementation of
complex systems, software development and IP networking. Dan is a well-known contributor to the


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Open Source community, he is co-author of WindowMaker X-Window Manager and author of
MediaProxy solution for OpenSER and SIP Express Router.




2.2.11 Pioneer Digital Design R&D Centre (PDD)
Pioneer Digital Design Centre, the European research centre, was founded in London in 2001. Its
office is located in the building of Pioneer (GB) Ltd.
Broadly speaking, the centre has two missions: one mission is to provide lateral support to Pioneer’s
business units by conducting surveys on the latest technological trends in close contact with leading
European research institutes, Universities and industry groups. The second mission is to develop and
evaluate the latest technological innovations specific to Europe and convey it to development divisions
for exploitation in Pioneer’s key markets: Plasma televisions, Digital recorders and In-car
entertainment systems.

Mark Stuart B.Sc. M.Sc. MIET.
Mark Stuart is currently working as a Principal R&D Engineer within Pioneer, leading research into the
application of TV-Anytime and P2P technology for consumer products. Mark Stuart received a B.Sc. in
Computer Science from the University of Warwick and a M.Sc. in Intelligent Systems (AI) from Brunel
University.
In the last 12 years, he has worked in a variety of roles within Telecommunications, Broadcasting and
New Media, including spending two years designing an integrated Music Video scheduling system for
MTV Networks Europe. Following this he worked for Accenture as Management Consultant
undertaken a number of high-profile Digital TV system integration engagements for Cable MSOs
including Telewest and UPC. During his time at Accenture, Mark co-founded the spin-off organisation
Imagine Broadband, where he was responsible for business development for the Asia Pacific region in
addition to undertaken various integration projects for clients.
Most recently, he has chosen to specialise in the development of DVB receivers with mass storage
and IP networking capabilities. Mark is active within DVB, DTG and EBU focus groups relating to TV-
Anytime and IP infrastructures and represents Pioneer at the DVB-TM forum.
Shane Wilson B.Sc.
A graduate of Digital and Software Systems Engineering in Galway, Ireland, Shane's last 7 years
professional experience has been in the embedded digital television arena developing digital TV
software solutions. This work began when Shane joined an Irish owned and world renowned design
services company Silicon & Software Systems (S3) in the year 2000. Assigned to the Digital
Consumer Business Unit his work involved developing digital set-top box software for clients such as
Philips, IBM, Conexant and ST Microelectronics. The primary focus of this work was in the design and
development of middleware and hardware abstraction layer software for a big name client's MHP
based set-top box.
Shane left S3 in Ireland to move to the UK and joined Pioneer where he began work on a range of
Pioneer DTT based products. This product line includes set-top boxes, digital video recorders with
integrated DTT tuners and Plasma TV products also with integrated DTT tuners. Primary focus of this
work has been developing and architecting object oriented, C++ based middleware and applications.
Shane is an evangelical believer in, and promoter of, OO design and implementation technologies in
modern embedded systems and mentors other engineers within Pioneer in this area.
Shane has been with Pioneer almost 5 years and is currently a Lead Engineer in the company. He is
heavily involved in system software architecture and design decisions across several of Pioneer's DTT
based products.

Mike Buckham B.Sc.
Mike Buckham has 17 years of professional experience designing and developing embedded
software. Having graduated from Bristol University in 1990, he started as a software engineer
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including digital hardware design for the same environmental controls company that sponsored him
through university. From there, he moved onto writing software for custom video/audio mixing and
routing equipment for broadcast services. Six years ago he shifted his concentration to the receiver
end to design and develop software for digital TV receiver equipment where he became team leader
for the applications department.



2.2.12 Fabchannel BV (FAB)
Fabchannel.com - the biggest online concert video archive in the world – streams live concerts from
Paradiso and Melkweg in Amsterdam on the internet in audio and video. On www.fabchannel.com,
Fabchannel offers music fans live as well as on demand free video recordings of over 700 renowned
international acts and upcoming bands, including concerts by Cold War Kids, Duke Special,
Stereophonics, Little Man Tate, Bloc Party and Thomas Dybdahl.

Fabchannel is an international promotion channel for artists and live music. All over the world a lot of
great music is created, but as most of it receives no attention from the media, the artists remain
undiscovered by music lovers. Fabchannel wants to promote music that doesn’t get exposure in the
‘conventional’ media (radio, TV and print) by putting this music at the disposal of music fans all over
the world.

Paradiso founded Fabchannel in 1999. With an unshaken belief in the idea and supported by
committed volunteers with a passion for music and technology, Fabchannel grew to become winner of
the Webby Award 2006 for Best Music Website of the world.

Fabchannel has built state of the art video production studios in Paradiso and the Melkweg. Due to the
remote operated cameras the visitors of the venue and the artists are not disturbed by huge cameras
in the venue. The Fabchannel crew grew out to the specialist in the field of remote camera's live music
registrations. Fabchannel has produced over 1000 webcasts in the last years. Besides the recordings
for the website, the registrations are often sold to the record labels and used for DVD productions, tv
shows etc.

Fabchannel combines knowledge of audiovisuals registrations, with expertise in internet technology,
application development and interface- and interaction design. Fabchannel has developed the
Fabplayer, a Flash based application that uses an RTMP-protocol streaming server for the video
distribution. One of the strong points is that content and the player can’t be separated. This means
that the visual context of the content stays the same. The content is always played in a Fabchannel
branded environment; this is very important for rights clearing. At the same time the player can easily
be integrated in all the websites of the world. Fabchannel is using the power of the music sites,
magazines, fans, etc to bring the content to the music fans.

The Fabplayer is powered by SIMMS - an open source rapid development framework for streaming
video and VoD applications. In 2007 Fabchannel will implement this technology for nine Amsterdam
cultural top institutions. Within this Cultureplayer project these institutions get access to the
Fabchannel streaming platform; making it possible to distribute classical music, ballet, theatre etc.
Fabchannel also supports these organizations with rights clearing, audiovisuals productions and
internet marketing.

The Fabchannel research and development team has developed collaborations with the Dutch
scientific research world. In the last years Fabchanel has been first user in the MultimediaN project. In
the next 3 years Fabchannel will be team leader for the Via-m Project, a video search engine based
on a high performance database, video indexing and high level concept detection in video archives.

Justin Kniest has been working in the live music industry since 1996.
After he finished his communications studies in 1993 (HEAO Communicatie in Utrecht), he dedicated
two years to his musical career as guitarist and songwriter.

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In 1996, age 26, he started working for Paradiso Amsterdam as managing director of the Paradiso
projects De Grote Prijs van Nederland and the Paradiso•Melkweg Productiehuis, a multi-disciplinary
production house for live performances combining music with theatre, film, dance and new media.
In 2000 Justin founded Fabchannel.com in close partnership with Paradiso. As CEO of
Fabchannel, Justin is responsible for the overall Fabchannel strategy. He leads the Marketing and
Business Development departments.

Bauke Freiburg has been working for Fabchannel since 2002.
During his Media and Culture studies at the University of Amsterdam, he first gathered experience in
the company‘s core business as camera operator. Due to his excellent knowledge of both content
production and IT, he contributed essentially to the development of the Fabchannel online formats and
systems.
Since obtaining a bachelor degree in Media and Culture in 2004, he works fulltime at Fabchannel as
Head of Product Development. His main responsibilities are development and realisation of the
Fabchannel online and interactive strategy as well as the management of the product development
team.

Bjorn Tuinte joined Fabchannel at its first steps in 2000 as executive producer and project manager for
the webcasts. Between 2001 and 2003, he extended his professional sales experience as
project/account manager at United Broadcast Facilities, then returned to Fabchannel where he
became Head of Business Affairs. His responsibilities now cover label relations, all legal and business
affairs and the development of new on- and offline business strategies. His own musical experiences
as a performer as well as his business-oriented background give him a deep insight into the interests
of all parties involved.



2.2.13 University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest (PUB)
University Politehnica of Bucharest (UPB) is the largest technical university in Romania. About 26,000
students are enrolled in different forms of education and research activities (undergraduate, master
and Ph.D.) and more than 1,500 students are studying Computer Science and Engineering. The
Romanian National Center for Information Technology (NCIT) is part of the UPB and is run by the
Computer Science and Engineering Department. The NCIT staffs are represented by 18 full
professors and 34 teaching assistants, researchers and Ph.D. students. The center promotes
advanced and inter-disciplinary research and development of human resources by postgraduate
educational programs.
The team of UPB was involved in some international projects like EU-NCIT FP6 SSA project no
017101 leading to EU IST Excellency which targets the following priority areas : GRID based systems
for solving complex problems, Semantic based knowledge system, eLearning and Collaborative
(mobile) working . Also our team are involved in the EGEE (Enable Grid for E-Science), SEE-Grid
(Southeastern European Grid), RoDiCA - Romanian Distributed Collaborative Architectures projects.


Prof.PhD.Eng. Nicolae TAPUS is the Chair of the Computer Science and Engineering Department in
the POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, having 120 staff members. His main fields of expertise are
Computer Architecture, Embedded systems, Distributed Systems, Local Area Networks. He has a long
experience in the development, management and coordination of national and international research
projects.

Lecturer.MSc.Eng. Emil SLUSANSCHI is lecturer in UPB. His fields of interest include parallel and
distributed system architectures and algorithms, automatic semantic transformations of computer
codes, and computer networks.



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As.MSc.Eng. Alexandru Nicolae HERISANU is currently a PhD student at UPB and teaching
assistant. His main fields of expertise are distributed systems, grid computing, computer architecture
and local area networks.

MSc.Eng. Laura-Elena DUTA is currently a PhD student. Her main fields of expertise are grid
computing, e-learning and management of informational systems. Additionally, she is a
dissemination officer for UPB in the EUNCIT, EGEE and SEE-Grid FP6 projects.

As.Eng. Mugurel Ionut ANDREICA is currently a PhD and a master student. His main fields of
expertise are distributed peer-to-peer systems, grid computing, algorithms and data structures,
communication protocols, distributed applications and network programming.

As.MSc.Eng. Corina STRATAN is currently a PhD student and teaching assistant. Her main fields of
expertise are grid computing and communication protocols.

As.Eng. Alexandru COSTAN is currently a PhD student and teaching assistant. His main fields of
expertise are grid computing and communication protocols.

As.Eng. Catalin CIRSTOIU is currently a PhD student and teaching assistant. His main fields of
expertise are grid computing and network programming.



2.3 Consortium as a whole


Partner   Partner      Expertise                                        Role in Project                         WP
No.       Name                                                                                                  Participation
                                                                                                                (Bold = WPL)
4         Lancaster    Lancaster University’s Computing Department      Creation of Living Lab test             3, 6, 8, 9
          University   is an internationally renowned team of           infrastructure. Extensive field trial
                       researchers investigating all aspects of         analysis and end-user evaluation
                       communications and distributed systems. Its
                       constituent researchers are particularly
                       interested in contemporary challenges in this
                       area, including support for multimedia and
                       quality of service, the challenges of
                       mobility/ubiquitous computing and problems
                       arising from the increasing levels of
                       heterogeneity exhibited by such systems. A
                       key aim of this Centre is to promote and
                       accelerate technology transfer between the
                       ICT research in the University and the local
                       and regional industry, especially small and
                       medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and
                       community groups. As part of P2P-Next,
                       Lancaster aim to exploit the vast regional
                       communications infrastructure in order to
                       establish a large scale “Living Lab” test
                       infrastructure on which to carry out detailed
                       performance and analysis with real end-users.
9         Kungliga     The     effects   of   the    analogue/digital   Coordinator, WPL, Policy issue
          Tekniska     technological shift in publishing, the music     analysis, research on policy
          Högskolan    industry, financial services (B2C) and           incompatibilities and solutions
                       education, including consequences for            recommendations, Research and
                       business models, organisational structures,      Business methodology creation,
                       cultures and consumer responses.                 user needs in new media
                       Research,    development,    education    and    solutions.      Technology road-
                                                                        mapping. Proposals for new

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                       experimental network operations and network      actions.
                       management within the Internet technology
                       area.


12        Kendra       Kendra Initiative, an international media,       Market     opportunities      are
          Foundation   technology, academic and industry alliance,      explored   and     transfer    of
                       researches, recommends and develops              knowledge to industry.
                       enhancements        to  the     digital  media
                       marketplace that facilitate interoperability
                       between and revenue generation for content
                       owners and service providers; to enable
                       consumers to use any device or application to
                       browse, search and purchase content from
                       any content catalogue, seamlessly. The
                       cross-industry stakeholder group is currently
                       investigating content description, search,
                       visibility, discovery, delivery and payment
                       whilst developing and trialing prototypes.



                                               Competence Matrix



         i) Sub-contracting:
         (If any part of the work is to be sub-contracted by the participant responsible for it, describe
         the work involved and explain why a sub-contract approach has been chosen for it.)

Pioneer Digital Design Centre will sub-contract to Marsh Consulting Ltd. and Tata Elxsi Ltd, India.
The main tasks and reasons for the sub-contract to Marsh Consulting Ltd. are as follows:
    -   Expertise on ST Micro driver integration and device driver writing/integration in general for the
        ST Micro 710x family SoC (System on Chip) and debugging thereof;

     -   7-year history of productive working relationship between Pioneer Digital Design Centre and
         Marsh Consulting Ltd. for the provision of analysis, design and implementation services in
         relation to the platform readiness of new hardware designed using ST Micro SoCs;

     -   Strong competency of Marsh Consulting in the areas of design and optimisation of the
         interfaces between the middleware and drivers and OS layer upon which it depends;

     -   Exploitation of the close relationship that exists between Marsh Consulting and ST Micro field
         support engineers in the UK.

The main tasks and reasons for the sub-contract to Tata Elxsi Ltd, India, are as follows:
   -   PCB design, testing, debugging and validation based on the requirements itemized below;

     -   Cosmetic design and mechanical design services based on the guideline design included in
         this proposal text;

     -   CE mark testing incorporating EU compliance checks on safety and EMC;

     -   Production and supply of (10) Tribus units to consortium members for software development
         and integration testing purposes during the period between platform availability and the need
         produce 500-2500 devices for the Living Lab (starting with an initial 500 units and
         progressively producing and adding more devices as appropriate or necessary) ;


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    -   Strong track record of high-performance by Tata in relation to other contracts and
        development activities within Pioneer production and R&D teams;

    -   Cost effectiveness of undertaken this nature of work in India, in relation to comparative
        services in the UK or other European areas.

Marsh Consulting Limited
Marsh Consulting was formed in 2001 by Richard Marsh who graduated from the University of Salford
in 1989 with a Bachelor of Engineering Degree (2i) in Electronic Computer Systems, followed in 1991
with a Diploma in Engineering (DiplEng). Since formation Marsh Consulting has a proven track record
of providing clients with necessary expertise to achieve project goals and aims. The satisfied client list
includes Siemens Atea, Ultra Electronics, Panasonic and Pioneer. The main competences of the
Marsh Consulting are the design and implementation of real time embedded software (for commercial
and military applications); in depth knowledge of DVB and DAB technologies and IP network
protocols. Marsh Consulting is currently a strategic partner with Pioneer delivering cost effective
solutions for DVB consumer electronics and in ongoing research and development projects.
Tata Elxsi, India
Tata Elxsi Limited, headquartered at Bangalore, is the technical arm of the US $22 billion Tata Group.
Incorporated in 1989 as a public stock company, the Company has built competence across the
product design lifecycle in Industry verticals such as automotive, storage, consumer electronics,
media, scientific instrumentation, semiconductors and networking & communications.

Tata Elxsi works with leading silicon companies, OEMs and product companies across the world,
helping develop innovative products and technologies. With a unique proposition of licensable IP,
design frameworks and embedded design services, Tata Elxsi has enabled some of the most
successful product companies across the world, helping get their products and ideas to life, slashing
time-to-market and reducing costs.

       Over 15 years of Product design services experience across silicon, software and embedded
        systems.
       Over 2000 engineers and technology specialists across 4 design centres and 20 international
        offices.
       Working with leaders in sectors such as Consumer Electronics, Media, Wireless,
        Semiconductor, Networking and Automotive.
       Unique proposition of licensable components and IP with embedded design services, to
        provide customers with a cost-effective, time-to-market advantage.
       Tata Elxsi brings Trust, Quality and Leadership to Product Design Services partnerships, the
        values which TATA has been known for over a 100 years.




2.4 Resources to be committed




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IP Management Level Description of Resources and Budget

Financing

Equipment

Travel and Other Costs

Partner Contributions




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3. Impact
3.1 Expected impacts listed in the work programme

P2P-next, aims to achieve a number of fundamental step-changes to the way in which consumer
access media and entertainment. P2P-next shall enable the Universal Catalogue for both professional
and so-called user-generated or local programming to emerge, thereby democratising an industry
which has so far been seen to be dominated by large and powerful organisations with various
agendas and vested interests that stand between the consumer and the type of content they want to
consume. P2P-next enables the creation of a theoretically unbounded VoD experience which simply
would not be possible according to the economic models as understood and implemented by existing
service providers such as Cable MSOs and even Internet pioneers such as Google’s YouTube.

With P2P-next, every consumer, wherever they consume their media, can also be contributing at the
same time – exclusively or to all and sundry. The opportunities for participatory or shared-experience
television opened up by P2P-next go far beyond the voting or pull-only style of interaction adopted by
service and content providers in today marketplace.



3.1.1 Strategic Impact
3.1.1.1 Impact on Business Ecosystem
With our aim of “world leadership for multimedia distribution & advertising” it is hard to overstate our
impact on the media landscape. The media environment is changing because of digital convergence,
and old structures are becoming weak, and new structures are emerging. This development has a big
societal importance because in the end, media is where society thinks. As the design of the media
environment, the thinking organ of society, changes, also the thinking of society changes. Therefore,
crafting new end-to-end solutions for the media environment is a very powerful way to influence
society.

Our proposal aims to influence society through the technological, economical, and social development
we aim to do in a direction that increase the individuals’, communities’, and companies opportunities to
be equal. Barriers to market entry are removed and access to a potential audience of million is
enabled for small companies due to P2P-Next.
While the internet and P2P technology on top of it have already taken this development quite far – e.g.
the distribution of audio and video has already become a key components of the daily life of people – it
has not yet formed the commercial cornerstone of the media industry as a whole, because of several
technological, economical, social, legal and design issues that we address in P2P-Next.

Significance of approach
It is clear that a phenomenon which involves over 66% of all Internet traffic is vital to an information
society and needs to be investigated to unlock further potential.
We believe that the strategic impact of a project which successfully exploits the Peer-to-Peer
paradigm equals the impact of the invention of the web and definition of the GSM standard. During
1998, web traffic still dominated the Internet backbone. Now P2P took over and is gaining dominant.
P2P is making inroads in the telephony market with Skype and P2P could grow as the new delivery
mechanism for Television. Our project has the potential to define the way in which people consume
audiovisual content in the next decade.

3.1 Impact with Market Analysis


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The core business of the main European commercial broadcasters is being eroded in today’s multi
channel era. All players are looking at diversified revenues coming from digital repurposed channels,
the Internet, interaction and transaction income.



3.1.1. The changing media landscape
P2P-NEXT will have a major impact on socio-economic, policy and wider societal objectives of the
European Commission. It is directly targeting a TV and advertising landscape hat is changing
dramatically:




Of special relevance to P2P-Next are:
       The changing nature and importance of linear broadcast TV vis-à-vis the developing TV
        spheres of IPTV, broadband TV (classical streaming P-2-p) and Mobile TV (DVB-H and 3G),
       The growing ineffectiveness of interruptive awareness building 30 seconds TV spots and the
        trend towards Internet-like ad production, ad insertion and ad delivery systems and strategies
       The growing popularity of time-shift TV induced by the massive proliferation of PVR’s in the
        home
       The rise in broadband deployment world-wide
       The need for broadcasters to generate more diversified revenues and thus to generate
        interaction and transaction income
       The rising popularity of user generated video content and the opportunities offered by
        web2.0-like developments in the mobile and TV domains
       The changing landscape of selling TV formats world-wide and the production of advertising
        films induced by the changes described above.




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The changing role of the broadcaster is characterized by:
    1. End users that become more demanding in terms of wanting content delivered at a time and
        in a place that is convenient to them
    2. Content owners from the Hollywood studios to the music labels and football clubs that begin
        to experiment with new forms of online distribution, experimenting with partners and business
        models
    3. The rise in user generated content including photo sharing, blogs, short films or shared
        websites and personally created TV like video channels
    4. The rise of fourth generation P2P networks which enable video and audio delivery in SDTV
        and potentially HDTV quality, solving the bandwidth problem of classical a/v streaming
        applications and fully introducing the economics of the Internet into the TV world.




The result is a move:
       from large audiences that are so appealing to advertisers to fragmented and segmented
        audiences;
       from programming scheduled by broadcasters to content scheduled by consumers,
       from an environment when hits have the monopoly and make the money to an environment in
        which niche and older content are being monetized.



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The result is an environment, in which telcos offer triple play solutions and move into (IP)TV to
effectively stop cable operators from converting accustomed DSL customers into customers enjoying
broadband in the home via cable and thus effectively also compete with traditional broadcasters.

The result is also an environment in which large DTH broadcasters such as BSkyB buy social
communities and ISPs (operators), established online brands such as Yahoo, AOL and Google move
into the video domain and new online video brands suddenly emerge (YouTube) – with the right
advertising and promotional content strategy being key to success (see recent purchase of
DoubleClick by Google).

Finally, the one-to-many broadcasting models may soon be replaced or at least challenged by one-to-
one and peer-2-peer unicast models with a return path leading to the end of the unchallenged reign of
the classical linear 24/7 TV channel, as we know it, and its partial substitution by huge on-demand
servers offering any time, anywhere entertainment content to customers with web like or Google like
advertising in-between, and leaving huge live broadcasts (sports and breaking news) as the main
sphere of classical free TV.

The result may, thus, be an environment, in which TV is enjoyed on the classical TV screen via cable,
DTT, satellite and IPTV, on the PC screen via Internet TV and TV–add on’s and via mobile devices in
the form of DVB-H, DMB or UMTS-based delivery means.

In such a landscape, consumers turn into media omnivores and prosumers (producers and consumers
alike) and even mid-sized TV stations publish their news content on a range of additional digital TV
channels, of which some may be broadband, a multitude of websites (Own brand and white label) and
a number of mobile devices.




3.1.1.2 IPTV

Announcements on IPTV deployments are coming thick and fast nowadays, as telecom operators
around the world have finally started to commercialize plans for providing television services over their
broadband networks. These moves bring telcos into the realm of traditional broadcasters and are one
of many signs of tremendous changes that lie ahead in the field of TV broadcasting.

There is little doubt that the impact of IPTV is finally being felt. However, the technology is sometimes
seen as meaning different things to different people: it is often seen as either TV over the public

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internet (streaming) or a TV signal provided over existing twisted pair telephone cables via dedicated
private and closed ADSL and VDSL networks.

While both these definitions can be absolutely correct, IPTV is actually the transmission of television
signals using the Internet protocol – a packetized transmission standard. The medium over which
IPTV is transmitted can be fibre optic cables, coaxial cables, twisted pair copper cables or it may even
be modulated onto a carrier for radio transmission. IPTV is not confined to a specific end-device but
may be received via the TV screen, via the PC, via consoles or even via mobile devices.

What differentiates IPTV from broadcast TV is the on-demand function and a certain level of peer-to-
peer connectivity and one-to-one broadcasting via the traditional one-to-many broadcasting model.
Embodied in this is time-shift TV and increased interactivity – both on the format generating side and
on the advertising side.

The roll-out of a range of IPTV services was delayed for quite some time by a combination of slowly to
arrive suitable set top boxes, chipsets and Microsoft TV middleware at e.g. ATT, BT, Swisscom and
Deutsche Telekom.

The total number of IPTV subscribers in 2006 is estimated to be 4.0 million, it is designed to rise to up
to 75 million viewers by 2010 (see graph below).

The total amount of revenues generated by IPTV in 2006 is estimated to reach 4 billion US-Dollars in
2010 – about 10 – 13 % of total pay-tv revenues world-wide in 2010.




With subscriber number steadily increasing, and the launch of more services in the future, Screen
Digest forecasts that the share of IPTV will reach 12.5 per cent of the total pay TV market by 2010.

Europe’s biggest IPTV market is now France, with 470,000 subscribers at end 2005, followed by Italy
(235,000 subscribers) and Spain (207,000 subscribers). Spain’s 2005 figure represents more than a
3,300 per cent increase on the 6,000 subscribers at end 2004. In France, the number of subscribers
rocketed by more than 200 per cent during 2005, while in Italy growth was relatively modest at less
than 40 per cent.

The most successful IPTV service operator is Italy’s Fastweb (225,000 television subscribers at end
2005). Contenders to be Europe’s biggest IPTV operator are Telefónica—207,000 customers to its
Imagenio service at end 2005—followed by French operators France Telecom and Free Telecom,
with 200,000 and 195,000 subscribers to their services respectively. During the fourth quarter 2005,

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Imagenio increased its subscriber base by 115,000. No existing IPTV services have ever added more
subscribers in a single quarter.

In France telcos supply IPTV mostly to households, which cannot be served by satellite, thus taking a
more complimentary approach. Germany is lagging behind. Hansenet a subsidiary of Telekom Italia
has launched its IPTV services in 2006, as is Deutsche Telekom, who has purchased first division
soccer rights and has just started its so called “Home” service in October 2006. Still total revenues are
estimated to reach 250 million EUROS in 2010.

The most high-profile IPTV service starts of 2005 were Belgacom’s Belgacom TV, launched in July,
and Telecom Italia’s Alice Home TV, launched in December. Other telcos entering the television
business were the incumbents TeliaSonera in Sweden and TDC in Denmark, alternative network
operators like Alice in France and the Netherlands’ Tele 2 (formerly Versatel).

Both Tele 2 and Belgacom made headlines when they acquired exclusive pay TV rights to the Dutch
and Belgian first division football leagues respectively – thus competing directly with the incumbent
pay-TV operators.

For their three-season deals, Tele 2 shells out €30.5m per season, Belgacom €36m a year. As these
bold content deals show, Tele 2 and Belgacom have adopted a view that in markets where more than
90 per cent of households are subscribing to cable television, premium content is essential to attract a
significant number of subscribers.

The usual model applied by most IPTV operators in 2006 is a Pay-TV like subscription model. What
has usually only been offered so far is broadcast video services using IPTV as a fourth way to deliver
classical television with a time-shift TV function but nor more interactivity.

The next phase to be entered may come by the end of 2007 with offering on-demand unicast services
whereby operators deliver exactly what viewers want to see, where and on any device.




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A key element of such a service is video on demand allowing viewers to access program content at a
time of their convenience, to create their own programming schedule without having to program a PVR
in advance and to enjoy programs using functions such as pausing, fast forwarding, rewinding and
replaying. Start over TV, time shift TV, creating play lists, ad skipping and targeted non/disruptive
advertising are key issues in such an environment.

The proliferation of such services is currently hampered by bandwidth issues, issues of scalability,
reliability and flexibility - with bandwidth being the most crucial single factor. Replacing accustomed
pay TV in a household using SDTV and not even HDTV requires a bandwidth of 7 – 8 MbpS – quite a
challenge – offering HDTV and offering different channels, full on-demand services and increased
program related interactivity with regard to formats and advertising requires two to three times the
amount of bandwidth given today’s compression technologies.


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Internet TV and User Generated Content
Internet TV has been around for quite some time - at least since the beginning of 2000, but was simply
called streaming at that time. The proliferation of FLASH - on top of Real Player from Real Networks,
Windows Media and Apple QuickTime - and the growing effectiveness of advanced compression
technology together with mass market delivery of broadband connections in most parts of the world
have improved the economics of video services via the open and public Internet dramatically.




Still, receiving video services via a standard DSL connection is not of the same quality as SDTV. But
quality is much better than it used to be and content owners such as Disney or the large American TV
networks have begun to offer TV like services via the open Internet on their own websites or in
cooperation with major online portals.

The same applies to first division soccer clubs worldwide and the respective national soccer leagues.
Basketball, football, ice hockey and baseball have had live streaming on their websites for quite a few
years.

The main problem is live content and peaks and troughs in viewing numbers, as the operators (even
the likes of Akamai and other distributed network providers with load balancing capabilities) are still
not able to provide acceptable quality and reliability of service in such situations.

Fourth generation Per-2-Peer networks, p2p TV networks like Joost and Babelgum, offer a solution
that will combine Broadcast quality with the regulatory environment of the Internet, its interaction
capabilities and the international dimension of producing and delivering content.
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The appeal of the Internet TV economic model is its instant access to a world-wide audience, making
it especially attractive to program formats and content with a large multinational or world-wide
audience.

Streaming has also found its way into broadcasting specialist conferences, niche TV channels
(Teacher’s TV) and other events such as shareholder meetings and fares.

The rise of web 2.0 technologies and the growing popularity of user generated content symbolized by
the success of YouTube add appeal to the model. Still, video based advertising revenues – even in
the US – are too small to be measured individually alongside the other standard Internet based
advertising forms such as classical ads, e.g. standard banners, affiliate marketing schemes and
search based advertising in the Google style.

The first consumer brands such as BMW, Nike, Adidas, etc. have also started world-wide Internet
based video campaigns, spending six digit numbers on producing the ads and seven digit numbers in
buying the respective media spaces to air them on the Internet.

Carmakers such as Volkswagen or companies like Sony have also embarked on viral advertising
schemes paying tribute to the phenomenon of user generated content and producing ads directly for
social communities such as YouTube.

User Generated content can also find its way into classical IPTV as is currently demonstrated in a trial
in Lommel / Belgium. Alcatel have tested a system called My own TV as part of a triple play offering,
which enables viewers to create personal TV channels, broadcast user generated content, invite other
viewers to subscribe to the user generated channels and have it watched whenever the viewers want
to watch the user generated content. The local football club, the local library and different streets
embarked on producing such individual channels.




Mobile TV, Mobile Gaming and Mobile Communities

Key elements for launching successful mobile TV services are:
       High quality of the overall service
       Excellent indoor coverage and reception
       Batteries that last much longer
       Acceptable outdoor daylight viewing
       Involvement of big brands
       Mobile exclusively enriched content
       Mass market handsets at affordable prices.

As of now, none of these elements are in place in full, nor is a combination of most of the elements.
Also advertising spending is still neglectable compared to other forms of below the line advertising.

Usually, the term Mobile TV is associated with delivery either via DVB-H, DMB or UMTS. About 4
million people watched some form of mobile TV in 2006. The number has increased dramatically from
2005, when only about 1 million people had access to some form of mobile TV.




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Total mobile TV revenues are expected to be below 25 million € in Germany in 2007. They are
estimated to reach about 500 million € by 2010, world-wide.




The mobile TV landscape is characterized by the following revenue streams:




With pay TV subscriptions peaking in most mature pay TV territories such as Europe or the US,
mobile TV represents a genuine opportunity to leverage existing programming. The total take up ratio
may reach a maximum of up to 25 % of the total TV audience, once the technology is secure and
more mature.



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Currently, the major mobile TV trials and approaches world-wide are.
       Qualcomm / Media FLO
       Europe / DVB-H
       Japan / ISDB-T
       Korea / DMB - also Germany.

Due to an effective licensing regime, DVB-H subscriptions in Italy reached about 110.000 subscribers
within 5 weeks since its start in 2006.

On the other hand mobile interaction in the UK has been somewhat disappointing given the
experiences of the BBC with its bespoke mobisode of the hit series Dr. Who - called Tardisodes,
attracting only 3.000 downloads per episode and about 40.000 downloads during the 13 weeks the
series was on air.

This compares quite negatively to Dr Who on TV, especially because the Tardisodes were heavily
cross promoted by the BBC and download was for free.

The situation in key European markets with regard to the launch of mobile TV is as follows:
       Finland: following a successful trial, Digita announced plans for deployment of a DVB-H
        mobile TV network. Services will launch at end 2006 and will initially cover Helsinki and the
        surrounding area, where 29 per cent of the Finnish population lives.
       Germany: whilst the DMB mobile TV service (run by MFT and Debitel) launched on 31 May
        2006 in time for the World Cup, the rival DVB-H service (a joint venture with participants
        including EPlus, O2, T-Mobile and Vodafone) is still in the trial stage. T-Mobile has shown
        World Cup matches through its 3G network.
       Hong Kong: broadband TV company PCCW is trialing a mobile TV service using Huawei
        Technologies’ CMB technology, which is in effect a broadcast solution for 3G networks.
       India: national broadcaster Doordarshan intends to launch a DVBH based mobile TV service
        in India later in 2006.
       Italy: 3 Italia has begun broadcasting its DVB-H service in June 2006.
       Korea: TUMedia, which operates the S-DMB service, announced disappointing subscriber
        figures. After one year, the network has only attracted 540,000 subscribers. The rival T-DMB
        service has not met with success either, despite being offered free, reportedly attracting only
        100,000 users in its first quarter of operation.



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       Mexico: separate 3G television services will be launched by operators Iusacell and Telel later
        this year. The Telcel service is run by MobiTV, which has signed a deal to provide all America
        Movil carriers with TV services. The America Movil group has over 100m subscribers.
       South Africa: the consumer trial of a DVB-H mobile TV service is being extended to five
        additional cities in time for the World Cup. The trial allows any consumers with an appropriate
        handset to watch free. TV provider Multichoice, in conjunction with operators Vodafone, SABC
        and Sentech, is operating the service.
       Spain: Vodafone is relaunching its 3G mobile TV service with a new channel offering including
        MTV, HBO, Eurosport and Playboy.
       UK: Unique Interactive will lead a trial T-DMB service over the DAB network in conjunction
        with BT Movio and Virgin Mobile.
       US: Qualcomm has developed a single chip, which allows mobile phones to receive mobile TV
        broadcasts transmitted using its own standard, MediaFLO, as well as rival standards DVB-H
        and ISDB.

In England, Mobile TV is already widely available, based on streaming video through existing 3G
networks. British Telecom launched a white-label DAB TV service in 2006, the first in the UK to rely on
broadcast spectrum. BT Movio and Virgin Mobile launched a mobile TV trial in London using DAB-IP
technology and the DAB spectrum of Digital One multiplex. The four-month project finished in
December 2005; BT is planning to launch commercially in autumn 2006. DAB was used as spectrum
is currently available.

The disadvantage is that the number of TV channels is limited as the spectrum is already used for
digital radio; there can be no more than six TV channels.

The second UK broadcast trial, in Oxford, uses DVB-H technology and is run by network operator O2,
broadcast partner Arquiva and handset manufacturer Nokia. This technology is based on the digital
terrestrial broadcasting standard, DVB-T.

The trial started in September 2005 and finished in April 2006. The main advantage with this standard
is that it allows more channels than DAB, up to a maximum of 50, but spectrum will become available
in the UK only between 2008 and 2012 when analogue TV is phased out. These services use 3G
technology, using up network bandwidth for every subscriber watching, meaning that the number of
people who can access content simultaneously is very limited. This has not yet been an issue as there
were only 5.4m 3G subscribers in the UK in fourth quarter 2005—less than 10 per cent of the overall
market.

Screen Digest estimates that 3G network capacity for TV and video is 7.5m simultaneous users.
Under Vodafone’s deal with UK satellite TV operator Sky there are two services: Sky by Mobile is free
to all Sky subscribers, Sky Mobile TV is offered to Vodafone customers in three different packages
with Vodafone. Vodafone had 341,000 mobile TV subscribers at the end of November 2005. Vodafone
had 1m unique streams of live and made-for-mobile content in 10 weeks of operation, when the
service was offered free. Orange offers a TV package with 20 channels for a monthly fee, or pay-per-
download for VodD content.

Even on subscription, the subscriber pays additional fees after 1 Gb of video has been viewed in a
month. A similar model is used by network operator ‘3’: subscriptions for 22 channels or pay-per-
download. T-Mobile is planning to launch video services in autumn 2006.O2 is offering subscription
VoD services through i-Mode—an alternative mobile content delivery system created by Japan’s NTT
DoCoMo, and can be used by 2G and 3G networks.




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Producing and Selling TV Formats and Advertising Films
TV format sales rose 35 % world-wide in the period from 2002 – 2004 annually.




This is the result of a study called “Internationaler Handel mit TV Formaten” produced by Goldmedia
GmbH of Germany.




The total value of format sales in 2004 was 2.4 billion €. The study covers the European, North
American and Australian TV markets.




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29 % of all broadcast formats originated in the United Kingdom, 19 % originated in the Netherlands
(Endemol).




Germany is leading in terms of importing formats.




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Main genres were games and quiz shows, genres with a special appeal to extending them via
interactive facilities.




Key drivers for the future are perceived to be TV linked mobile gaming and interactive TV services
combined with multiplayer online gaming.


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There are no numbers available about the total value of interactive program format sales.




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Advertising Markets – Interactive Advertising, Targeted Advertising, Non-
disruptive Advertising, Virtual Advertising

18 % of all people watched time-shifted TV in the United Kingdom in 2006. This effectively means
skipping ads. The number of PVR’s in consumer households is expected to reach 12 million and 42
million units in the UK and the US respectively by 2010.

A recent Forrester poll in the US has shown that 25 % of TV advertisers want to reduce their spending
on TV advertising by 25 % and more, once the number of 30 million PR’s has been reached in the US.

(In the following the advertising market in the UK shall be elaborated upon in more detail. It is
representative of most of the Western European markets.)

Despite 2006 being a major sports year and, thus, usually a year, in which TV advertising climbs
substantially, TV advertising was sluggish in the UK. The trend in the UK is reflected in some form or
the other in most other mature advertising markets in Western Europe and the US. For the sixth


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quarter in a row, the recent UK IPA Bellwether survey showed marketing directors expecting to spend
less than the previous year.

After a bad first half for UK advertising spending and revenues, a report from GroupM anticipates that
2006 revenues may have risen by 2.2 % and this year growth may reach 4.4 per cent. Unlike the 2001
recession, which was clearly triggered by a stock market crash and the unreasonable ad spending of
the early dot-com years, there is no obvious or single reason behind the 2006 slump.

Terrestrial TV revenues in the UK were down in the first half of 2006 and remained down year-on-
year. In this context the leader ITV was severely hit because of lower ratings and disappointing World
Cup sales. ITV plc’s broadcast advertising revenues were down three per cent at £832m. Among
these, ITV1 ad revenues were down eight per cent to £654m —which was not compensated by digital
channels advertising revenues, up 46 per cent at £70m. ITV had cumulative ITV1 advertising
revenues down by 11 per cent by end September 2006. GroupM expects full year 2006 revenues to
have been down 2.4 per cent. The TV ad slump, especially in the second and third quarters, was
unexpected in a year when the football World Cup was supposed to be a sure bonanza from ratings
and ad spending—and for TV advertising in particular. Many advertisers chose not to advertise during
the World Cup period in order to avoid clutter, cohabitation with beer brands and expensive cost-per-
thousand. This year, new regulations envisaged by Ofcom to fight childhood obesity may affect TV
advertising, if food advertising is drastically restrained. In the ‘worst’ regulatory scenario (a watershed
ban on all unhealthy food), British broadcasters could lose millions in advertising revenues. UK
broadcasters are pioneering online TV

Mobile advertising, however—comprising SMS and mobile internet advertising—is estimated to have
represented already £60m in 2006, according to GroupM. Since audience and advertising growth are
to be found online, traditional media players are investing a lot in digital media. Revenue forecasts for
mobile TV point to:




The mobile advertising service chain can be divided into:
       Building and design of advertising media
       Design, hosting and management of corresponding microsites
       Hosting and management of Mobile Adserver
       Technical delivery
       Campaigning
       Browsing statistics and user tracking


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Newspapers advertising revenues were massively down because of circulation loss and a bad time
in the biggest client sectors (retail, cars). Consumer magazines were expected to be flat or slightly
positive (up 1.6 per cent). Traditional ‘paper’ publishers (newspapers and consumer magazines) are at
last overcoming their cannibalization inhibition and are investing massively this year, with dedicated
editorial and ad sales teams, content partnerships with online video specialists.

Outdoor was the only traditional medium making organic growth, thanks to improved quality; it is less
affected than others by internet competition or audience fragmentation. It should have gained 6.4 per
cent, according to GroupM.

In radio, market leader Gcap was down six per cent in the second quarter after falling 17 per cent in
the first. The rest of the radio market was doing slightly better but it was negative in the mid-single-
digit, as shown by RAB data (down eight per cent in the first quarter). Full-year revenues were flat ( up
1.1 per cent).

On the other hand online advertising rose substantially in 2006 - with search based advertising
increasing faster than traditional advertising schemes such as banners and skyscrapers. GroupM
anticipates online ad spend increased 39 per cent in 2006, and will increase 26 per cent in 2007, to
reach 16 per cent market share at the end of 2007. Paid-for Google-like search revenues (already two
thirds of online ad spending) are growing faster than that, whilst online display growth is a bit slower.
New media formats like in-video, podcasting and TV streaming are emerging but are still too small to
be evaluated by most studies.




Spending in online advertising is now much bigger than spending in print related advertising in the US.
And Europe is gradually following this trend - with the big 3 economies Germany, UK and France
paving the way.




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Online advertising accounted for more than 7 % of total advertising in Germany and the UK in 2006
(an increase of up to 15 % by the end of 2007 is projected by some sources) – a substantial increase
from the 2005 and 2004, but still not in line with overall media consumption. Corresponding figures for
the US are much higher (see below).




Given the total time that consumers spend on TV, radio, print and online, and applying this
proportionally to advertising spending, online advertising would have to account for about 20 – 25 % of
the total share of advertising spending.

Within online advertising, search based advertising in the Google way accounts for more than 60 % of
total spending with affiliate marketing and banner schemes following suit. While in TV, the top 20 %
percent of programs get about 80 % of the advertising spending, in online advertising, the top 10 %
portals receive 90 % of the total advertising spending. In Germany the top 5 online portals have nearly
as much advertising revenues as all other portals measured by IVW.

So, online advertising is effectively a large reach play based on CPC, CPO and CPL deals - with
targeted niche advertising being based on CPM schemes not growing substantially. Video online
advertising is still so small that it cannot be measured individually until now. This applies to Europe but
also to the US.

Google is offering an AdSense type of video advertising scheme for its newly acquired YouTube
portal.

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The main advantages attributed to Google type of advertising over TV spots are:
    1. users receive the ads when they are prepared to (whilst searching)
    2. ads are not interruptive but complementary (like outdoor ads, which are also not on the motor
        way but besides it)
    3. there is a high level of targeting based on preferences, demographics and regional aspects
    4. Google ads turn the Internet into a direct sales channel because of the back channel facilities.

A drawback of analogue linear TV advertising has long been the inability to measure success
immediately and quantitatively without having a media break.

In contrast, on the Internet and with red button TV advertising, success can be measured immediately
and quantitative targets such as clicks, leads and orders may be used as yardsticks throughout the
campaign to effectively steer it.

With the rise of IPTV such personalization and targeting schemes as well as the timing of placing ads
(lean back or lean forward situation) have become new watchwords with regard to TV advertising.

The same applies to the interactive advertising and the success of red button (Interactive) advertising
(via the remote control) in the UK. Revenues at ITV have reached more than 10 million EUROS in
2005 and are up more than 80 % this year. The total interactive advertising market in the UK rose to a
value of +30 Mio € by the end of 2005.

It is likely that with the growing maturity of on-demand TV new forms of advertising will complement
the classical 30 seconds TV spot, to reach the consumer in more creative ways mainly:
a) Sponsoring
b) Split screen based non-disruptive ads
c) Interactive advertising, where success (response) can be measured immediately
d) Viral advertising schemes
e) Personalized and targeted (so called addressable advertising)
f) AFP-schemes - Advertiser Funded Programming schemes – already a booming business in the US.

The main interactive advertising forms that can be seen on TV – mainly in the US and the UK are:
      On-Demand Showcase - Allows advertisers to extend messaging beyond the 30-second
       commercial spot by providing viewers long-form advertising content (branded
       entertainment or informational) on-demand.
      On-Demand Program Sponsorship - Effectively integrates innovative advertising
       opportunities into the growing stable of television content being offered on-demand,
       adapting to new viewer behaviors.
      Interactive Commercials - Embeds interactive and/or dynamic messaging into commercial
       spots enabling viewers to impulsively act on a message to request additional information,
       enter a sweepstakes, or even make a purchase directly from the remote control.
      Virtual Channels - Web-like destinations on television where viewers can navigate a variety
       of interactive advertising content, including text/graphics based information, on-demand
       video, direct response features, store locators, and t-commerce functionality.

      Enhanced Program Sponsorship - A number of top broadcast and cable networks are
       providing supplemental, interactive content to accompany broadcasts, giving way to unique
       ad opportunities that more effectively integrate a sponsor's brand with programming while
       enabling interactive opportunities to open a dialogue with consumers.


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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                P2P-Next

Given the fact that advertising spend follows content delivery and consumption with a time lag
advertising will adapt to the more fragmented and segmented audience situation that lie ahead and
distributes spending more evenly across delivery channels and below the line and above the line
advertising schemes.

What is forecast to take place is a more web-like experience with Internet technologies being applied
to TV and ad insertion. A key word is addressable advertising and addressable advertising products.
Key changes may induced by the way
   Ads are carried
   Interaction with them can be accomplished and
   The success of the campaign may be measured in quantitative terms.

Open TV (Advanced Advertising Solution) of Israel and the US and Packet Vision from the UK have
both and independently developed ad insertion schemes that enable broadcasters, operators and
advertisers to tailor IP-based based advertising to the viewer applying push and pull forms of
advertising.

In such a situation a household with a young viewing profile may receive a different Coke Zero spot
than a household, in which only teen programs are watched. Demographic features, regional features
and viewing and skipping ad habits may also be taken into account applying individual ad delivery
schemes at household level.

The Packet Vision system is feasible for niche and locally oriented advertisers and businesses as well
as large advertisers that target international campaigns alike. The system is a combination of an IPTV
video server, a splicer, an IP router and a management system. It is commercially available since
2006 and works with all IPTV middleware.



P2P-Networks
P2P networks in the form of file sharing devices have bee around for quite some time. The first
generation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks had a centralized file list. Ultimately, Napster was held
liable, even if it used the most advanced technology available to identify works copyright holders had
asked it to block, because no technology that can identify works with 100% certainty exists or can
exist. In the centralized peer-to-peer model, a user would send a search to the centralized server of
what they were looking for, that is, a song, video, or movie. The server then sends back a list of which
peers have the data and facilitates the connection and download.
After Napster encountered legal troubles, Justin Frankel of Nullsoft set out to create a network without
a central index server, and Gnutella was the result. The Gnutella model of all nodes being equal
quickly died from bottlenecks as the network grew from incoming Napster refugees.
FastTrack solved this problem by having some nodes be 'more equal than others'. By electing some
higher capacity nodes to be indexing nodes, with lower capacity nodes branching off from them,
FastTrack allowed for a network that could scale to a much larger size.
Gnutella quickly adopted this model, and most current peer-to-peer networks implement this design,
as it allows for large and efficient networks without central servers.
Also included in this second generation are distributed hash tables (DHTs), which help solve the
scalability problem by electing various nodes to index certain hashes (which are used to identify files),
allowing for fast and efficient searching for any instances of a file on the network. This is not without
drawbacks; perhaps most significantly, DHTs do not directly support keyword searching (as opposed
to exact-match searching).



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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
The best examples are Gnutella, Kazaa or eMule with Kademlia, whereby Kazaa has still a central
server for logging in. eDonkey2000/Overnet, Gnutella, FastTrack and Ares Galaxy have summed up
approx. 10.3 million users (as of April 2006, according to slyck.com).
The third generation of peer-to-peer networks are those that have anonymity features built in.
Examples of anonymous networks are ANts P2P, RShare, Freenet, I2P, GNUnet and Entropy. A
degree of anonymity is realized by routing traffic through other users clients, which have the function
of network nodes. This makes it harder for someone to identify who is downloading or who is offering
files. Most of these programs also have strong encryption to resist traffic sniffing.
Friend-to-friend networks only allow already known users (also known as "friends") to connect to your
computer, then each node can forward requests and files anonymously between its own "friends"
nodes. Third generation networks have not yet fully reached mass usage.
Example software includes WASTE, JetiANts, Tor and I2P. These clients differ greatly in their goals
and implementation. WASTE is designed only for small groups and may therefore be considered
Darknet, ANts and I2P are public Peer to Peer systems, with anonymization provided exclusively by
routing reach.
Apart from the traditional file sharing the newest trend are services that send streams instead of files
over a P2P networks – so-called fourth generation networks. With these networks, one can hear radio
and watch television without any server involved - the streaming media is distributed over a P2P
network. It is important that instead of a treelike network structure, a swarming technology known from
BitTorrent is usually used. Best examples are Peercast, Cybersky and demo TV. Furthermore Joost
and Babelgum have recently entered the Beta testing phase.




Figure: P2Pgrowth scenario forEU 25 (in million subscribers), Source EITO 206




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                                                                                          IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next




Table: Number of peers in million, EU 25 scenario, Source EITO, 2006

In contrast to traditional streaming, the more people there are connected to such a service the better
the quality of transmission, robustness and quality of service of these third and fourth generation p2p
networks becomes.
For this reason, according to EITO p2p will become the most important distribution technology by
2010. P2p is, thus, best suited to circumvent the bottleneck of a/v mass distribution in a dramatically
climbing demand-side situation.




Table: Breakdown of video content in p2p networks, in %, Source: EITO, 2006

EITO believes that on average and per user there will be 1247 audio-, 638 video-, 60 print-, 410
picture and 118 software- or games downloads, annually.




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                         P2P-Next




Table: Number of downloads, EU 25 Scenario, Source: EITO, 2006




Table: Types of Content downloaded via p2p, , Source: EITO, 2006

For Germany a doubling of peers from 4.7 to 9.8 million is projected by 2010. Revenues from online
content are to double and account for 2.2 billion EUROS by 2009.




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                        P2P-Next




Figure: World-wide Internet traffic and p2p, , Source: EITO, 2006




Table: Incentives for using P2P, in % Source: Nielsen//NetRatings – Service Mega Panel in EITO
2006



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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next




Table: Penetration by occupation, in %, Source: Nielsen//NetRatings – Service Mega Panel in EITO
2006




Compared to the initial development phase P2P networks today are more sophisticated, more user-
friendly, more efficient in exchanging and sharing digital information and able to create new business
opportunities for the production and distribution of content.
3.1.1.3 Impact on Federating Research
3.1.1.4 National and Global relevant research programs and activities
3.1.1.5 Facilitating SMEs’ Innovation Processes


3.1.2 Contributions to standards


The P2P-NEXT project is intended to impact positively on ongoing standardisation work in key
industry forums such as: DVB, EBU and DLNA. As such effort will be undertaken to harmonise with
their existing work and future aspiration as far as is practical, and beneficial, towards the fulfilment of
the P2P-NEXT vision. In particular the opportunity to leverage DVB file formats, usage right
expression and enforcement solutions consistent with DVB-CPCM will be a central consideration of
the work package. EBU and DVB are both just embarking on identifying European commercial
requirements for adoption of P2P methods of media distribution. It is expected that P2P-next results
and consortium members shall be playing a central role in this work – validating some of the initial

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next
assumptions that could, if proved incorrect, severely hamper progress and exploitation of the
technology on an open standards basis.


P2P-NEXT will require a DRM mechanism to enable both commercial and non-commercial usage to
prosper. A substantial piece of work exists to evaluate candidate interoperable DRM solutions and
integrate with the strongest and most flexible candidate on an open source basis. The challenges here
are many-fold, not least of which will be integration with the secure computing platform of either P2P-
NEXT or the underlying community of devices used for the storage of secret keys. Integration of DRM
technology will enable the protection of content, or restrictions of usage (e.g. in the case of a home
movie creator wanting to only allow consumption by their immediate friends and family), that will be
essential to broad take up and adoption of P2P-NEXT. P2P-NEXT stands to be exemplary in its
embracement of DRM technology for the benefit of the corporation and the end-user, and as such be
a key advocacy player taking this positive message to the larger public and business community. The
final challenge with regard to the interoperable DRM solution would be to consider integration with the
CPCM (Content Protection and Copy Management) model and infrastructure emerging from DVB
since much significant work has already been undertaken towards creating an open standard for the
field.
Continuing on the theme of relationships with standardisation activities, P2P-Next will endeavour to
integrate with DLNA standards for home networking. DLNA has already proven itself by defining an
interoperable home networking environment, but currently does not focus on integrating with P2P
infrastructure. Another challenge to be met by WP6 shall be to identify key extension points within the
existing DLNA standards and ecosystem to meet the end-user demands for easy creation and
contribution of content, together with seamless onward distribution of content entering the home via
the P2P-NEXT medium where the point of consumption may be any room and via any device profile
(e.g. PC, STB, iDTV, Handheld).

3.1.3 Contributions to policy developments

3.1.3.1 Socio-Economic Impact
3.1.3.2 Cultural Significance
3.1.3.3 Creation of the European Identity



3.2 Dissemination and/or exploitation of project results, and
    management of intellectual property
        (Describe the measures you propose for the dissemination and/or exploitation of project
        results, and the management of knowledge, of intellectual property, and of other innovation-
        related activities arising from the project.)



P2P-Next comprises an academic/non-profit oriented strand and a commercial strand. This is reflected
in the dissemination, exploitation planning and business plan sections of the project.

The table below shows the timing of and link between dissemination and exploitation activities:




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                                                                                                                    IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                                        P2P-Next
                                               o th
                                              M n 1–            Mn 1 –
                                                                 o th 1
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In the course of the project exploitation and dissemination activities are planned to take place in the
following timeframe: 1) planning phase; 2) controlled implementation phase; and 3) open
implementation phase. These activities pave the way for the unlimited exploitation of the P2P-Next
project results after the project period.

Exploitation of the project results are planned to start at month 13 of the project with exploiting the
v1.0 of all major foreground developed in P2P-Next. While research and technology development and
validation will continue afterwards, exploitation will gradually be intensified. PSP-Next operates in one
of the fastest moving markets with commercial players around that are heavily financed by venture
capital and that have a reputation for fast-to-market disruptive research and technology development
and deployment.

Dissemination of results and public awareness will start with day 1 one of the project and will follow
the same timeframe as described above.



3.2.1 Dissemination

In order to inform the scientific community, industry, trade organisations as well as individuals about
P2P-Next’s aims, activities and goals, a variety of awareness building and promotion activities are
planned.

Apart from raising awareness via channels such as the EC (concertation meetings, publication in EC
brochures, on IST-websites, Cordis, e-content programme, etc.) the consortium is planning the
following activities, which will either be undertaken at overall consortium level or by individual
consortium partners.
      Website with information about the project (updated and expanded regularly);
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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
     P2P-Next brochure outlining technology developments and achievements;
     P2P-Next brochure outlining services and products
     Best practice leaflets;
     Final brochure about project results and achievements;
     Establishing a “point-of-call” for all project-related (external) inquiries;
     Quarterly Seminars and 6-monthly workshops (whenever considered suitable it is planned to
       invite other professional users to sessions following internal workshops);
     Organising an annual P2P-Next conference for interested individuals and organisations, at
       which project results are presented and various issues of the project will be discussed;
     Training courses for professionals and students;
     Publications in scientific journals and trade magazines.

Another channel to be used for disseminating P2P-Next results is via the P2P-Next user group that is
to be established. The aim is to involve members of the user group closely in the development, trial
and especially validation phases of the project. On the one hand, members of the user group are to be
informed about project activities (of non-confidential nature), while, on the other hand, they are to trial
and validate what is being developed in the project in order for the consortium to create a user-friendly
P2P-Next system that clearly meets user demands and expectations in terms of ease-of-use.

Participation of professional users from third-party academic and commercial organizations has the
additional benefit of disseminating project activities and results to an interested professional audience.

The user group is also the starting point of the P2P-Next training activities. These are targeted at
content producers, prosumers and consumers as well as other stakeholders in the areas that are
touched by P2P-Next.



3.2.1.1 Dissemination by academic and research institutions



3.2.1.1.1 Project level



3.2.1.1.2 Partner Level



3.2.1.2 Commercial Dissemination

P2P-Next participants will regularly present the project at a range of fares and trade shows world-
wide, including:
     IBC, Amsterdam
       NAB, Las Vegas
       Streaming Media Europe, Asia and US
       IPTV World Forum
       Milia, Cannes
       Sportel, Monaco
       3GSM, Barcelona
       Cebit, Hannover

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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                 P2P-Next
       Internationale Funkausstellung, Berlin
       Münchner Medientage
       Satis, France
       Broadcasting, Spain




3.2.2 Exploitation
Exploitation in P2P-Next is divided along different lines. Firstly, there is the difference between the
joint consortium exploitation of the P2P-Next results and the individual exploitation by each partner.
Secondly, there is the difference between external and internal exploitation. Thirdly, there is the
difference between academically driven exploitation of the P2P-Next results from involved non-profit
organizations and the exploitation to be undertaken by commercial profit-oriented companies.
Consortium exploitation in P2P-Next refers to the P2P-Next system as a whole. Individual exploitation
refers to the single modules of the system, the content, applications and services produced and the
source code developed.
External exploitation refers to selling products and services developed in P2P-Next to third parties (B-
2-B Business). Internal exploitation either refers to applying the results in an own offering (own portal,
own TV channel, etc.) and is B-2-C business or to including the P2P-Next results in a B-2-B service
offering.
Academically driven exploitation mainly refers to different open source strategies to be employed.
Furthermore, the non-profit organizations will try to sell patents and licenses to commercial
organizations who may then directly exploit these results.
Commercial exploitation may be internal or external exploitation. Internal exploitation would mean
applying the foreground internally. In a b-2-c environment this would apply to broadcasters, who may
broadcast content to consumers. In a b2-b environment this would apply to companies who take their
developed foreground to offer services, but do not sell them. External exploitation is targeted at turning
P2P-Next foreground into products and selling them.
The overall IPR strategy of the project will be based on agreements established between the partners
to protect their Intellectual Property Rights upon a contractual basis, which will also be reflected in the
Consortium Agreement. IPR will be the responsibility of the partner who develops and manages
intellectual property, with appropriate rights/duties relating to the patenting/licensing, etc. by other
partners.

The general principles for IPR management will follow the Commissions guidelines in:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/fp6/working-groups/model-contract/pdf/checklist_en.pdf.

The Consortium Agreement to be signed by all partners will define procedures for all aspects of
exploitation and IPR matters. This will be concluded before a contract is signed with the Commission
and will fully define all rights and obligations of the partners, incl. provisions for access to background
and foreground.

P2P-Next will produce special update exploitation agreements in 12-monthly intervals, which will
further define and fine-tune access rights for the execution of the project, access rights four use
(exploitation and further research) beyond the project, royalty sharing, patents, etc.



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                                                                                       IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                           P2P-Next
3.2.2.1 Project Foreground –Exploitable Results

The following main exploitable knowledge will be generated by the project:
(each partner to add his main project results into the appropriate table(s)


Software and Hardware

Exploitable   Exploitable Exploitation    Sector       Partners    Expected   Timetable, start
Knowledge     product or Strategy                                  State   at of commercial
              service                                              the end of exploitation
                                                                   project

P2P           Software     Product and Media      P2P              Commerci    2009 (starting
System        and          Service     Broadcasti Foundatio        al          with v1.5)
              Hardware                 ng         n or EEIG        Prototype
              Platform

Targeted      Software     Product and Advertising Marken          Commerci    2009 (starting
Ad Server                  Service     and Media film              al          with v1.0)
                                       Planning                    Prototype

P2P    Set Hardware        Product        Broadcasti Pioneer       Commerci
Top Boxes                                 ng                       sal
                                                                   Prototype

data
exchange
engine

IPvNext”
networking
fabric

Payment                                                AG
Solutions                                              Projects

MicroNavig
ation and
Segment-
based
Querying

Viewing     Software       Product and Advertising Marken          Commerci    2009 (starting
and                        Service     and Media film, BBC         al          with v1.0)
advertising                            Planning                    Prototype
system for
P2P

Xx

Xx

Xx




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                                                                                    IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                        P2P-Next
Algorithms, Code, Languages, etc.


Exploitable   Exploitable Exploitation   Sector    Partners    Expected   Timetable, start
Knowledge     product or Strategy                              State   at of commercial
              service                                          the end of exploitation
                                                               project

                           Open                                Research    2012
                           Source                              prototype

                           Patent                                          2012

                           Open
                           Source

                           Patent




                                                                           2012




Content, Applications, Services


Exploitable   Exploitable Exploitation   Sector    Partners    Expected   Timetable, start
Knowledge     product or Strategy                              State   at of commercial
              service                                          the end of exploitation
                                                               project




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FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                              P2P-Next




Where exploitation start dates have been given that are within the project duration the core
exploitation activities will be undertaken outside P2P-Next, while the exploitation planning (use plan)
will be a consortium activity. Usually a release such as v1.0 or v1.5 will be taken and further
developed to a product or service outside the project, while research and technology development will
continue within the project to develop v2.0 and v3.0 of the commercial and/or research prototypes,
thus bringing the foreground to full fruition.



3.2.2.2 Exploitation at Project Level

Exploitation at project level mainly applies to the overall P2P-Next system. To manage the further
usage of the P2P-Next system, the project plans to establish either:
   a) a non-profit P2P-Next foundation or
   b) a commercial entity such as an EEIG – European Economic Interest Group or a public limited
        company according to European law.

A decision on the matter will be taken by the end of year 1 with the legal body to be founded and
operational by the end of month 18 of the project at the latest.

The main task of the entity will be to manage the P2P-Next system in the real world. This will include
technical management questions as well as the granting of licenses beyond, what will be available
open source and the exclusion of illegitimate content.

This may also include the right to be granted to incumbent and new media houses to build P2P
subsystems in a branded walled garden or semi-walled garden approach (e.g. to compete directly with
the likes of Babelgum and Joost).

Furthermore, the business models and applications developed during the project as well as the
information provided by assessing the regulatory and legal ecosystem shall be taken into account.



3.2.2.3 Academic Exploitation of Project Results Strand

The academic partners will largely seek non-commercial exploitation channels through universities,
research institutions and the open source community. They will also seek to file patents, and may
agree licensing of its IPR to any commercial organization, with which it arrives at an agreement for
exploitation during and after the project.

Open Source IPR protection will take place through the various Open Source licenses, and the
Exploitation Managers will analyze those available (such as the GNU license) and report to the project
on the most appropriate for the academic part of the software outputs of the project.



3.2.3 Multi-industry Market Analysis

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                                                                                        IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                            P2P-Next
Pioneer is involved in the P2P-next project because we recognise the fundamental importance of
increasing the quality and choice of content available to consumers. By working with our partners to
create an open standard for P2P television, we are maximising the potential for horizontal market,
retail channel devices to emerge. It is very likely that the software and operating environment
development and explored within the P2P-next, can be translated to a European rollout within a viable
business model and in a reasonable time scale after the completion of the project. Assuming the
operational issues of customer provisioning, compliance and certification, and micropayments can be
resolved to all stakeholders’ satisfaction; Pioneer envisages the deployment of the P2P-next engine
into various profile of consumer device: Plasma media receiver (iDTV), personal video recorders and
even mobile in-car entertainment and navigation systems. In fact, any device with a broadband,
always-on Internet connection be they stationary or mobile shall be a candidate for incorporation of
P2P-next services.



3.2.4 Business Plan
In WP2.2 a number of business models are analysed. The consortium will discuss and select a few
and further analyse them following a business plan model described below. A business plan is a
document that describes company activities, the surrounding world and the economic prerequisites.
Business plans can be written in many ways but the components we will describe and analyse are:
    Business idea (general overview)
        -business model
    Long and short term goals
    Description of the market
        -customer requirements
        -distribution channels
        -market size and development
    Products/offerings analysis
        -product description and positioning
        -unique characteristics
        -expected customer fulfilment
        -advantages versus competition
    Competition
        -description of competitors and their products
    Legal and regulatory aspects
    SWOT analysis
    Financial analysis
                -receipts model
        -financial requirements
        -economic flow
        -economic calculations
Activities
        -Develop a plan how to implement the business plan
        -Go/no-go decision




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                                                                                IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                    P2P-Next
3.2.5 Management Activities
3.2.5.1     Consortium Agreement and IPR Issues

3.2.6 Plan for using and disseminating knowledge
3.2.6.1     Dissemination and Exploitation Plans

3.2.7 Raising Public Participation and Awareness

3.2.8 Major Milestones




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                                                                                               IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                                   P2P-Next

4. Ethical Issues
The management of potential ethical issues that could arise in the project are addressed below. The
Commission checklist for ethical issues has been examined, and potential areas of concern have been
identified. Relevant National and International legislation have also been determined.
Clearly, as P2P-Next does not handle biological samples, genetic material, animals or clinical trials,
there can be no ethical concerns in these areas.
The main expected impact of P2P-Next will be to develop a media delivery mechanism for user
created or professional content. As part of this work, sampled user profiles and usage patterns will be
automatically inferred and extracted from the closed trials with the consent of the persons
participating. The project will however take appropriate measures with respect to the construction and
storage of these profiles to guarantee the necessary privacy constraints.
Based on these considerations, the main area where potentially P2P-Next could need to manage
ethical questions has been identified in the Handling and Protection of Personal Data. This is
addressed in Section 4.1 below.

4.1 Handling and Protection of Personal data
An analysis of the P2P-Next Workplan indicates that P2P-Next does not foresee the permanent
recording and processing neither of personal data nor of sensitive data.
Trials will be carried out without recording any psychological information for inferring the user’s
emotional state. P2P-Next will adapt anonymised statistical information to the specific behavioural
pattern, without storing the specific results for the future.
Personal data to identify the users will not be recorded or used in P2P-Next. Although the project
clearly deals with user behaviour and preferences, data recorded in trials will not include person-
identifiable data such as names, addresses or contact details. However, data will be recorded and
analysed that describes end-user demographics, gender, age, or other personal data related to the
use of the P2P-Next services. This information will be used for a limited time during the project to
create for instance recommendations and rankings for users with similar content consumption
behaviour in an anonymised way. The trials will involve families and therefore children are also
identified as potential users of the P2P-Next media delivery mechanism.
No sensitive information will be collected during the project (that is no information related to health,
sexual lifestyle, ethnicity, political opinion, religious or philosophical conviction). In order, however, to
remove any doubts, all information will be kept under strict confidentiality and its use will be limited for
the time is necessary, associated to a clear timeframe after which the data will be destroyed.

4.2 Ethical Management
The Executive Board of P2P-Next Consortium has the overall responsibility of the management
approach to potential areas of ethical concern seeking consultation with National and European
privacy initiatives and relevant legal bodies to ensure transparency and awareness.
Finally, the P2P-Next consortium confirms and accordingly certifies that all the research will be
compliant to all local, national, and international rules, conventions, declarations associated with the
particular location in which the research is carried out. We also certify that the P2P-Next research will
be compliant to the relevant EU legislation.




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                                                                                     IP Proposal
FP7-ICT-2007-1                                                                         P2P-Next

ETHICAL ISSUES TABLE


                                                                               YES   PAGE

    Informed Consent
             Does the proposal involve children?                          X
        Does the proposal involve patients or persons not able to give
       consent?
        Does the proposal involve adult healthy volunteers?
             Does the proposal involve Human Genetic Material?
             Does the proposal involve Human biological samples?
             Does the proposal involve Human data collection?

    Research on Human embryo/foetus
             Does the proposal involve Human Embryos?
             Does the proposal involve Human Foetal Tissue / Cells?
             Does the proposal involve Human Embryonic Stem Cells?

    Privacy
        Does the proposal involve processing of genetic information or
       personal data (eg. health, sexual lifestyle, ethnicity, political
       opinion, religious or philosophical conviction)
        Does the proposal involve tracking the location or observation    X
       of people?
    Research on Animals
             Does the proposal involve research on animals?
             Are those animals transgenic small laboratory animals?
             Are those animals transgenic farm animals?
             Are those animals cloned farm animals?
             Are those animals non-human primates?

    Research Involving Developing Countries
             Use of local resources (genetic, animal, plant etc)
        Benefit to local community (capacity building i.e. access to
       healthcare, education etc)
    Dual Use
             Research having direct military application
             Research having the potential for terrorist abuse

    ICT Implants
             Does the proposal involve clinical trials of ICT implants?

    I CONFIRM THAT NONE OF THE ABOVE ISSUES APPLY TO MY
    PROPOSAL



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