BUSINESS STUDIES by L3xZqe80

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									                       BUSINESS STUDIES
                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

 Table of contents                                          i

 Acronyms                                                  iii

 INTRODUCING THE LEARNING PROGRAMME GUIDELINES
      1.1 Learning Programme Guidelines    1
      1.2 Learning Programmes              1
      1.3 The Purpose of LPG’s             1
      1.4 Year plans                       2
      1.5 Lesson Plans                     2
      1.6 Developing LPG’s                 2
      1.7 Learning Programmes              2


 SECTION 2: INTRODUCING BUSINESS STUDIES LPGs.
      2.1 Introduction to Business Studies LPG              4
      2.2 The purpose of Business Studies                   6
      2.3 The relationship between B.Studies and NCS        7
      2.4 Profile of Business Studies Learner               8
      2.5 Relationship between LO’s, CO’s and DO’s         10
      2.6 Ways of achieving outcomes                       11


 SECTION 3: DESIGNING LEARNING, TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT
      ACTIVITIES16
      3.1 Planning TLS activities             16
      3.2 Managing time                       17
      3.3 Managing diversity                  18
      3.4 Designing year plans and term plans 18
      3.5 Designing lesson plans              27



SECTION 4: ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES
      4.1 The purpose of assessment                        30
      4.2 Planning Assessment                              30
      4.3 Principles of assessment                         33
      4.4 Continuous Assessment                            34
      4.5 Assessment of learners experiencing barriers     34
      4.6 Types of assessment                              34
      4.7 Assessment in the teaching of Business Studies   35
      4.8 Methods of assessment                            36
      4.9 Methods / Strategies for collecting evidence     36
      4.10 Promotion requirements                          38
           4.10.1 Introduction                             38
           4.10.2 Assessment structure                     40


                                    i
        4.10.3 School based assessment                40
        4.10.4 Portfolio requirements                 40
        4.10.5 Requirements External Examinations     41
   4.11 Recording and Reporting Learner Achievement   42
   4.12 Moderation of Assessment                      46




SECTION 5: MONITORING AND SUPPORT
  5.1 Monitoring and Professional Support             51
  5.2 Learner support materials                       51


   GLOSSARY                                           67
   ANNEXURES
   Annexure A : Contents                              68
   Annexure B : Year Plans                            74
   Annexure C : Converting a business plan into
                an action plan                        78
   AnnexureD: Designing lesson plans                  79
   Annexure E Research Assignments: topics            82
   Annexure F Developing assessment skills            84
   Annexure G Current Business Topics                 85
   Annexure H Rubrics                                 86
   Annexure I External Assessment                     87
   Annexure J LO Competence Descriptors               89




                              ii
                                ACRONYMS
                             BUSINESS STUDIES



AS           Assessment Standard
C 2005       Curriculum 2005
CASS         Continuous Assessment
CO           Critical Outcome
CTA          Common Tasks for Assessments
CV           Curriculum Vitae
DO           Developmental Outcome
EA           External Assessment
EMS          Economic and Management Sciences
FET          Further Education and Training
GET          General Education and Training
HIV / AIDS   Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
IKS          Indigenous knowledge systems
JSE          Johannesburg Securities Exchange
LO           Learning Outcome
LOCD         Learning Outcome Competence Description
LSM          Learner Support Material
NCS          National Curriculum Statements
POE          Portfolio of Evidence
PR           Public Relations
RAF          Road Accident Fund
SAQA         South African Qualifications Authority
SARB         South African Reserve Bank
SCD          Subject Competence Description
SETA         Sectoral Education and Training Authority
SKVA         Skills, Knowledge, Values and Attitudes
SWOT         Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
UIF          Unemployment Insurance Fund




                                      iii
LEARNING PROGRAMME GUIDELINES GRADES 10-12 (GENERAL)

                                          SECTION 1
                                      INTRODUCTION

1.1      PURPOSE

The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) (NCS), will be implemented in
schools by means of Learning Programmes. Educators will use the Learning Programme
Guidelines to develop and implement their own Learning Programmes. This Learning
Programme Guideline (LPG) document has been developed to support educators and material
developers in their development of learning programmes.

1.2 WHAT IS A LEARNING PROGRAMME?

      A learning programme can be understood in various ways. In the broader sense the
      learning programme specifies the scope of teaching, learning and assessment for the three
      grades in the FET Band. It is the structured and systematic plan that promotes and ensures
      that learners achieve the Learning Outcomes as prescribed by the Assessment Standards of
      the Subject Statement for a particular grade. A Learning Programme is a tool for ensuring
      that the Learning Outcomes for each subject are effectively and comprehensively attended
      to in a sequential and balanced way across the grade. The Learning Programme thus
      interprets and sequences the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards as spelt out in
      the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) into planned teaching,
      learning and assessment activities for a grade. It spells out what core knowledge and
      concepts will be used in achieving Learning Outcomes for the grade. It also provides
      guidance on to plan for inclusion of different contexts and realities, like the needs of the
      community, school and learners in the learning programme.

      The Learning Programme also considers how integration within and across subjects and
      learning outcomes will happen as well as what resources are available and needed to
      deliver teaching and learning activities. A learning Programme will, in turn, be translated
      into yearlong grade specific year plans, and shorter activities and lesson plans.

      In a narrower sense learning programmes contain:

year long plans for a particular grade that provide the pace and the sequencing of teaching,
learning and assessment activities ;
       more detailed plans to deal with a particular section of work ;
       plans for work to be covered over shorter periods of time than a year, say for a term;
           and
       detailed lesson plans in which activities are specified.

1.3 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A LEARNING PROGRAMME GUIDELINE?

A Learning Programme Guideline goes beyond the Subject Statement in providing educators,
and other learning programme developers, with assistance in:



                                                 1
understanding the implications of the Learning Outcomes for developing skills, knowledge,
values and attitudes appropriate to the subject in 21st Century South Africa;
interpreting the Assessment Standards;
building on what the learner has learnt in the General Education and Training Band;
preparing the learner for life and higher education or career pathways;
basing the learning and teaching of the subject on the experiences of and opportunities for
learners in the local situation in which they find themselves (localising the curriculum);
managing diversity;
ensuring that the NCS principles are incorporated in the teaching approach;
illustrating how the philosophy behind the definition in the Subject Statement can be applied
in practice;
selecting learning and teaching support materials and other resources appropriate to an OBE
approach to the subject; and
developing quality learning programmes.


1.4      WHAT IS A YEAR PLAN?

A Year Plan is a yearlong programme that shows how teaching, learning and assessment will
be sequenced and paced in a particular grade. It is a delivery tool, a means of working towards
the achievement of Learning Outcomes specified in the Learning Programme, and
incorporates the Assessment Standards that will be achieved in that grade.

1.5      WHAT IS A LESSON/PLAN/UNIT/?

A Lesson Plan/Unit is the next level of planning and is drawn directly from the Lesson Plan. It
describes concretely and in detail teaching, learning and assessment activities that are to be
implemented in any given period of time. A Lesson Plan could range in duration from a single
activity and in terms of teaching, learning and assessment and in terms of actual time, may
last from a day to a week or a month. It includes how (i.e. teaching style, approach and
methodology) teaching, learning and assessment activities are to be managed in the
classroom.

1.6      FOR WHOM IS THE LEARNING PROGRAMME GUIDELINES
         DOCUMENT DEVELOPED?

      Learning Programme Guidelines are developed for learning programme developers
      (mainly school-based and office-based educators), Learning and Teaching Support
      Materials developers, training programme developers, implementers, managers, monitors
      and quality assurors.

1.7      WHO DEVELOPS LEARNING PROGRAMMES?

      Educators carry the responsibility of developing learning programmes for the learners in
      their care, as they know what the situation requires. They alone can design a learning
      programme that is ideal for their learners and which meets the conditions for Provincial
      approval. These guidelines will assist educators in fulfilling this responsibility.

      Provincial Education Departments could also decide to expand on the further assist
      required to implement the National Curriculum Statement. Educators teaching Further


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Education and Training classes within a school (or cluster of schools) should co-operate in
developing learning programmes, possibly with the guidance of curriculum support
officers in the district/region/cluster. Further assistance can be obtained through Learning
and Teaching Support Materials developed by, for example, publishers. However, the
educators carry the ultimate responsibility for developing and implementing the learning
programme.

In the process of developing the learning programme, the strengths, interests, as well as
the barriers to learning of the learners should be taken into account. The learning
programme must be developed in such a way that all learners are supported throughout the
year.

The learning programme for the subject should not be developed in isolation but should be
part of the overall development of all learning programmes within the school.

These Learning Programme Guidelines are intended to be implemented in conjunction
with other policies that promote and support education transformation so that the Critical
and Developmental Outcomes, which underpin teaching and learning across the South
African school curriculum, are attained. For example, the White Paper 6: Special Needs
Education – Building an Inclusive Education and Training System needs to be read to
provide background information on issues related to barriers to learning, as these have
crucial impact on what happens in the classroom. Addressing barriers to learning is an
important responsibility of educators when developing Learning Programmes.




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                      SECTION 2
INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS STUDIES LEARNING PROGRAMME
                       GUIDELINES
2.1    What is Business Studies?


The subject of Business Studies is structured to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and
values which are necessary to enable learners to participate responsibly, productively and
effectively in business activities in both the formal and informal sectors.

The subject covers the with the way in which a private and public enterprises can best be
managed to achieve profit and other objectives while providing goods and services for
satisfying human needs.

It also deals with how individuals, through performing critical business roles, can participate
and contribute positively to both the South African and global economies
.
The subject is closely related to other disciplines in the FET Business, Commerce and
Management field of learning (BCM), namely Accounting, and Economics facilitating
integration between the subjects, which can be approached from a Business Studies
perspective.

The subject revolves around the following focuses:

Challenging business environments – investigating the different environments within which
a business operates as well as the effect of these environments on the operations of the
enterprise.

Achievable business ventures – which equips learners with the skills to establish successful
business ventures. This takes place by means of idea generation, drawing up business plans
(which includes investigation of the product, demographics, a SWOT analysis, financial
planning, management planning), combined with creative thinking it will enable learners to
pursue viable and entrepreneurial business ventures.

Business roles – introduces learners to the essential roles that they need to perform (as a
citizen, team member, career performer, self manager and entrepreneur) in order to perform in
a variety of business contexts.

Business operations: deals with the knowledge and skills to manage essential business
functions such as human resources, public relations, marketing and production, amongst
others, within the context of relevant legislation and other contemporary issues.


Business Studies in the South African context

Business Studies is included in the curriculum for the following reasons:




                                               4
It develops learners’ insight into South African and global business so that they can
understand the part performed by different role players as well as the various issues and
challenges that influence and impact on business. The subject lays a sound foundation for
learners to initiate and/or carry out business within a national and international context. It
also forms the foundation for further business-based studies at a higher education level.

The subject contributes to the development of the economy by developing sound knowledge,
skills and values that are required to effectively initiate, set up and carry out informal or
formal business.


Changes in approach and thinking about the subject

Changes in teaching and learning

The approach adopted by the National Curriculum Statement is more learner centred than that
of the previous curriculum. Learning is also more activity based in that learning through
experiences, interaction with peers, and facilitators rather than from textbooks only is
encouraged.

In keeping with an outcomes-based education approach learning should not be confined to the
classroom only, but should be planned to include interaction with the outside world as well.
This creates ample opportunities for research and practical work, shifting the emphasis from
rote learning to the development of business-related skills, values and attitudes.

Essential knowledge still forms an important part of learning, but since the amount of
information is so vast in the 21st Century and information changes so rapidly, the ability to
acquire information rather than information itself in a primary focus. Learners are still,
however, required to acquire essential information that will enable them to achieve the various
outcomes and assessment standards. For example learners need to know the theory of good
leadership and understand the difference between being a manager as opposed to being a
leader. The outcomes and assessment standards are, however, the point of departure for the
design of learning programmes as opposed to content.


Changes in assessment

Assessment is now viewed as an integral part of teaching and learning. It is directed by the
assessment standards for each learning outcome and must take place on an ongoing basis and
not just at the end of each term or formally at the end of the year.

Assessment consists of both formative as well as summative assessment. Formative (or
continuous) assessment is assessment that takes place on an ongoing basis throughout the
learning process throughout the year. Educators need to develop assessment tools such as
performance rubrics or feedback sheets according to which they can continuously give
learners feedback on their progress against assessment standards and learning outcomes. This
type of assessment is called formative in that it assists learners to form skills and knowledge
that will enable them to succeed in the mastery of the assessment standards and ultimately the
outcomes.



                                                5
Summative assessment takes place after learners have completed a series of activities and
formative assessments. Summative assessment generally takes place at the end of the year
and provides a “summary” of how learners have performed against the grade’s outcomes and
assessment standards.

Other methods of assessment besides that of educator only are strongly encouraged, for
example peer assessment and self-assessment. Educators should where possible encourage
learners to be part of their own learning development and assessment process. This can be
done through self-reflective processes such as journals, feedback forms, self-evaluations and
peer consultation.


Changes in content:

The National Curriculum Statement subjects’ content is driven by focuses. These focuses
embodied in outcomes. These focus areas run across all the grades in the FET, allowing for
development and progression. Emphasis is given to areas of redress and transformation such
as entrepreneurship (so as to address important issues such as poverty, inequality, etc.).
Contemporary business knowledge and skills, which were not covered in previous curricula,
are introduced so as to ensure that the business foundation which learners develop consists of
relevant knowledge and skills which will enable them to contribute effectively in a variety of
business contexts. Attention is also given to important fundamental knowledge and skills
related to business environments and business functions, which formed the bulk of the
previous Business Studies curriculum. Educators have the freedom to develop their own
relevant and learner specific material around assessment standards and outcomes, rather than
being constrained by the contents of a textbook.

2.2 What is the purpose of Business Studies?

Economic growth and personal financial empowerment is largely dependent on the positive
contribution of both business and individuals to the economy. Business takes place in an
inherently complex context that requires informed, imaginative, participative, contributing
and reflective business practitioners, who can dynamically perform a range of interdependent
business operations.

The development of these business roles will put learners in a position where they are able to
effectively apply knowledge and skills to analyse and deal with different business
environments (macro, micro and market), to initiate and carry out business ventures and
successfully carry out business operations. These roles and operations can also be applied
within other organisational structures such as public sector and non-profit organisations.

This subject will ensure that learners:

acquire and apply essential business knowledge, skills and principles to productively and
profitably conduct business in changing business environments
create business opportunities, creatively solve problems and take risks respecting the rights of
others and environmental sustainability.
apply basic leadership and management skills and principles while working with others to
accomplish business goals



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be motivated, self-directed, reflective lifelong learners who responsibly manage themselves
and their activities while working towards business goals
be committed to developing others, as well as self, through business opportunities and
ventures

In addition to being able to secure formal employment, learners need to be in a position to
pursue sustainable entrepreneurial and self-employment career pathways. Business Studies
also forms the foundation for further business learning opportunities.


2.3    What is the relationship between Business Studies and the NCS Principles?

2.3.1 Human Rights, Inclusivity, Environmental and Socio-Economic Justice

Business Studies focuses on issues relating to labour legislation, for example the Basic
Conditions of Employment Act, establishing equity through the Employment Equity Act,
environmental responsibility and sustainability, redress through partnerships, joint
ownerships, as well as corporate and individual social responsibility through community
involvement and investment.


2.3.2 Outcomes-based Education

An outcomes-based education essentially involves the application of the following four
principles: Design down, Clarity of focus, High expectations and Expanded Opportunities
(Spady, 1994).

The FET NCS (schools) essentially addresses the principles of Clarity of Focus and High
Expectations , the other two principles must be continued through to the development of
learning programmes.

2.3.3 Integration and Progression

The point of departure of the design of Business Studies is the Business, Commerce and
Management Field Statement as well as the critical and developmental outcomes. The
Business, Commerce and Management field statement indicates the relationship between
Business Studies, Economics and Accounting. These points of departure provide a basis for
integration within the field and across fields. There is a natural progression in the
development of knowledge and skills from Grade 10 to Grade 12 within the subject itself.


2.3.4 Credibility, Quality, Efficiency and Relevance

The process of development of both the GET and FET NCS’s has involved working groups
with members drawn from various sectors of South African society. The process has also
been transparent in that all draft statements have been circulated widely for public comment
prior to refinement and publication as policy.
The learning programme developer can therefore be confident that the statements from which
he designs his learning programme will lead to quality learning around relevant issues.



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2.3.5 High Levels of Knowledge and Skills for All

The assessment standards are determined according to what skills, knowledge and attitudes
learners require in order to perform productively and responsibly in the world of business.

2.3.6 IKS- Indigenous Knowledge Systems
This refers to application of indigenous knowledge in solving economic problems . This
document contains modern approaches to the same economic situations. We need to
acknowledge that this system operated before the introduction of the modern system included
in this document. Therefore, every effort should be made to bring this into the discussion
when the opportunity presents itself. Examples mentioned here are only some of the very
many that occur; and are mentioned only as illustrations .

2.3.7 Social transformation:
This ensures that the imbalances of the past are addressed through education as well as
legislation; equal business opportunities for all based on expertise, and recognition of
potential .

2.3.8 Progression:
Progression implies more advanced and complex knowledge and skills; this cannot be
achieved without a thorough understanding of the basics. Assessment standards are arranged
in a format to allow for this .

2.3.9 Articulation and Portability:
Sound knowledge of Business Studies enables the learner to enter the world of business;
however, it entitles him to specialize further in the many fields of Commerce, at any of the
institutions of higher learning.


2.4    Profile of Business Studies Learner entering the FET band.

The description of the expected learner exiting the GET band (schools) will be determined by
criteria such as the following:

      They will have completed the following 8 GET (Senior Phase) learning programmes
       Literacy, Language and Communication
       Mathematical Literacy, Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences
       Economic and Management Sciences
       Life Orientation
       Human and Social Sciences
       Natural Sciences
       Arts and Culture
       Technology
For five years (i.e. 2004-2008) the FET NCS will be receiving learners from C2005. Only in
2009 will the FET NCS receive Grade 9 learners from the revised NCS Grades R-9 (Schools).
In the meantime, the possibility exists for learners who will follow Report 550 between 2003
and 2005 to “fail” and be compelled to enrol for FET.
The 8 learning programmes mentioned above, would be different depending on whether
learners have completed C2005 or the GET NCS Grades R-9.



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The entry level FET learner will be in possession of either a General Education & Training
(GET) statement or certificate depending on whether they have completed C2005 or GET
NCS Grades R-9.
The learner could be between 15yrs-17yrs of age, depending on the rate of progression
through the GET band..
The FET learner, following the revised Grades 0 – 9 NCS would have been exposed to
learning outcomes. The outcomes are designed for learners to practice business concepts and
apply business knowledge, skills and values within a school-context, while at the same time
attempting to prepare them as realistically as possible for the world of work, employment and
self-employment.

The Business Studies outcomes and the GET learning area outcomes

Outcomes based education is essentially a framework for clearly specifying what needs to be
taught in various grades and the standards that should be met by learners in relation to this
teaching and learning. Therefore, while outcomes are written as separate units with associated
assessment standards there is naturally a relationship between various outcomes and
assessment standards that are integrated through the development of learning programmes.
As in the case of relating the critical and developmental outcomes to learning area outcomes
and subject outcomes, there may be clearer links between some GET and FET outcomes than
others but the knowledge and skills developed through the outcomes generally relates across
outcomes.

The table below shows the clear links between the EMS (GET) learning area outcomes and
the FET Business Studies outcomes. This does not mean that the outcomes do not relate to
other outcomes across the table, but simply demonstrates the clear links and natural
development of EMS (GET) to Business Studies (FET). Educators can therefore see what
foundations should have been laid in GET phase that can be developed further through the
subject of Business Studies. For more detail educators need to study the Assessment Criteria
and Performance indicators (C2005) and Assessment Standards NCS (GET) and how these
relate to the Business Studies outcomes and assessment standards.

C2005 – version 1             RNCS – GET version 2           NCS FET (schools)
Demonstrate the principles    The learner will be able to    The learner is able to
of supply and demand (SO      demonstrate knowledge and      demonstrate knowledge and
3)                            understanding of the           analyse the impact of
Evaluate different economic   circular flow within the       changing and challenging
systems from various          context of the economic        environments on business
perspectives (SO 6)           problem (LO 1)                 practice in all sectors (LO
Evaluate the                  The learner will be able to    1)
interrelationship between     demonstrate an
the economic and other        understanding of the
environments (SO 8)           sustainable growth,
                              reconstruction and
                              development, and to reflect
                              critically on related
                              processes (LO 2)
Engage in entrepreneurial     The learner will be able to    The learner is able to
activities (SO 1)             demonstrate entrepreneurial    identify and research viable
Use and communicate           knowledge, skills and          business opportunities and


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economic and financial data    attitudes (LO 4)              to explore these and related
to make decisions (SO 5)                                     issues through the creation
                                                             of achievable business
                                                             ventures (LO 2)
Demonstrate personal role      The learner will be able to   The learner is able to
in economic environment        demonstrate knowledge and     demonstrate and apply
(SO 2)                         the ability to apply          contemporary knowledge
Actions which advance          responsibly a range of        and skills to fulfill a variety
sustained economic growth,     managerial, consumer and      of business roles (LO 3)
reconstruction and             financial skills (LO 3)
development in South
Africa are demonstrated
(SO 7)
Demonstrate managerial                                       The learner is able to
expertise and administrative                                 demonstrate and apply a
proficiency (SO 4)                                           range of management as
                                                             well as specialised
                                                             knowledge and skills to
                                                             perform business operations
                                                             successfully (LO 4)

                           Table 2.1 – Relationships GET and FET

2.5    Relationship between Business Studies Learning Outcomes and the Critical and
       Developmental Outcomes


The Critical and Developmental outcomes

South Africa has adopted a set of Critical and Developmental Outcomes that describe the
skills, knowledge, attitudes and values that will help learners to become successful South
African citizens in the 21st century. These outcomes essentially result from the South African
Constitution. They are the departure point for all learning area outcomes (GET) and subject
outcomes (FET) in the South African curriculum design process.

The Critical Outcomes require that learners should be able to:

Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative
thinking;
Work effectively with others and as a member of a team, group, organisation and community;
Organise and manage oneself and one’s activities responsibly and effectively;
Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information;
Communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills in various modes;
Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the
environment and the health of others;
Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of interrelated systems by recognising that
problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.




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There are five Developmental Outcomes that are related to the critical outcomes. These state
that learners should be able to:

Reflect on and explore a variety of strategies to learn more effectively;
Participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities;
Be culturally aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts;
Explore educational and career opportunities;
Develop entrepreneurial opportunities.


While some learning area outcomes (GET) and subject outcomes (FET) relate more closely to
the critical and developmental outcomes than others, it is important to bear in mind that each
subject outcome can involve a variety of different skills, knowledge and values. The more
skill related critical outcomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6) can be demonstrated in all the Business
Studies outcomes. Learners for example will be required to communicate effectively using
visual, symbolic and/or language skills in various modes in learning programmes related to all
four of the Business Studies outcomes. For assessment purposes, however, this critical
outcome is specified under Business Studies outcome 2.

The Business Studies outcomes relate to the Critical and Developmental Outcomes as
indicated in the table below.


Business Studies Outcomes (FET)             Critical and Developmental Outcomes
The learner is able to demonstrate          1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10
knowledge and analyse the impact of
changing and challenging environments
on business practice in all sectors.
The learner is able to identify and         1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12
research viable business opportunities
and to explore these and related issues
through the creation of achievable
business ventures.
The learner is able to apply                1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11
contemporary knowledge and skills to
fulfill a variety of business roles.
The learner is able to apply a range of     1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11
management as well as specialised
knowledge and skills to perform
business operations successfully.

                            Table 2.2 – Relationships LO’s and CO’s/DO’s

2.6 Ways Of Achieving Business Studies Learning Outcomes


2.6.1 Design of the Business Studies Outcomes

The outcomes are developed on the premise that business takes place in a variety of business
environments e.g. internal business (micro), market and macro environments, business


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practitioners need to be able to perform a number of roles in order to practice business within
these environments, to be able to perform various business operations (functions) and to be
entrepreneurial in order to create new business ventures.




                               ENVIRONMENT
                                (Macro; micro market)




                                BUSINESS
                                VENTURES


            OPERATIONS                                       ROLES
                (Business                               Citizen, tam member,
                Functions)                              career performer ,self
                                                            manager, and
                                                             entrepreneur




The Business Studies learning outcomes are described as follows in the NCS – FET (school)
document 2003. These outcomes are very important to the learning programme developer,
as the outcome, together with the assessment standards for each inform him of the scope to be
covered, the activities to be included, and guides him on the learning that needs to take place.
This, in turn will inform him/her of the forms of assessing what learning has indeed taken
place.

Learning Outcome 1

Challenging Environments

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and analyse the impact of changing and
challenging environments on business practice in all sectors.

This outcome deals with elements of the business environments that impact on business
activities (micro, market and macro). Business can control these environments to varying
degrees. All business practitioners need to be aware of these environments and the degree to
which they can influence them. Primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are also covered
within this outcome.

Contemporary factors such as globalisation, relevant legislation, socio-economic issues,
infectious diseases (e g HIV/AIDS) and the challenges that these provide for business
enterprises should be analysed.




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Learning Outcome 2
Achievable Business Ventures
The learner is able to identify and research viable business opportunities and to explore
these and related issues through the creation of achievable business ventures

This outcome focuses on the generation of ideas, research, drawing up and presentation of
business plans and business information and the development and implementation of
achievable action plans.

Issues related to initiating a business such as entrepreneurship, forms of ownership, location
factors, legal considerations (e g contracts), social and environmental issues should be
analysed.

Learning Outcome 3

Business Roles

The learner is able to demonstrate and apply contemporary knowledge and skills to
fulfill a variety of business roles.

The primary focus of this outcome is on preparing learners to apply self-management skills
and to be professional business practitioners; collaborators and team members; innovators,
entrepreneurs and citizens.

Critical issues such as community development, diversity, team dynamics, leadership,
professionalism, ethical practice, personal growth as well as managing and adapting to change
and transformation are included in this feature.

.
Learning Outcome 4

Business Operations

The learner is able to demonstrate and apply a range of management as well as
specialised knowledge and skills to perform business operations successfully.

This outcome focuses on the following business functions: administration, financing general
management, human resource, marketing, production, purchasing and public relations.

The interrelationship between these functions as well as the need to ensure that they are co-
ordinated is emphasised. These functions and their interrelatedness are considered within the
scope of both small and big business.




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Interrelatedness of the Business Studies Outcomes

The four Business Studies outcomes should not be treated separately. Business Studies
learning programmes should, where possible, link and integrate learning outcomes and
assessment standards. This integration should obviously not be forced but opportunities for
integration need to be identified and learning programmes should be designed around this
principle. Certain learning programmes will tend to have specific outcomes (focus areas)
and/or assessment criteria as core features. Educators should, however, where possible try to
integrate outcomes and assessment standards.

Previously educators structured learning around a syllabus. Learning at both the GET and
FET level is now organized in National Curriculum Statements. These specify the outcomes
and assessment standards, which learners need to achieve and which educators need to teach
towards.

In order for educators to design and teach effectively educators must be familiar with and
“know” the Critical and Developmental outcomes as well as their subject outcomes and
assessment standards. “Knowing” your outcomes means being familiar with the essence of
your outcomes. For example if one looks at the Critical outcomes the core of these can be
summarized as (problem solving, decision making, team work, team management, work with
information, communicate effectively, use science and technology effectively). Learning
programmes must be developed around these outcomes and standards.

Educators need to select appropriate teaching and learning experiences to enable learners to
achieve such outcomes and also to assess how learners progress towards mastery of these
outcomes. All learning must be viewed against whether or not it assists learner to achieve
outcomes and assessment standards. Educators should have sound knowledge of effective
learning strategies, the needs of their learners (and issues relating to inclusivity and diversity),
outcomes based education methodology and new assessment strategies. It is also important
that educators are aware of what the department of education requires from them in terms of
developing learner profiles and reporting on learners (i.e. assessment and reporting
schedules). Educators must also bear in mind that not all learners are at the same level of
competency in relation to the various assessment standards. Additional learning opportunities
(expanded opportunity) must therefore be created to allow learners ample opportunity to
develop the required level of competency. Learners who master assessment standards at a
more advanced rate should also be accommodated and expanded learning opportunities (e.g.
self-paced in own time) created to allow them to develop at their own pace.

The new approach to teaching and learning strikes a better balance between learning through
actual experience and/or simulations instead of priotising the memorization of content. The
teacher now becomes a facilitator and organizer of learning rather than the source and focus of
all information. For example when introducing learners to the functions of a business and
how this differs between different size businesses either visits or videos or both would serve
the purpose of contextualising this for the learners.

Assessment standards now form the measurement against which learners will be assessed.
While these standards generally do not specify method, they specify content and context.
Core teaching must be designed around assisting learners to master assessment standards.

Below is more detailed explanation of assessment standards.


                                                14
An assessment standard:

relates to a particular learning outcome - each outcome is followed by its set of assessment
standards
sets the minimum requirements to achieve the learning outcome
is systematically developed through all the grades at an FET level and underpins similar
assessment standards in later grades.
is pitched to the level of the learner in the specific grade
differs in levels of complexity from grade to grade.

How to use standards.

standards form the basis for assessment of learner competencies
they form the basis for the development of learning programmes
    they describes the activities that learners need to engage in for learning and assessment
    purposes
    they describe what is to be assessed, how this will be demonstrated in order for it to be
    assessed ( i.e. the content as well as the method)

The challenge for all educators is now to develop stimulating and relevant learning
opportunities that enable learners to master the required outcomes at their own pace.


Each LO has a set of assessment standards attached to it. These standards are numbered for
easy reference, for example:
10.1.3 refers to:

10- refers to the grade
1 – refers to the LO (Learning outcome 1)
3 – refers to the assessment standard 3.

Using selected methods and instruments of assessment, provides proper evaluation of such
achievement. The NCS has adopted the following 6 point scale :
                            Table 2.3 – competence descriptions
                  GRADING        PERCENTAGES           DESCRIPTIONS

                         1                0-29             INADEQUATE

                         2               30-39               PARTIAL

                         3               40-49              ADEQUATE

                         4               50-59           SATISFACTORY

                         5               60-79            MERITORIOUS

                         6               80-100            EXCELLENT


For a learner to “achieve” he must score 40%-49%, that is level 3 (adequate)
(Refer to competence descriptions)


                                               15
                         SECTION 3
        DESIGNING TEACHING , LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT
                         ACTIVITIES

3.1 Planning Teaching ,Learning Activities

Planning:
                             WHOLE SCHOOL PLANNING




                                   GRADE PLANNING




                           TEACHER/CLASSROOM PLANNING


Whole school planning involves the whole staff, but for the purposes of this guideline, it
refers to all educators of Business Studies involved in grades 10,11 and 12 (FET Band

Why is it important for these educators to plan together?

Educators of grade 12 will have knowledge of the work covered in grade 11 and what to
expect learners to have completed. This will also apply to the grade 11 educator.
Furthermore, educators will be able to plan POE management ( (portfolios of evidence )
This will also involve the planning and usage of standardised learner support material and
teaching aids.

With respect to grade planning, educators will benefit from planning together when it comes
to common tests, outcomes chosen for that particular term etc.; it will help dictate the pace at
which learning and teaching should take place. It also impacts on the monitoring by members
of management, in this case, the HOD, as the work is standardised.

Where possible, teachers should try to design authentic learning experiences and assessment
opportunities and (projects, assignments, performance opportunities, etc.). This means
ascertaining whether or not an assessment really assesses a learner’s knowledge, skills and
values. These opportunities should also be as close to “real life” contexts as possible. Where
appropriate, learners should be able to submit evidence and learning from “real life” contexts
to demonstrate their competence. For example, if a learner produces a SWOT a analysis this
should be based on an actual analysis of a business even if it is the examination of a case
study or corner spaza shop.

The most effective form of education is that which is integrated and holistic in nature, and
where learners can master outcomes in realistic contexts. Where possible, educators should
work together to plan integrated projects with other subjects. While each subject has a lot to
cover, and still needs to systematically develop specific knowledge, skills and values, joint


                                               16
projects give learners the opportunity to develop a more realistic idea of how learning areas
and outcomes work together to enable them to perform competently in a particular context.
Joint planning can also serve as a dual assessment. For example if a learner does a
presentation of a business plan, language educators can also use this opportunity to assess a
learner’s communication and presentation skills especially if there is a need for an additional
assessment opportunity.


Classroom planning – educators need to avoid the situation where learning and teaching
become haphazard ; they need to carefully think out their plans and to commit same to
writing.. it makes it easier for a substitute educator to continue with the work should an
educator go on leave, as the work has been mapped out already

3.2     Managing Time

When implementing outcomes-based education educators are often faced with challenges of
time management. This is often complicated by new assessment methods, expanded
opportunity and managing diversity.. When planning their learning programmes educators
need to consider the following issues, which have time management implications:

Business Studies has four learning outcomes all of which are equally weighted (i.e. they all
   require equal teaching focus).
Each outcome has specified assessment standards all of which are equally weighted (i.e. they
   all require equal teaching and assessment focus).
Ample opportunity needs to be created for learners to work towards the assessment standards
   (expanded opportunity).
Ample assessment opportunities linked to the assessment standards need to created for
   learners to be assessment and for them to receive feedback in order to improve future
   performance.
The educator needs to create time to consult with individual learners concerning their progress
   and learner portfolios.
The educator needs to plan time in their week to develop or access assessment tools and
   schedules as well as time to monitor learners’ progress (i.e. mark assignments, monitor
   portfolios of evidence, etc.).
Time should also be allowed for internal and external summative assessments (e.g. CTA’s,
   national assessments, etc).
Time may also be required to attend meetings with other FET educators and to attend
   professional development sessions.

Business Studies should be allocated 4.5 hours
contact time per week. This allows for approximately 36 teaching hours per term and 144
hours per year (per grade). When planning educators should allow ample time for
assessments (formative and summative) and unplanned interruptions. Time tables should be
structured to allow maximum time for engagement with the subject i.e. 3 x 90minute periods
per week. This will obviously have to be calculated i.t.o. the school’s timetable cycle.




                                               17
3.3 Managing Diversity

       There are various forms of diversity that need to be considered when designing
       learning programmes and specifically learning and assessment activities.

        Forms of diversity include

       Diversity in learning styles
       Learners learn and show their learning in different ways. Educators need to use
       various teaching methods to cater for different learning styles and to avoid boring
       lessons.
       We could have optional activities and we could have diffirent ways of doing the same
       activity.

       Managing the pace of learning
       Learners learn at various paces. Where possible, plan how you can provide for the
       needs of both slower and faster learners. This may involve optional activities, reading
       or research.

       Differences in levels of achievement and development
       OBE recognises that learners in the classroom are often at different levels of physical
       and cognitive development. For this reason they are capable of different levels of
       challenge. Educators need to respond by sometimes providing optional or extra
       activities, challenges and materials that cater for these differences between learners.

       Language diversity
       While most lessons occur in a single language, most classrooms have a range of
       languages spoken as a home language. We need to ensure that we do not disadvantage
       learners who need to learn and be assessed in a second language. This is one reason for
       using a variety different assessment methods. There are many strategies for coping
       with language issues and educators should ask for help where necessary. (Refer to the
       Language in Learning policy for guidance in this matter)

       Gender diversity
       We need to ensure that we not inadvertently allow or contribute towards
       discriminating against girls or boys in the classroom on the basis of gender. This
       happens in our classrooms, both consciously and very often, unconsciously.

       Cultural diversity
       We have many cultures in our classrooms. We need to recognise, celebrate and be
       sensitive to this. We need to think about issues such as religious holidays, attitudes
       towards certain content and other things when planning.

3.4 Designing year plans and term plans

Planning teaching and learning activities is an essential part of ensuring that learners are
exposed to the relevant information and develop the specified skills required in order to
achieve the assessment standards. The steps below outline a process for designing and
implement learning programmes. Each year of teaching consists of one learning programme.



                                               18
Business Studies therefore consists of three consecutive learning programmes, one for each
grade.

      Step 1 – investigate the learning outcomes and assessment standards
      Step 2 – clarify the evidence required (indicators)
      Step 3 – design the teaching, learning and assessment plan
      Step 4 – design each learning and assessment activity
      Step 5 - implement, reflect and record


To ensure quality and clarity, the programme developer is advised to start with step one and
follow the steps in logical sequence.




                                              19
  LEARNING PLAN DESIGN CYCLE




                                      1. INVESTIGATE
                                What outcomes and assessment
                                standards learners need to
                                master & learners’ current
                                knowledge, skills & values



                                                          2. DETERMINE EVIDENCE
5. IMPLEMENT, REFLECT                                       Clarify the type of evidence
RECORD                                                     required to show that learner
This involves the delivery of the                             has met the assessment
learning & assessment experiences.                                    standards
Educators need to adopt an action
research approach and to reflect on the
effectiveness of these and related
materials and tools.



     4. DESIGN EACH LEARNING
     ACTIVITY OR EXPERIENCE                        3. DESIGN TEACHING,
     This includes what learners and            LEARNING & ASSESSMENT
     educators must do in details for                        PLAN
     each learning & assessment                 Compile overall plan for the year
     opportunity (includes rubrics,                bearing long term learning
     resources, worksheets, etc.).               programme (Gr10-12) in mind




                                              20
Step 1: Investigate the learning outcomes and assessment standards


An essential starting point to any learning programme design is the question: What outcomes
do learners have to master by the end of a particular phase of learning and what standards
should they achieve to show that they have mastered this outcome? Any learning must be
designed down from what learners must know, do and produce at the end of a particular
grade and ultimately at the end of a phase (FET). The outcomes and assessment standards
that school learners should master by the end of Grade 12 are specified in the FET NCS
(schools).

Another important design aspect of a learning programme is how educators plan to assess and
report on outcomes and assessment standards. Educators should ensure that they are familiar
with the schedules and assessment reporting requirements for the Department of Education.
These will also guide their planning process.

When designing down into lesson plans, teachers also need to include the critical outcomes in
their planning. Ideally teachers should work together to plan ways of creating learning
opportunities (e.g. projects) that will develop the critical outcomes.


Step 2: Clarify the Kind of Evidence Required

The learning programme lesson plan or year plan must provide learners with opportunities to
provide evidence that they have achieved selected goals, aims and/or objectives (learning
outcomes and standards for the FET NCS). For this educators need to plan:

     What knowledge the learners will learn and should understand;
     What skills they will learn and practise;
     What issues will help them to develop and assess the identified attitudes and values.

When these are listed educators can plan how these will be taught and assessed.

Determine what learners exiting from the GET have covered and are competent in

Grade 9 learners will be exiting from two different versions of school-based GET until 2008.
From 2004-2008 GET learners will have completed C2005. As from 2009 learners will have
exit Grade 9 having completed the GET NCS (Gr R-9). Grade 10 Business Studies educators
will therefore need to determine what their entry level learners have covered in relation to
either C2005 or the GET NCS (Gr R-9).

It is recommended that an educator undertake some sort of diagnostic base line assessment to
determine what entry-level learners have covered and where their level of competency lies.
This is particularly important while learners exit from C2005. This assessment could be part
of the initial learning programme for learners. For example the first two weeks of learning
and assessment activities could be designed around determining what learners have covered
and could serve as both a baseline assessment and revision process.



                                              21
Learners need to compile portfolios of evidence, which they take with them from Grade to
Grade. These should be given in advance to their following year’s educators, who can use
these portfolios to assist them as part of a base line assessment to plan for a particular group
of learners.

While the question: What have learners already covered? is important, the questions: What
do they still need to cover? and What should they cover again? carry equal weight. Ideally,
educators need to have a perspective on what learners will do over a phase, and to plan
holistically.

A key feature of outcomes-based education is that of expanded opportunity. Learners need to
be given the opportunity to practise skills and values in increasingly more complex contexts,
so that they can receive feedback on, and develop mastery of, outcomes.

Considerations for planning learning programmes are therefore as follows:

What do learners have to learn (knowledge, skills, values)?
What do they currently know (knowledge, skills, values)?
How will this be assessed?
How will assessment feedback be given and integrated into future learning?
How will learning be recorded and reported?


Step 3 : Design the Teaching, Learning and Assessment Plan


Learning and assessment year plan

All educators have already had experiences of designing year plans or schedules. An
outcomes-based plan or schedule simply means that the point of departure for design is the
specified outcomes and assessment standards rather than the syllabus. Since the nature of
assessment has changed educators also need to design more practical and activity based, as
well as, test-based assessments. Planning also needs to allow time for CASS and other
specified assessment procedures (e.g. CTA’s).


Develop practical working and planning tools

Part of planning also involves developing practical and reliable assessment tools (rubrics, etc.)
to assess learners’ progress on activities, tasks, assignments and projects. Assessment
schedules to record their progress with also need to be developed. Staff need to agree on
common assessment symbols of levels (ideally related to the FET five levels of achievement),
and explore the use of common rubrics with which to assess attitudes and values and/or the
critical outcomes across learning areas (see Diagram ).


Step 4 : Design Each Learning & Assessment Activity or Experience

Detailed learning and assessment activities or experiences (extended lesson plans)




                                                22
When the skeleton year-long Teaching, Learning and Assessment plan is ready the educator
can begin to design and develop the individual learning and assessment plans and activities.
Educators needs to plan:

     What the educator and learners will do at each stage throughout the experience.
     What teaching, learning and assessment strategies, tools and resources will be used.
     The additional expanded opportunities that may be included. These may be options for
      learners who work more quickly or more slowly than their peers, or tasks that learners
      can choose to do in different ways.

Flexible and needs driven

There are many ways of developing detailed learning programmes. However, when working
within the context of the FET NCS and outcomes-based education, learning programmes
essentially need to be flexible to accommodate the needs of different learners. It is
recommended that teachers plan in “skeleton” form for the whole year, and in detail for the
first term or two, until they get a feel for their learners and their needs and abilities.

Step 5 : Implement, Reflect and Record

Once the plan has been implemented the educator can reflect on what worked and what could
be improved. The educator needs to note these things down while the experience is still fresh
in their minds, so that if necessary they can adapt and change plans for the following year.

Year plan/schedule quality control checklist.

      Criteria
                                                                                  Yes/no
 1.  Are all activities and assessments linked to the subject outcomes and
     assessment standards?
 2. Are the learning and assessment opportunities designed down from the
     final outcomes and assessment standards (report)?
 3. Does the plan include relevant and authentic assessment tasks?
 4. Are relevant assessment schedules and other assessment tools in place?
 5. Are learning materials and opportunities stimulating, relevant and
     contemporary?
 6. Are learning materials appropriate to the learners’ needs, age and
     ability?
 7. Does the learning programme include:              Skills
                                                       Knowledge
                                                       Values
 8. Does the programme make use of a variety of teaching and learning
     methods?
 9. Are a variety of teaching resources used (visual, aural, physical, etc.)?
 10. Is there a balance between learning and assessment?
 11. Does the programme include both formative (continuous) and
     culminating (summative ) assessment opportunities?
 12. Is assessment used to assist the learner in the learning process (i.e. to
     provide feedback and improve learning)?


                                              23
 13. Is there evidence of links to other subjects to provide holistic
     education?
 14. Are the critical outcomes integrated in the learning process?
 15. Have joint learning area assessment projects and tools been designed
     and incorporated in the learning and assessment plan (e.g. values and
     attitude rubrics, overarching projects, etc.)?

 16. Always ask: “are the learners learning what they should be learning?”

                                          Table 3.1
          Converting a business plan into an action plan: see exemplar in section 6

Step 5 - Implement, reflect and record
The educator reflects on how the experience went – an evaluation indicating what worked
well and those aspects that could be improved. Arising out of these observations, the educator
needs to make the necessary adaptations and changes to improve the quality where necessary.
Evaluation forms are used for this exercise; this also serves as self evaluation for the
educator.

An evaluation form is illustrated below:

What is your view of the unit?
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Was the facilitation of the unit well organized?
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Which sections of the unit did you enjoy most?
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Did it allow for your participation? Are you satisfied with your participation?
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Was the time allocated to the unit?
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
What is your overall impression of the unit?
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________




Year And Term Plans

Year and term plans form an integral part of planning for outcomes-based education. The
length and duration of such plans need to be determined within the boundaries of the school
terms, school year and specified teaching time as determined by the Department of Education.


                                              24
If educators are unsure of any of these times they should consult with their principal or their
District Office.

It is also important to note that learning outcomes and assessment standards should not be
taught in isolation and not necessarily in sequence. It is recommended that educators identify
which assessment standards can be grouped together for learning programme and teaching
purposes, not neglecting the principle of expanded opportunity. An example of how to do this
is included below.

Please note that the outcomes and assessment standards are only an example. Educators need
to link outcomes and assessment standards to suit their own teaching preferences and methods
as well as the specific needs of their learners. The learning programmes below are based on
4.5hrs teaching (timetabled hours) of Business Studies per week. Assessment time is included
in this teaching time. Total time per term is based on 36hrs of teaching/assessment time for
Business Studies per term.

Note:
The assessment standards appearing hereunder are the same as those in the statement, but
they have been numbered here for use in the year plans, for example: 10. 3.2 - will refer to
grade 10, outcome number 3, assessment standard number 2.


GRADE 10

Learning Outcome 1
Challenging Environments

The learner:

10 1.1 Identifies the various components of micro (internal), market and macro business
        environments and discusses the relationship between these environments.
10.1.2 Analyses and describes the features of the micro (internal), market and macro
        business environments in details.
10.1.3 Identifies and discusses contemporary socio-economic issues that impact on business.
10.1.5 Investigates the nature of business being conducted in their vicinity and classifies
        these into primary, secondary and tertiary enterprises.

Learning outcome 2
Achievable Business Ventures

The learner:


10.2.1 Designs and uses a research instrument to assess the needs and wants in an identified
      environment.
10.2.2 Identifies possible business opportunities (based on researched needs and wants)
      and applies a SWOT analysis to determine a viable business venture.
10.2.3 Develops a business plan (including a financial analysis) that can be implemented.
10.2.4 Investigates and debates factors that impact on business location decisions.




                                               25
10.2.6 Presents a variety of business related information clearly and accurately in verbal and
      non-verbal format (including graphs).
10.2.7 Describes the relevance of contracts and their legal implications in different business
      contexts.

Learning Outcome 3
Business Roles

The learner

10.3.1 Explains how creative thinking can contribute towards successful and sustainable
       business practice.
10.3.2 Uses creative thinking to generate entrepreneurial opportunities and to solve business
       problems.
10.3.3 Analyses the concept of self-management and discusses how this is relevant in a
       business context.
10.3.7 Assesses themselves and identifies possible business careers that they are
       interested in following.
10.3.8 Identifies the ways in which people need to work together to accomplish business
       objectives and discusses factors that can influence these relationships (e g
       prejudice, beliefs, values and diversity).
10.3.9 Identifies the criteria for successful and collaborative team performance in
       business context and assesses a team against these criteria.
10.3.10 Identifies ways in which a business can contribute responsibly towards its
       immediate community.

Learning Outcome 4
Business Operations

The learner:
10. 4.1 Identifies and briefly discusses the eight business functions.
10.4.2 Analyses how the business functions are interrelated and how these operate in small,
        medium and big business contexts.
10.4.3 Identifies the levels and tasks of general management and uses this information to
        analyse these within a public or private organisation.
10.4.5 Analyses and explains the following functions and their importance
        in achieving business objectives:
administration
financing
purchasing
public relations
                           EXAMPLE - GRADE 10 YEAR PLAN
To be used in conjunction with assessment standards explanations above

TERM ONE                     A.S. REFERENCE                ESTIMATED TIME
UNIT ONE                     Orientation:                         7hrs
                             Baseline assessment
                             Revision
UNIT TWO                     10.1.1                                   14hrs
                             10.4.1


                                              26
                              10.1.2
                              10 .4.2
UNIT THREE                    10.2.1                                   15hrs
                              10.2.2
                              10.2.4
                              10.1.5
                              10.3.7
                              10.3.1
                              10.3.2
TERM TWO
UNIT FOUR                     10.2.3                                   16hrs
                              10.2.6
                              10.1.3
                              10.3.10
UNIT FIVE                     10.4.3                                   11hr
                              10.3.3
                              10.3.8
                              10.3.9
                              9 hrs additional assessment
TERM THREE
UNIT SIX                      10.2.7                                   27hrs
                              10.4.5
                              9 hrs additional assessment
TERM FOUR
                          Integrated Assessment (Projects)
                        Common tasks for assessment (CTA)
                             External Assessments (EA)
                           Portfolios of Evidence (POE’s)


                               Table 3.2 Year Plan – grade 10

3.5 Designing Learning/Lesson Plans / Lesson Units

When designing lesson plans, it is important for the educator to take the following into
account:
   Diversity (see managing diversity)
   Time available
   Resources
   Local environment
   Other

The following steps are recommended:

investigate and select LO’s and AS’S (consult NCS document)choose an appropriate topithat
links with the selected LO’S and AS’S.
clarify the objectives of the lesson
identify the SKVA’s to be achieved through the selected LO’S and SA’S.
design/plan educator activities
design/plan learner activities


                                              27
choose tasks to be assessed
choose resource material from the available range (educators may adapt)
design assessment instruments with clearly defined criteria eg. rubrics; checklists etc. (see
    section 4)
assess using designed instruments and other techniques (e.g. journals)
record the assessments (see section 4)
review and reflect on the assessment.

Note how plans worked and what could be improved
Make changes or improvements timeously

   check that the final learning plan is aligned to the CO and DO.
   arrange classroom suitably (resources, groups etc)
   adjust the plan to fit into the allocated time.
   commit to writing

   See example in Section 6

Example 1
                                   LESSON PLAN FORM

GRADE:_____________
TOPIC: _____________
DURATION: _________
LEARNING OUTCOMES: _________________________________________________
ASSESSMENT STANDARDS:______________________________________________
AIMS/OBJECTIVES______________________________________________________

TEACHER                LEARNER                 RESOURCES               ASSESSMENT
ACTIVITIES             ACTIVITIES                                      STRATEGIES




EXPANDED OPPORTUNITY
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
HOMEWORK:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________




                                               28
Example 2:

                                     Lesson plan form

             Grade:

             Topic:

             Aims/objectives:

             What the teacher will do:

             What the learners will do:

             How the learners will be assessed:

             What resources will be needed:

             How will the classroom be organised:

             How will expanded opportunities

             And special needs be catered for:


                                  See example in Section 6




                                              29
                                        SECTION 4
                 ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES FOR BUSINESS STUDIES.

4.1 Purpose of Assessment

  Assessment in Business Studies is a continuous, planned process of gathering information
  about the performance of learners measured against the Assessment Standards of the
  Learning outcomes. It requires clearly-defined criteria and a variety of appropriate
  strategies to enable teachers to give constructive feedback to learners and parents.

  An outcomes-base assessment uses assessment strategies that are able to accommodate
  divergent contextual factors. Assessment should provide indications for learner
  achievements in the most effective and efficient manner, and ensure that learners integrate
  and apply skills. It should also help learners to make judgement about their own
  performance, set goals for progress and provoke further learning.

  The teacher’s task is to teach in order to help the learners to satisfy the requirements of the
  Assessment Standards and the learners’ task is to learn or do what the Assessment
  Standards expect. The principle by which it works is that the teacher states beforehand
  what are expected to achieve

4.2    Planning assessments:

Project:

A project is a “natural lifelike” learning activity involving investigation and solving problems
by an individual or small groups of learners. Ideally it should consist of a task in which the
learner sets out to attain some definite goal of real personal value.” (Clarke and Starr: 1981)

A project is any exercise or investigation in which the time constraints are more relaxed.
Projects are:
Practical
Comprehensive and open-ended
Tackled without close supervision, but with assessor guidance and support

The assessor directs the choice of the project, usually by providing the learner with a topic or
brief for the investigation.

Possible uses:

Comprehensive range of skills can be assessed
Integration of activities

Learners will be required to complete a minimum of 1(one) projects as detailed in the CASS
requirements. The educator can decide whether to give the learners a choice of topics or
select only one for all the learners to do.

A suggestion is that projects are dealt with in the 1st term. However, schools will decide
projects dates according to their programme.



                                               30
The resources required for the project should be accessible to your learners without being
burdened with extra expenses.

Learners should be given the necessary guidance as well as the assessment criteria prior to
commencement of the project, and progress must be monitored.

The project should consist of between 4 – 10 handwritten pages excluding pictures, graphs,
displays etc.

When preparing a project the following minimum requirements should be met:

a title page
a table of contents.
text divided into paragraphs
references of sources.
text could include inter alia: pictures, photos, diagrams, graphs etc
be bound or stapled in an acceptable way.


Finally, educators can easily convert the rubric into numerical values if they wish to award
   marks for the project.

   When assessing a project the following rubric can help teachers to score the learners. With
   the rubric different aspect of the project can be assessed, namely:

   Presentation

   This is an activity that allows learners to demonstrate manual and/or behavioural skills.
   The assessment may be based on the end-result of the activity (the product), or the
   carrying-out of the activity (the process), or a combination of both.

   Presentations can be based on the project but also given as a separate task or assignment.
   The presentation can be written or oral but proof of the presentation must be included in
   the portfolio. All criteria used to assess the presentation must be discussed with the
   learners prior to the commencement of the presentation.


   Simulations

    Simulations mirror actual activities or conditions. They are suitable for assessments where
   demonstrations and observation will provide reliable and valid results, but where, for a
   number of reasons, it is difficult or not practicable to assess under actual conditions.

   Possible applications:

  A monthly management meeting
  Voting procedure
  Auctioning
   Learners are provided with information regarding a stokvel and required to record the
 transaction.



                                               31
Scenario / Case study

Learners are presented with a real life situation, a problem or an incident related to the
Learning outcome and are expected to assume a particular role in articulating the position.
They would draw on their own experience, the experience of peers or prior learning to
interpret, analyse and solve problem. Solutions / recommendations related to the case
study / scenario are made and presented.


Tests
Tests could be used for summative or formative purposes. They usually consist of a range
of questions. Learners are required to respond to questions within a specified time. Tests
are usually used to assess the recall of information and cognitive skills such as problem
solving or analyses etc. For a paper and pencil test objective tests and essay tests could be
used.

The objective tests could include multiple choice, matching, true or false, short answer
completion etc. These forms can be used to assess the theory parts of the subject.

Multiple-choice questions

Multiple-choice questions consist of an incomplete statement or a question, followed by
plausible alternative responses from which the learner has to select the correct one.
Outcomes involving higher order analytical skills are probably more validly assessed by
means of free-response assessment instruments such as extended response questions, but
multiple choice questions can be useful if carefully constructed.
Possible uses:
Recall of information
Check understanding; analyses

True and false – (Assertion/reason questions)

These questions consist of an assertion and supporting explanation. The learner has to
decide whether the assertion and explanation are true, and if true, whether the explanation
is a valid reason for the assertion. One possible use is to assess learners’ ability to weigh
up options and to discriminate.


Class tests/tasks

This refers to ordinary class tests. These are conducted during class time. Each educator
will be responsible for his/her own class.
These tests are given on a regular basis and at the discretion of the educator, as the need
arises. The duration of tests should be between 20-40 min. Learners should assume that
every test is being considered for CASS purposes.
There is no limit to the number of tests to be given but a minimum of six tests must be
given per year (two per term). Where more than the minimum tests in each section have
been written, choose the marks that best represents the learner’s ability; averaging may
also be used .



                                            32
Role-plays

Learners are presented with a situation, often a problem or an incident, to which they have
to respond by assuming a particular role. The enactment may be unrehearsed, or the learner
may be briefed in the particular role to be played. Such assessments are open-ended and
are person-centred.

Possible applications:
Interview situations – conducting an interview for employment.

Aural / Oral Questions

These are mainly used to generate evidence on learners’ ability to listen/sign, interpret,
communicate ideas and sustain a conversation in the language of assessment. Oral
questions include oral examinations, interviews, conferences and other conversations in
which information is obtained about student’s learning.
Interpretation of ideas
Expression of ideas
Completion questions/short answer questions
Accommodations for the Deaf, Blind, LD, etc.

Observations

This is the type of assessment that is commonly used by the teachers without consciously
thinking about it. The teachers constantly observe learners informally to assess their
understanding and progress. Teachers watch learners as they respond to questions or as
they study. The teacher listens to them as they speak and discuss with others. Observation
is also used extensively in performance based assessment and other formal techniques.

4.3 Principles of assessment:

In keeping with the principles of outcomes based education assessment will serve to:

Determine whether the learning required for the achievement of the specific outcomes is
taking place and whether any difficulties are being encountered

Report to the parents and other role players on the levels of achievement during the
learning process and to build a profile of the learners’ achievement across the curriculum

Provide information for the evaluation and review of learning programmes used in the
classroom

Maximize learners access to knowledge, shills, attitudes and values defined in the
curriculum.


To help the learners to reach their full potential, assessment should be:

    Transparent and clearly focused;
    Integrated with teaching and learning


                                            33
       Based on predetermined criteria or standards;
       Varied in terms of methods and contexts; and
       Valid, reliable, fair, practical, learner-paced and flexible to allow for expanded
       opportunities.

 4.4 Continuous Assessment:

 Learners will be assessed on the work done in class as well as their performance in
 examinations and tests set during the year. This ongoing assessment in class takes place
 throughout the year and is intended to ensure that the final assessment gives a holistic
 assessment of the learner. This aspect is called the School Based Assessment (SBA) and is
 discussed late on in this chapter. School based assessments usually account for 25% of the
 final mark.

4.5    Assessment of learners who experience barriers to learning

South Africa has adopted a policy of inclusive education that recognises and caters for
learners with special needs in class. Planning should include strategies for addressing
obstacles to learning, helping learners who have difficulties or special needs. Resources and
support services are available from district offices, other educators and service providers.


 4.6 Types of assessment:

 Baseline assessment
 Baseline assessment usually takes place at the beginning of the grade to establish what
 learners already know. It assists teachers to plan learning programmes and learning
 activities.

   Diagnostic assessment
 Diagnostic assessment is used to find out about the nature and cause of barriers to learning
 experienced by specific learners. It is followed by guidance, appropriate support and
 intervention strategies.

   Formative assessment
 Formative assessment monitors and supports the process of learning and teaching, and is
 used to inform learners and teachers about learners’ progress so as to improve learning.
 Constructive feedback is given to enable learners to grow. This assessment is not intended
 to be used for assessing whether the learner has successfully achieved or not in terms of
 being awarded a credit or a certificate.


  Summative assessment

  Summative assessment is assessment for making a judgment about the achievement,
  namely to determine whether the learner is promotable, or may be awarded a certificate
  Summative assessment is not confined to the written examination that assesses a sample of
  learning within a given period, for example 3 hours. Summative assessment allows for the
  use of a much wider range of methods (observation, product evaluations written and oral



                                               34
  questioning) and an equally wide range of instruments (practical, role plays, written
  assignments, tests, examinations, demonstrations, projects, case studies, simulations) etc.
 Evidence for this summative assessment can be collected from a variety of sources.

 Summative assessment gives an overall picture of learners’ progress at s given time, for
 example, at the end of a term or a year

 4.7 Assessment in the teaching of Business Studies.

 The choice of what assessment strategies to used is a subjective one, unique to each teacher,
 grade and school, and dependent on the teacher’s professional judgment. His availability of
 space and resources influences this decision, but even when resources are similar, teachers
 differ in the way they make their choices. The methods chosen for assessment activities
 must be appropriate to the Assessment Standards to be assessed, and the purpose of the
 assessment must be clearly understood by all the learners and teachers involved.
 Competence can be demonstrated in a number of ways. Thus a variety of methods are
 needed to give learners an opportunity to demonstrate their abilities more fully.

 It is of utmost importance that the method used should be appropriate for the specific
 outcomes being assessed. In order to administer effective assessment, you must have a
 clearly defined purpose. By answering these questions, you can decide what type of activity
 best suits the assessment needs. Thus, you must ask yourself several important questions:

 What concept, skill, or knowledge needs to be assessed?
 What should the learners know?
 At what level should the learners be performing?
 What type of knowledge is being assessed: reasoning, memory, or process? (Adapted from
 Stiggins, 1994)

 The table below could be used as a checklist to determine whether the assessment target
 meets the method. For example if you want to assess skills, performance based and
 observations are the best method to do this (check that they both have a rating of 5)


                                      Performance
                                                         Oral                   Self-
              Objective     Essay        based                   Observation
                                                       questions             assessment
                                      (Individual)
Knowledge         5           4            3                4             3              2
Reasoning         2           5            4                4             2              2
Skills            1           3            5                2             5              3
Product           1           1            5                2             4              4
Affect
(values and       1           2              4              4             4              5
attitudes)

                                    Table 4.1 - matching
 Note: Higher numbers indicate better matches (e.g.5 = high, 1 = low). Table adapted from
 McMillan (1997) Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Instruction
Methods are procedures you follow to assess the learners (How)
Tools are instruments you use in your method to assess (what)


                                              35
Techniques (skills) are special ways in which you will use the methods and tools (evidence)


4.8    Methods of assessment.

 Some of the assessment methods, tools and techniques
 (Not to be treated as rigid compartments)
         METHODS                            TOOLS                      TECHNIQUES
 Self-assessment                Portfolio                        Project work
 Group assessment               Observation sheet                Collage
 Peer assessment                Worksheet                        Research project
 1.      Group to learner       Journal                          Assignment
 2.      Group to group         Class lists                      Survey
 3.      Learner to learner     Profiles                         Debate/argument
 4.      Learner to group       Cassettes                        Role-play
 5.      Class to learner       exhibitions                      Interview
                                Questionnaires                   Presentation (Oral and
 Interviews                     Assessment grids/Rubrics         written)
 Observation                    Tests, examination               Practical demonstration
 Oral questions and answers     Written assignments              Scenario
 Self-reporting and answers                                      Posters
 by learners                                                     Charts
 Performance assessment                                          Graphs
 Conferencing                                                    Mind maps
 Recognition of prior learning                                   Games
 (RPL)                                                           Fieldwork (Excursions)
                                                                 Tables


                               Table 4.2 – Assessment Strategies

4.9 Methods of collecting evidence in Business Studies:

There are various methods of collecting evidence. Some of the methods are:

Observation based assessment:
This method tends to be less structured and allow the development of a record of different
kinds of evidence for different learners at different times. This kind of assessment is often
based on tasks that require learners to interact with one another in pursuit of a common
solution. Observation has to be intentional and should be conducted with the help of an
appropriate observation instrument.

Test based assessment:
This is more structured; it enables teachers to gather the same evidence for all same way at the
same time. This kind of assessment creates evidence of learning and is verified by a specific
score. If used correctly, tests and examinations are an important part of the curriculum
because they give good evidence of what has been learned.




                                               36
Task- based assessment:
Task based assessment methods aim to show whether the learner is able to apply the skills
learned in unfamiliar contexts or in contexts outside the classroom. Performance assessment
also covers the practical components of subjects by determining how learners put theory into
practice .The criteria, standards and rules by which the task will be assessed, are described in
rubrics or task checklists and help the teacher to use professional judgements to assess each
learners’ performance.

What is performance assessment?
A performance assessment is a direct observation of an actual learner performance or an
examination of ‘products’ created. During a performance assessment, learners are engaged in
activities that require the demonstration of specific skills or the development of specified
products. The demonstrations can take place in a controlled environment (such as lab or
classroom) or in a real life environment where the complexities faced by the learners are much
higher. In the latter case, the performance assessment is also called an “authentic assessment”.
In both cases learners are expected to demonstrate complex learning that integrates
knowledge, skills, and values in a single performance.

Performance assessments have the following characteristics:

Learners are expected to perform, produce, create or do something
The skills are those displayed by individuals outside the classroom, that is, in society or the
workplace.
Higher order thinking processes and problem-solving skills are required for these tasks.
.      They provide opportunities for learners to present and explain their work


How do teachers develop performance assessments?
The following steps are suggested in developing a performance assessment:

Clearly identify the outcome(s) to be assessed (i.e. create a clear and appropriate target for the
learners)
        Determine the purpose of the assessment and the use of the results
        Design a performance task that will elicit the expected outcome(s)
        Specify the assessment criteria
        Select and construct the storing and recording instruments(s)

Performances include everyday teaching and learning activities such as projects, debates,
assignments, speeches, When performing, learners are applying their skills in a way that is
integral to the teaching and learning process.

Learning outcome 2 is suitable for assessing performance.
Examples :
Conducting a needs analysis
Conducting a SWOT analysis
Developing a business plan
Converting researched business information into graphical representations.


                                               37
       Drawing up case studies of successful businesses
       Case studies for environmental, human rights and inclusivity issues
       Case studies for location
       Case studies for social responsibility
       Case studies for franchising, outsourcing and leasing
Research business careers

Educators could use various forms of assessments to assess learning achievement

TESTS            PERFORMANCE          ORAL/             OBSERVATIONS SELF
                 BASED                AURAL
                 ASSESSMENT
Class tests      Projects             Oral              Constant             Attitude
Controlled       Role plays           examinations      observations and     surveys
tests            Simulations          Interviews        recording in
                 Case studies         Conferences       journals
                 Interviews           Conversations
                 Questionnaires
                 Structured
                 questions
                 Assignments
                 Demonstrations



                             Table 4.3 – Forms of Assessment


4.10 Promotion requirements:

Learners should attain credit in the fundamentals of Languages, Mathematics or Mathematical
Literacy and Life Orientation as well as credit in two core subjects and one elective to be
awarded an FETC (Schools), provided that one subject in the core or elective may be
condoned if the learner has attained partially achieved in that subject. A condonation may
only be applied once.

4.10.1 Introduction:

Fundamental Learning Component
 Two subjects at ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4 including at least one language
 Two subjects at ‘Partial Achievement at NQF Level 4’

Core/Elective Learning Component
   One subject at ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’,
   Two subjects at ‘partial Achievement at NQF Level 4’.

Condonation
   One subject at ‘Inadequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’.




                                             38
Learners who offer the Trinity College of London or UNISA Practical Music Examination,
grades 6,7,8, Performer’s Certificate, Associate (Trinity), or Performer’s Licentiate in Music
must comply with the prerequisite theoretical components as offered by both Trinity College
of London and UNISA.

Overall
A learner must obtain:

Adequate Achievement in at least two subjects from the Fundamental Learning Component,
including at least one Language at First Additional Language level;

Partial Achievement in the remaining two subjects in the Fundamental Learning Component;
Adequate Achievement in one subject in the Core/Elective Learning Component;
Partial Achievement in one subject in the Core/Elective Learning Component as exemplified
in paragraph 3.9.2 below; and

A condonation of one subject at Inadequate Achievement.

Fundamental Learning Component

The learner has shown competence:

    At least ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in one of the two required languages as contemplated in
              section 2.12.1 above, on at least First Additional Level.
    At least ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in the other required language as
            contemplated in section 2.12.1 above.
    At Least ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in Mathematical Literacy/Mathematics
            as contemplated in section 2.12.1. Learners taking Mathematical
            Literacy/Mathematics will be exempted from having to satisfy the rating of
            ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’ to obtain the FETC (General) until 2012.
    At least ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in one of the two remaining component
            subjects and at least ‘Partial Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in the other remaining
            subject.

Core and Elective Learning Components

        The learner has shown competence (at least ‘Adequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’)
           in one subject of the Core/Elective Learning Component, and at ‘Partial
           Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in the other two subjects of the Core/elective
           Learning Component, as contemplated in sections 2.12.2 and 2.12.3 above.
        Until 2012 a learner must obtain at least ‘Partial Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in
           mathematical Literacy or Mathematics as contemplated in paragraph 3.9.2 (c) to
           satisfy the fundamental requirements of the FETC.
        Should a learner obtain ‘Inadequate Achievement at NQF Level 4’ in a maximum of
           one subject in the Core/Elective Learning Component, it will be regarded as
           condoned.




                                                    39
4.10.2 Assessment Structure:
The weighting for promotion requirement is as follows:

CASS component : (school based assessment)           25%


External assessment                                  75% (end of year)

                     SCHOOL BASED                               EXTERNAL
                    Portfolio of evidence                       Examination
                             25%                                   75%



4.10.3 Requirements for School Based Assessment.

THE CASS COMPONENT 25%

The CASS portfolio requirements for Business Studies are as follows:

Class tests
Controlled test
Oral presentations – (debates, interviews, simulations)
Assignments
Projects
Subject management (contribution, usefulness etc.),


4.10.4 Portfolio requirements:

A portfolio must:

Consist of five assessment components: the mark for each component will be derived
from more than one task (e.g. tests)
Provide evidence for moderation

Contain a range of assessment methods

Use methods chosen to accommodate assessment of learning outcomes and show
competency
Show progression in that assessment must provide evidence of the teaching and
learning towards the attainment of learning outcomes throughout the year.

Learning outcome 1 (environments); Learning Outcome 2 – (Business Ventures) and
Learning Outcome 3- (Business Roles) lend themselves to practical work

It is suggested that more than approximately 75% of the CASS mark should come out
from LO 1,2and 3 and the balance 25% from LO4
LO4 should be used for the tests and exams component.



                                        40
Categories for CASS:

Class tests are written regularly.
For CASS, the general rule is that there should be at least two class tests per term.

Controlled Tests
The most common controlled tests are, the first controlled test (quarterly test), the June
test as well as the preparatory test (trial examination for grade 12)

Assignments should be given at least once a year, for grade 10 and 11. (Twice for
grade 12)

Projects - at least one project should be given for the year

Oral Work - should be used to advantage to develop, for example, presentation
skills- delivering the results of a survey, motivating a course of action (decision),
debating forms of ownership, selecting credit options, channels of marketing etc; these
can take place throughout the year.

Class tests and controlled tests should account for 50% of the CASS mark.
Other forms of assessment account for the balance.

4.10.5 External assessment – 75% (See Annexure I)

External assessment refers to assessment that is conducted by an entity such as a
Provincial examining body national agency, or private agency that is not directly
involved with the instruction of the learner. It consists of a written examination paper
which is externally set, marked and moderated. It will not consist of more than two
papers per subject.

For Business Studies, the examination paper should be based more on those LO’s that
were not used for continuous assessment activities. (See above).

It is suggested that the question paper be of three hours duration and that the
composition be as detailed in the annexure.




                                       41
4.11 Recording and Reporting learner achievement
4.11.1 Methods of Recording:

Recording is a process of capturing learners’ progress towards the achievement of
assessment standards and ultimately outcomes. Recording of assessment can take place
in a variety of environments. Recording of assessment should take place in such a way
that it gives an accurate and clear indication of a learner’ progress.

Different tools can be used to record a learner’s progress. These can be tools such as the
following:

Formative assessment:

Journals
Checklists
Rubrics (analytic and holistic)
Class lists/mark sheets
Summative schedules, etc.

Lesson plans should be designed to enable educators to assess and record during the
teaching and learning process.

Learners should be assessed according to the principles of continuous assessment.
Continuous assessment involves assessing a learner on a regular basis against set and
clearly defined criteria in order to
(i) determine their progress, and
(ii) to provide feedback for improvement of future performance/s.

The following are examples of different types pf recording instruments:
Rating scales:
These are any marking system where a symbol, (A or B) or a mark (50%) is defined in
detail to link the coded score to a description of the competencies that are required to
achieve that score. The detail is more important than the coded score, in the process of
teaching and learning and it gives the learner a much clearer idea of what has been
achieved and where their learning has fallen short. traditional marking tended to use rating
scales without the descriptive details making it difficult to have a sense of the learners
strengths and weaknesses. A six point scale is used.

Task lists or checklists

Task lists or checklists consist of discrete statements describing the expected performance
in a particular task. When a particular statement (criterion) on the checklist can be
observed as having been satisfied by a learner during a performance, the statement is
ticked off. All the statements that have been ticked off on the list (as criteria that have
been met) describe the learner’s performance. These checklists are very useful in peer or
group assessment activities.

Rubrics for Assessment

What are rubrics?



                                           42
    Rubrics are a combination of rating codes and descriptions of standard. They consist of a
    hierarchy of standards with benchmarks that describe the range of acceptable performance
    in each code band. Rubrics require teachers to know exactly what is required by the
    outcome. Rubrics can be holistic, giving a global picture of the standard required, or
    analytic, giving a clear picture of the distinct features that make up the criteria, or can
    combine both.

    How to draw a rubric


    Rubrics are rating scales used to assess learner performance. They consist of specific,
    predetermined criteria, used to evaluate the work of learners. They consist of a list of
    criteria that describes which expectations are being assessed, as well as the levels of
    quality against which the learners’ performance is being assessed. Rubrics help to guide
    learners to the desired performance levels.

    Kinds of rubrics:


    Holistic rubrics - score the overall process
    Analytic rubrics - they score the individual parts

    The following are the recommended steps in drawing up rubrics:

    1. Examine the assessment standard that describes the task..
    2. Specify the skills, knowledge and attitude that you are looking for.
    3. Identify the observable attributes you want to see.
    4. Identify those you don’t want to see.
    5. Brainstorm the characteristics that describe each attribute and how they can be
        described so that they can be classified into average, above average and below
        average.
    6. Write descriptions for excellent and poor performance.
    7. Write descriptions for other levels in between.
    Collect samples of work that exemplify each level.

    Evaluating the rubric:
    Use the following as a checklist

                                                                                               YES   NO
Does the rubric emphasize the most important content and skills of the particular AS/LO?
Are the criteria used in the rubric of appropriate importance?
Are there sufficient levels of performance to discriminate between the quality of learners
work?
Are the levels clearly described in terms of performance?
Do the levels accommodate learners” diversity?
Does the rubric distinguish between content and skills as well as the communication thereof?
Does the rubric contribute to an efficient marking process?
Was a careful decision made between using marks and level descriptors or letter symbols?
Does the rubric offer appropriate guidance to learners?




                                                      43
What to avoid when using rubrics:

Marker drift- markers becoming more lenient as they progress through the scripts (time)
Consistency – (ensuring fairness) – marking must be consistent across teachers and time
Marking tendencies - the tendency to mark too strictly or too leniently; also marking too
close to a mean.
Halo effect – marking on the overall impression ( length and presentation) instead of paying
attention to the quality of the work
Guidance – how much information to give before getting started
Time - giving learners time to think ; not just recall.
Feedback – using the rubric to give valuable feedback to learners.
Task selection – is the task worth doing? Selecting tasks that have learning benefit.

How to ensure that the rubric improves the marking process
Make use of a well-designed rubric
Use a consistent strategy when designing rubrics – be sure that important characteristics
feature in the rubrics
Work with a colleague when designing rubrics
Share your rubrics with others to use and compare the results
Use rubrics with other assessment strategies.

4.11.2   Reporting learner performances and achievement

Learners progress must be communicated to both learners and parents (or guardians) to
encourage their involvement and participation in the learning and assessment process.

Informal and formal reporting should take place on a regular basis. Reporting can include
progress reports, meetings, consultations, and interviews with both learners and parents.
Formal progress reports should be produced at least twice annually. Ideally educators should
try to provide learners and parents with a progress report or schedule at the end of each term.
It is recommended that educators meet with parents (guardians) and learners to provide the
opportunity for explanation, discussion and advice.

Initially it may be necessary to hold an information session to explain outcomes based
education, new methods of assessment and ways of reporting to parents and guardians.

Summative reporting on progress reports at a FET level should be done according to the six
point scale as determined by the National Department of Education.
Marks will be allocated in assessments but will then be translated into the criterion-referenced
descriptions.. For this purpose the following classification scheme for a mark translation to
descriptions has been developed:

           GRADING          MARKS (%)               DESCRIPTIONS
               1            0 – 29%                 Inadequate
               2            30% – 39%               Partial
               3            40% – 49%               Adequate
               4            50% – 59%               Satisfactory
               5            60% – 79%               Meritorious
               6            80% - 100%              Outstanding



                                               44
When a teacher/assessor prepares an assessment task/ question, he/she must ensure that the
task/question addresses an aspect of a particular outcome to be assessed. Criterion-referenced
descriptions must be used to create , for example, rubrics according to which the work will be
assessed. In constructing rubrics teachers/ assessors must ensure that the above classification
scheme is used to allocate marks to points on the rubric.

A mark will be symbolic of a particular point on a rubric. In all rubrics, 40% and over of the
marks will be awarded at the point at which the rubric indicates that the learner has achieved
the outcome. The teacher/ assessor thus assesses in terms of a rubric. If an assessment task/
test is out of 20 marks, 8 marks and over will be awarded at the point that the rubric indicates
sufficient criteria have been met to deem the learner to have achieved the outcomes for that
task/ test. Learners will have to attain a final grading of 3 (Adequate) or above in order to gain
credit for a subject in the FETC.

Refer to competency statements (LOCD and SCD) Section 6 – Illustration

Using the competency statements.
Examine the competency statements and you will find that it reflects the different
levels of achievement for different learners. These achievement levels are arranged in order
from outstanding (80% - 100%) to inadequate (0%-29%). These are to be used when drawing
up a rubric for assessment.


Example:
Take an assessment standard for example :

“Develops a business plan (including financial analysis) that can be implemented.”
(Grade 10, LO 1) can be described in the following ways:

Level 6: develops a well structured business plan (including financial analysis) that can be
practically implemented.
Level 5 : develops a well structured business plan (including financial analysis) that can be
implemented.
Level 4 : develops a well structured business plan that can be implemented
Level 3 : develops a business plan that can be implemented.
Level 2 : develops a business plan that cannot be implemented because of incorrect
information
Level 1 : develops an incorrect business implemented.


It is recommended that the above descriptors be used in the formulation of the rubric for
assessment.

What Report Cards Should Look Like

There are many ways to structure a report card but what we have learned is that the simpler
the Report Card the better, providing that all the important information is included. Report
cards should include information about a learner’s overall progress that shows:



                                               45
The learning achievement
The learner’s strengths
Support needed or provided, where relevant
Constructive feedback that comments on the performance in relation to her/his previous
performance and the requirements of the subject.

Schools are at liberty to design their own report cards as long as some basic requirements are
met. This includes information about the following:

Basic Information

Name of school
Name of learner
Learner’s grade
Year and term
Signature of parent or guardian
Signature of educator and of principal
Date
Dates of closing and re-opening of school
School stamp
School attendance profile
Level descriptors


4.12 Moderation Of Assessment
What are some of the levels of moderation?

4..12.1 Moderation of School Based Assessment
The first responsibility rests with the HOD of the subject. His duties are to ensure that tests
and other assessment instruments are of acceptable standard, and that, should there be more
than one educator then there is standardisation among them.

The Principal of the school is also a participant in this process. While the principal may not
have in depth knowledge of the subject, he is able to conduct an AUDIT of the CASS
requirements, that is, he must be satisfied that the minimum requirements of the subject are
followed (with respect to testing, this would be two tests per term.

Assessment of research project

General guideline

5      Excellent
4      Exceeds the requirement
3      Meets the requirement
2      Does not meet the requirement – learner needs support
1      Made very little effort – learner needs substantial support
0      Learner made no / almost no effort – learner needs substantial support and guidance




                                               46
Planning

5      Most practicable planning schedule, independently drawn up by learner
4      Very good, practicable planning schedule, with only minor adjustments by
       educator needed
3      Good planning schedule, with a only a number of small adjustments by
       educator needed
2      Planning schedule not totally practicable - a substantial degree of adjustments needed
1      Planning schedule totally impracticable - totally new planning necessary
0      Planning schedule not handed in at all

Quality of research


5      Wide variety of sources used
4      More than required number of sources used
3      Adequate number of sources used
2      Less than adequate number of sources used
1      No recognised resources used; no research done

Continuous collection of information and material

5      A lot of information collected continuously / submitted before due dates
4      More than adequate information collected / submitted before/on due dates
3.     Adequate information collected continuously / submitted on due dates
2      Less than adequate information collected / some due dates missed
1.     Very little information collected/seldom met due dates; no information collected or
       handed in at all

Final project: originality / creativity

5     Unique presentation of extremely high quality
4     Original presentation – however, based upon existing ideas
3     Standard presentation - content is relevant and interesting
2     Requirements have been met, and no more
1     Content entirely / almost entirely copied directly from sources; no effort made

Final project: quality of content

5      In-depth presentation pertaining to real-world practice / evidence is shown of insight
       into relationship between subject theory and real-world practice
4      Relevant and well-researched presentation - Learner demonstrates very good insight
3      Relevant content shows good insight, area of research well covered.
2      Some part of content is relevant - partly copied directly from sources - insight lacking
1      Very little effort made - content largely copied directly from sources; content only
       slightly in line with topic – copied directly from sources

Technical quality

5      Proof of pride and very hard work - impressive final product


                                              47
4      Excellent presentation - made full use of available sources/technology
3      Good final project
2      Minimal effort made – presentation still acceptable.
1.     Very little trouble taken - untidy, shabby presentation; project not handed in /
       unacceptable presentation and/or appearance of content

Marking grid

Marks allocated (circled) according to the sub-criteria are carried over onto the grid below by
the different persons assessing the project.

                         MARK AWARDED
                         SELF        PEER/GROUP           CONSENSUS         EDUCATOR
CRITERIA
1 PLANNING
2 QUALITY OF
  RESEARCH
3 CONTINUOUS
  COLLECTION
  OF
  INFORMATION
  AND MATERIAL
4 FINAL
  PRODUCT:
  CREATIVITY
5 FINAL
  PRODUCT:
  QUALITY OF
  CONTENTS
6 TECHNICAL
  QUALITY
7 ORAL
  PRESENTATION
8 INDIVIDUAL
  GROUP ROLE

CONVERTED TO
                               Table 4.4 – Project marking grid




                                              48
GROUP ASSESSMENT

                                 Group Name/Number …………………………..

NAMES:         ……..……………………………………………………………………….

            ………………………………………………………………..………………..

DID OUR GROUP:                             YES           NO

Listen to each other


   Talk about the task?


  Co-operate within the group?


  Suggest good ideas?


  Encourage each other?



   What went well?:
   …………………………………………………………………………………………

   …………………………………………………………………………………………

   …………………………………………………………………………………………

   …………………………………………………………………………………………

  What could we do better?:
  ……………………………………………………………………………...……………

  …………………………………………………………………………………………

  …………………………………………………………………………………………


  Signed: …………………………………………..




                                  49
   Oral presentation / interview

       5       Enthusiastic, informative presentation, using excellent terminology. Illustrates
               insight, perspective and a thorough knowledge of topic. Efficient use of media
               during representation
       4       Very good use of language and terminology - illustrates good insight into topic
               - very good presentation
       3       Speaker illustrates good command of topic - good representation.
       2       Speaker illustrates little conviction - though acceptable presentation
       1.      Monotonous, uninteresting presentation - speaker shows very little command
               of topic ; No oral presentation


4.12.2 External Assessment of Moderation

Cluster Moderation

The next level of moderation involves the cluster moderator. The cluster moderator is one
who is elected by educators to oversee the quality of their work. The cluster moderator
scrutinises the work of a cluster of schools and reports on it. Subject advisors refer to the
reports to establish where there are problems and acts on the information.

Province/ District
The next level of moderation involves the province and district.; the province/district, selects
either subjects or regions and conducts sample moderation to ensure that other levels of
moderation have taken place. This applies to the district also.

National
The next level of moderation involves the National Department of Education who may chose
any province or subject to conduct an audit.

Umalusi is also involved in moderation at various levels.




                                               50
                                 SECTION 5
                           MONITORING AND SUPPORT
5.1 Ongoing Monitoring and moderation

Monitoring and support ensures quality standards.

Monitoring :
Who does monitoring?

Provinces have their own structures for monitoring the progress in the subject as a whole that
is the implementation of OBE as well as the CASS requirements. It is important to ensure
that quality standards are maintained so that the final result is true and valid. In most cases,
the subject advisors are involved in this process together with school officials – HOD’s and
Principals.

5.2 Learning And Teaching Support Materials
5.2.1 Development of Teaching Support Material

For many educators, the most important resource used for classroom teaching and preparation
of work is the textbook. OBE methodology requires that encourages and the educator be on
the lookout for a wide range of support material. All these various types of stimulus materials
are known as Learning Support Material.

These LSM should help the learner acquire knowledge and gain a wide range of skills;
educators have greater freedom than before to choose materials that are relevant and
interesting for their schools.

The following is suggested as a guide:

Plan before using resources:

The best way to use resources is to first know what you require. One has to be certain as to
what one wants learners to learn to ensure that LSM’s are not used unproductively. It is
always useful to research texts and policy documents as part of the planning process. Some
educators’ plans, however, reflect a page by page reference to the textbook. An educator
should remember that OBE encourages him to work from the plan to the available
resource, rather than from the resource to the plan.

Find and use a range of resources:

There are different kinds of resources:
Publications : such as textbooks, and other printed resources that have always been the main
resource for educators.
Products – such as posters, models, equipment, videos, charts, and other forms of two and
three dimensional resources.
People – such as role models, experts in specific fields, colleagues, parents and local
community members can often bring learning to the classroom. Internationally, there is a
trend to involve community leaders other than educators in learning. Local professionals such
as engineers, clerics, accountants and others are often willing to donate a few hours a year to


                                               51
helping educators. This may involve coming to the classroom or even sitting with educators
to help plan activities.
Places – for field trips or site visits can be a useful way of making learning materials relevant
to real life. Local libraries, construction sites, shopping malls, and railway stations are places
where learners can apply the concepts they learn in schools.

Resource – based learning

The collection, analysis, organization and critical evaluation of information all underpin
resource – based learning, which emphasizes the process of acquiring information as much as
it does the content of the information acquired.

Resource – based learning involves:
- active interaction with multiple learning resources
- learning by doing
- making meaning as individuals
- constructing knowledge by problem - solving with information tools

 For resource – based learning to take place successfully, it is essential that a wide range of
 learning and support materials be available to the learner teachers and it is through access to
 a wide range of suitable learning and support materials that a learner can become mentally
 active, literate, independent, confident and critical – all qualities central to outcomes – based
 education. Access to a range of learning support materials makes it possible for the learner
 to become aware of divergent viewpoints. Democracy can only flourish in a situation where
 multi – faceted thinking is encouraged.

Example of using learning support material (project)

 Among the many examples of support materials, which can be used by the learner working
 in the classroom, doing homework or researching a project are:

 textbooks
 readers, census data, graphic data, graphs
 classroom resource material
 dictionaries, photographs, models, encyclopedias and other reference works
 posters, pamphlets, brochures, cartoons
 magazines and newspapers
 prerecorded videos, audio – cassettes and slides
 multimedia packages
 internet

Use of textbooks
Use textbooks as a secondary and not a primary resource

Use textbooks as an educator resource to get ideas on what and how to teach.
Educators are, themselves, the main resource that learners have.

Arguments for using textbooks




                                                52
Textbooks are useful for the following reasons:

A textbook is a framework, which regulates and times the programmes
In the eyes of learners, a textbook means purpose
With textbooks, learners think that their learning is taken seriously
In many situations, a textbook can serve as a syllabus
A textbook provides ready-made teaching texts and learning tasks
A textbook can provide ideas for teachers to extend the range of responses to accommodate
diverse learning styles and learning needs
A textbook is a cheap way of providing learning materials
A learner with a textbook is focused and not teacher-dependent,
For novice teachers, unqualified and under – qualified teachers a textbook means security,
guidance and support
Textbooks provide activities to ensure that outcomes are achieved
Textbooks serve as a resource
Textbooks include activities for enrichment
Textbooks include pertinent illustrations, graphs, maps and diagrams
Textbooks contain an organised, sequential approach to the study of a subject or learning area
Textbooks can present a large amount of information efficiently
Textbooks provide opportunities for learners to reason and expand their understanding if the
author has inserted key questions throughout the text
Textbooks provide motivation if the authors’ insights are presented in an exciting and
challenging way
Textbooks can also support the implementation of a new curriculum by providing a
framework for teachers to follow initially and later adapt as they gain more knowledge and
experience.


Counter arguments

Textbooks are counterproductive for the following reasons:

If every learner has different needs, no one textbook can be a response to all differing needs
Topics in a textbook may not be relevant for and interesting to all
A textbook is confining, i.e. it inhibits teachers’ creativity
   A textbook of necessity sets prearranged sequence and structure that may not be realistic
and situation-friendly
Textbooks cannot by their nature cater for a variety of levels, all types of learning styles, an
all categories of learning strategies that often exist in the class
Teachers may find themselves as mediators with no free hand and slave, in fact, to others’
udgments about what is good and what is not.
Textbooks can become obsolete.
It takes time to select good textbooks

There is a limit to what learning and teaching support materials can be expected to do for us.
The whole business of the management of learning is far too complex to be satisfactorily
catered for by a pre-packaged set of decisions embodied in learning and teaching support
materials.




                                                53
This means, however perfect a textbook is, it is just a simple tool in the hands of teachers. We
should not, therefore, expect to work miracles with it. What is more important than a textbook
is what a teacher can do with it. As Brown and Yule, 1983, put it:

       “… it is in principle, not possible to find materials which would interest everyone. It
       follows that the emphasis should be moved from attempting to provide intrinsically
       interesting materials, which is generally impossible, to doing interesting things with
       materials …. These materials should be chosen, not so much on the basis of their own
       interest, but for what they can be used to do.”


Pitfalls to avoid when using textbooks

   The following are pitfalls to avoid when using textbooks:

Books are used as reference books to plan and develop learner notes and lessons, and not for
   learners to use and interact with.
Books that are too cumbersome (long and narrative) force teachers not to complete the work
   in a given year.
For the above reasons the curriculum is sometimes not covered in the given year, leaving
   learners with a deficit in the following year.
Visual texts in books are often used inadequately, not used or used incorrectly: they are
   copied laboriously onto charts or the board whereas they are meant to expand, support and
   explain concepts and texts.
Textbooks are often used to copy notes onto the board for learners to copy into exercise books
   to rote learn.
Teachers read sentences from books and go into lengthy explanations, running out of time to
   complete the planned unit of work. This leads to key concepts and other key learning
   outcomes not being taught.
Language levels are often too high, not only for learners but also for teachers.
Key concepts and visuals are sometimes so complex and unsupported that they are
   inaccessible and therefore ignored.
Textbooks are used to keep learners quiet if the teacher is busy or elsewhere.
Teachers sometimes fear that learners will not listen to them if they give them textbooks.
Important practical work such as experiments and activities to test understanding are not done
   or skipped because teachers concentrate on note-taking and lecturing.
Exercises and testing on textbook content are usually given to test memory.


5.2.2. Criteria for selecting learning support material (LSM)

Guidelines for the development and evaluation of Learning and Teaching Support
Materials in Business Studies


KEY 4          EXCELLENT
    3          SATISFACTORY
    2          PARTIALLY ADEQUATE
    1          INADEQUATE



                                              54
     LEARNER CENTRED
                                                                        1   2   3   4
     Do the learning and teaching support materials address
     the needs of the learners?
1    Is the language level appropriate for the target group?
2    Are the materials suitable for additional language
     users?
3    Is the vocabulary level appropriate for the target group
     (grade specific)?
4    Is the concept level appropriate for the target group? (Will
     learners understand the concepts that are assumed in the
     learning and teaching support materials?)
5    Are the materials sensitive to the cultural groups in the target
     group as well as to all cultural groups in the country?
6    Do the materials avoid racist innuendo, sexist stereotyping,
     textual and visual material of an offensive nature?
7    Do the materials incorporate textual and visual material
     representing all cultures of the target group and of the whole
     country?
8    Are the illustrations accurate, properly captioned, and placed
     near the related text?
9    Do the learning and teaching support materials acknowledge
     the prior experience of the learners?
10   Are the learning and teaching support materials relevant for a
     diverse group of learners and their world of living?
11   Do the materials contain emphasis on learning outcomes,
     assessment standards and specific
     outcomes?
12   Do the materials include expanded opportunities for
     learners?
13   Do the materials allow for enrichment of the gifted learners
     or high flyers?
14   Do the materials encourage learners to give consideration to
     environmental issues?
15   Do the materials provide a balance between listening,
     speaking, reading and writing?
16   Do the materials provide for a variety of meaningful
     activities for individual, paired, co-operative learning and
     information gap activities?
17   Can the materials be modified to cater for learners who
     experience barriers to learning?
     GOOD WRITING
     Do learning and teaching support materials follow the
     conventions of good writing?
1.   Are there clear statements of intended outcomes at the start
     of major sections?
2.   Does the material provide a form of checklist to ascertain if
     all knowledge and skills relevant to the grade have been
     covered?


                                            55
3.   Does the learning and teaching support material provide
     adequate summaries of key concepts?
4    Are the materials active and interesting to read? (Or do
     learners just passively read or listen?)
5    Is the content of the learning materials up to date?
6    Are the materials well-structured and organized in a logical
     and coherent way?
7    Is the content accurate?
8    Are the materials written in a user friendly way, using more
     personal style?
9    Do the materials use an enticing and inviting design, layout
     and graphic design?
10   Does the layout make it easy for learners to integrate graphic
     information and text?
11   Do the materials present learners with feedback to learning
     opportunities, activities or the various assessments?
12   Will learners of both sexes and various cultures and physical
     conditions be able to use the materials without feeling
     excluded or estranged?
13   Are appendices containing additional, helpful information
     included to assist learners come to terms with difficult
     concepts?
14   Are there lists of related readings at the end of chapters and
     or a comprehensive bibliography at the end of the book?
15   Does the author include discussion and review questions at
     the end of each chapter?
16   Does the author provide an index complete with key words
     and important terms?
     GOOD TEACHING
1    Do the learning and teaching support materials promote
     principles such as human rights, social justice and
     peace?
2.   Do the materials take into consideration environmental
     issues?
3    Do the learning materials encourage active learning?
4    Do the learning and teaching support materials encourage
     critical thinking?
5    Do the learning and teaching support materials attempt to
     develop competencies and skills?
6    Do the materials give enough support and guidance to
     teachers, so that they will know how to use them to their
     fullest potential?
7    Have the materials been tested and trialed by the
     teachers?
8    Have the materials been tested and trialed by learners?
     TEACHER MATERIALS
1    Does the LTSM correlate with learner texts and is easy to
     use?
2    Are outcomes and assessment standards clearly stated?


                                           56
3    Does the LTSM provide a variety of learning activities to
     meet the needs of a wide range of learners?
4    Does the LTSM provide a variety of assessment tools?
5    Does the LTSM provide for extension exercises and
     remediation exercises?
6    Does the LTSM help teachers improve their understanding
     of the Learning Area?
7    Are ideas for adapting the material to different ability groups
     as well as learners who experience barriers to learning
     included?
8    Are answers to exercise included?
     Intended audience
1    Do the materials focus on the needs of the learners within
     their various contexts?
2    Is there a complete picture of the learners visible in the
     materials, in terms of demographic, social and economic
     realities for the target group?
3    Are the materials appropriate for diverse target
     groups?
4    Are the diverse backgrounds of the learners taken into
     account, in terms of content? (experienced vs in –
     experienced)
5    Are the materials appropriate for learners with a variety of
     language backgrounds and ability within the medium of
     instruction?
6    Will the learners feel part of the learning situation because of
     inclusion of their various cultural and language groups
     within activities, case studies and examples in the learning
     materials?
7    Are the learning and teaching support materials relevant to
     the learning situations of learners?
8    Are the materials suitable for learners who experience
     barriers to learning? If not can they be modified for those
     learners?
9    Is learner motivation taken into account? Is this addressed
     either implicitly or explicitly?
10   Has the amount of work of the learners been taken into
     account? (homework, study time, reading time, activity time
     etc)
11   Is there a balance between individual (including homework)
     and group work (projects, pair work, etc), so as to reduce the
     individual learner’s workload?
12   Is there a balance between guided (facilitated with the
     teacher) and self-instruction (self-motivated, self-driven
     projects, etc) to allow learners freedom to explore their own
     interests?
13   Are the learners addressed explicitly in the layout (choice of
     graphics, characters in cartoons, etc) in the activities
     (characters in case studies, names etc) and in the body of the
     learning materials (relevant content)?

                                            57
14 Are the learners provided with enough guidance through the
   learning and teaching support materials without
   patronization or condescension?
15 Do the materials guide the learners to meet the critical and
   developmental outcomes for the specific learning area?
16 Do the materials guide the learners to meet the learning
   outcomes for the specific learning area?
17 Will the learners feel drawn to be active participants in the
   learning process?
18 Will the materials engage the learners, through the content,
   presentation (layout) and appeal to their worlds?
19 Do the learning and teaching support materials make
   reference to learners’ prior knowledge and
   experiences?
20 Are learners provided with feedback so that materials serve
   self-assessment and diagnostic purposes for learners?
21 Do the materials enable learners to understand themselves as
   democratic citizens through the fostering of co-operation,
   tolerance, conflict resolution, and practicing of democracy?
22 Do the materials enable learners to identify the resources that
   they use everyday, where they come from, how they can be
   used more effectively, how they are produced and marketed
   and how this process has changed over time?
23 Does the material develop a holistic picture of change over
   time in South Africa by integrating the different aspects of
   society such as socio-economic issues?
   TEACHER FRIENDLY/USABLE
   The following criteria should be considered
1 Is the purpose and relevance of the learning and teaching
   support materials made explicit to the
    teachers ?
2 Do the learning and teaching support materials guide the
   teachers to appropriate examining methods and presentation
   strategies for the learning tasks ?
3 Do the materials guide the teachers to appropriate
   assessment opportunities (formative and summative
   assessment) for the group of learners as well as for
   individual assessment?
4 Will the teachers be able to use the learning and teaching
   support materials with a broad range of learners (learners
   with differentiated abilities) in the same class?
5 Will teachers, irrespective of background knowledge of the
   content / learning area be able to use the learning and
   teaching support material easily and effectively?
6   Do the materials link explicitly with the critical and
   developmental outcomes / assessment standards and learning
   outcomes ?
7 Are time guidelines given (where appropriate) for learning
   activities ?
8 Will materials guide the teachers to acknowledge and take

                                          58
     advantage of various learners’ prior knowledge and
     experiences?
9    Is the material supplemented to provide examples /
     guidelines of appropriate teaching approaches and methods
     to guide less experienced teachers ?
10   Are the materials suitable for teaching in a process-oriented,
     OBE approach, rather than content-driven teaching ?
11   Do the materials foster integration with other learning areas
     and are these relationships explained fully for the teachers ?
12   Are the teachers guided to additional learning resources to
     enrich the learning experiences of the learners ?
13   Are the teachers encouraged to adapt materials for the
     individual situations and for learners who experience barriers
     to learning ?
     APPROPRIATE CONTENT
     The following criteria should be considered
1    Are the materials free of negative preferences and prejudices
     ?
2    Do the materials meet the content needs of the learning area
     ?
3    Do the materials contain emphasis on the categories of
     outcomes : knowledge, skills, attitudes and values.
4    Do the materials meet the learners’ and teachers’ need in the
     learning area ?
5    Are the materials organized in a logical and progressive
     sequence with clear links between ideas expressed ?
6    Are the learning and teaching support materials relevant for
     the diverse groups of learners and their worlds ?
7    Do the materials encourage application of skills, attitudes,
     values and knowledge in real world
     situations ?
8    Do the materials promote an awareness and use of
     technology ?
9    Do the materials promote integration with other learning
     areas ?
10   Do the materials reflect the principles of human rights, social
     justice, inclusivity and environmental
     awareness ?
11   Are there clear links between ideas expressed ?
     (introductory sections relate new material to previously
     learned material )
     LEARNING EXPERIENCES/INTERACTIVE
     LEARNING MATERIALS
     The following criteria should be taken into consideration
1    Do the learning materials supply appropriate learning
     experiences throughout ? ( activities, projects, etc)
2    Do the materials encourage active participation from learners
     and teachers ?
3    Do the learning and teaching support materials provide for


                                           59
     expanded opportunities ( practice of various
      skills ) ?
4    Is there a wide variety of learning experiences and activities
     worked into the learning and teaching support materials to
     accommodate learners with varying learning styles ?
5    Do all activities provide clear, unambiguous instruction and
     directions for learners and teachers ?
6     Are the activities pitched at various cognitive and ability
     levels to encourage all learners in their learning ? ( Are there
     some activities that everyone can succeed at ?)
7    Do the activities go beyond the “teach and test”
     model ?
8    Do the activities allow for self assessment ?
9    Is feedback in the form of suggested answers and strategies
     rather than merely prescriptive content accuracy ? In other
     words does the feedback encourage learners to explore their
     own learning processes ?
10   Is feedback clear and unambiguous enough to guide the
     learners to recognize and correct their errors ?
11   Is time indication given, if necessary to help learners with
     time management and expectations ?
12   Are the activities / learning experiences related to the
     authentic demands of the learning area outside of the school
     situation ?
13   Are the activities / learning experiences relevant to the real
     world of the learners ?
14   Does the range of activities explore the content demands,
     skills demands and attitudes demands of the learning area ?
15   Do the learning and teaching support materials provide for
     group work, as well as for individual practice ?
16   Do some of the activities encourage the use of media, e.g.
     audio cassette, video cassette, computer based programmes,
     use of technology, newspapers etc?
17   Do some of the activities allow for self-paced work?
18   Do some of the activities allow for problem identification
     and problem solving?
19   Are activities and learning opportunities arranged in a logical
     order throughout the text? (from the given to the new)
20   Is progression built into the development of ideas?
     (scaffolding principle)
21   Do some of the activities allow for collection, manipulation
     and presentation of information?
22   Have the various types of questions been taken into
     consideration?
23   Does the material lead learners to make independent
     decisions?
24   Does the material encourage searching for and processing
     information from a variety of sources?
     APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT


                                            60
     The following criteria should be considered
1    Are assessment procedures clear? (Type of assessment,
     connection between assessment to outcomes, etc)
2    Are the instructions and directions very clearly
     explained ? (How the assessment takes place )
3    Are there assessment strategies for all of the learning
     outcomes ?
4    Do the materials lend themselves to different types of
     assessment ? (continuous, group, individual, projects etc)
5    Do the materials include samples of assessment
     criteria ? (marking schemes, checklists etc)
6    Do the materials provide teachers with guidance to help them
     collect and judge the evidence ?
7    Does the assessment take into account the appropriate
     performance indicators ?
8    Do the learning and teaching support materials encourage
     learner success, rather than failure ?
9    Do the materials assess learner progress, as well as products
     ?
10   Do the materials provide guidance for evaluation or
     assessment of the teacher ?
11   Do the materials include assessment materials which
     motivate the learners ?
12   Do the materials include assessment materials which
     encourage learner self-assessment ?
13   Do the assessment materials assess different thinking and
     communication skills ? (Recall of knowledge,
     comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and
     evaluation etc.)
14   Do the assessment materials provide differentiation without
     discouraging weaker learners ? Without patronization ?
     Without diminishing weaker learners ?
15   Do the assessment materials provide a challenge for the
     above average learners ?
16   Does the material include a series of questions to monitor the
     acquisition of knowledge, skills and values, in line with
     continuous outcomes based assessment ?
     ACCESSIBLE LANGUAGE/REGISTER
     The following criteria should be considered
1    Is the language of learning and teaching support materials
     accessible to the intended learners, in terms of language
     ability for the language of learning and teaching?
2    Is the vocabulary of the learning and teaching support
     materials adequately explained in the text, without assuming
     prior knowledge, especially of academic idiom and cliché ?
3    Are relevant concepts for the learning area explained and
     defined clearly and concisely within the learning and
     teaching support materials ?
4    Is the language used appropriate to the age, level and


                                          61
     experience of learners ?
5    Do the materials use active voice (“he did the experiment)
     rather than passive voice ?
6    Do the materials use clear noun-verb constructions (e.g. we
     showed”) rather than needless nominalizations (“a
     simulation of this was given…”)
7    Does the author avoid unnecessary negative constructions,
     which are problematic for second / additional language
     learners ? (e.g. “ this cannot be over emphasized” means “it
     is important”) ?
8    Do the materials use relevant metaphors ( e.g.” strange look
     on his face”) rather than abstractions (“ farcical expression) ?
9    Does the author avoid archaic language (“hitherto fore
     mentioned”), exotic vocabulary (“he was au fait”) and
     convoluted constructions (long, periodic sentences with
     multiple levels of metaphor and meaning) ?
10   Do the materials provide relevant examples to explain
     difficult concepts ?
11   In general, does the language of the learning and teaching
     support materials encourage dialogue with learners through
     the use of a personal style ?
12   Does the language provide adequate connecting links
     (signpost words, transitions, e.g.” however”, “furthermore”
     to help lead learners through the
     materials ?
13   Is the language of the materials sensitive to issues of culture,
     gender, race or other possible bias ?
14   Does the author avoid the use of colloquialism ?
15   Has the text been quality assured in terms of editorial and
     printing errors ?
16   Does the material encourage critical awareness of language
     usage ?
17   Is the language free of vulgarity or profanity ?
     PRESENTATION OF NON-PRINT LEARNING AND
     TEACHING SUPPORT MATERIALS
     The following criteria should be considered
1    Does the layout (face presentation) of the materials appeal to
     the learners and teachers ?
2    Does the layout have a pleasing balance between blocks of
     grey text, white space and graphic material ?
3    Is the text broken into recognized hierarchical structures,
     using headings and sub-headings and /or clear numbering
     systems ?
4    Do the learning and teaching support materials have a layout
     and design that is consistent ?
5    Is there an appealing, attractive cover for the learning and
     teaching support materials ?
6    Are the title page and chapter page within the text appealing
     and accurate ?



                                            62
7    Are there clear introductions or statements of intended
     outcomes at the start of major sections ?
8    Does the material provide a form of checklist to ascertain if
     all knowledge and skills relevant to the grade have been
     covered ?
9    Is the font and type face clear and easy to read ?
10   Are there no more than 3 different fonts used in the
     text ?
11   Are the materials the appropriate size for the target group –
     both in terms of fonts and graphics ?
12   If the text is A4 or large size, do the materials make use of
     the full page with instructional notes ?
13   Is the material easy to read without crowded text or dense
     text ?
14   Do the learning and teaching support materials follow the
     typographical conventions of publishers ?
15   Do the materials use graphic illustrations, diagrams, charts,
     cartoons etc to add flair and interest to the text ?
16   Are these visual materials appropriate for the intended
     learners and teachers ?
17   Are the graphic materials sensitive to issues of culture,
     gender, race, race or other bias ?
18   Do the learning and teaching support materials provide
     overviews or summaries and explanations of key concepts ?
19   Can the texts be modified to cater for learners who
     experience barriers to learning ?
     FEASIBILITY, SUSTAINABILITY AND
     ACCOUNTABILITY
     The following criteria should be considered
1    Are the materials sensitive to the learners’, language ability,
     background knowledge and beliefs ?
2    Are the materials presented in such a way that most learners
     and teachers can for example : operate the equipment,
     without specialist knowledge or expert assistance ?
3    Are the instructions and directions for use of these materials
     clear and given in writing, to accompany the non-print
     learning materials ?
4    Are the visual materials relevant to the various cultures and
     backgrounds of the learners ?
5    Are the materials appropriate for use in the South African
     context ? (i.e not Eurocentric)
6    If these non-print materials are used in conjunction with print
     materials, are they integrated into the whole package ?
7    Are these non-print materials utilizing the medium to its
     fullest extent ? (Not merely for “gimmick effect”)

     APPROPRIATENESS FOR SOUTH AFRICA
     The following criteria should be considered
1    Do the learning and teaching support materials promote


                                           63
    democracy ?
2   Do the learning and teaching support materials promote
    equity ?
3   Do the learning and teaching support materials promote and
    support opening access and redress for previously
    disadvantaged people ?
4   Do the learning and teaching support materials highlight
    human rights and social justice issues?
5   Do the materials seek actively to break down prejudice, bias
    and discrimination in the following areas :
     Race
     Creed or religious beliefs
     Gender
     Language
     Age
     Colour
     Ability
     Social class

6   Do these materials actively strive for understanding and
    tolerance across linguistic, racial, gender, religious and / or
    national boundaries and ability ?
8   Do these materials actively work towards making the
    learners world citizens ?
    FEASIBILITY, SUSTAINABILITY AND
    ACCOUNTABILITY
    The following criteria should be considered
1   Are the learning materials cost effective with respect to:
    Production and reproduction costs
    Development costs
    Delivery costs
    Additional resources required (computer –based; teachers’
    guide, etc) ?
2   Are the materials going to be relevant for several
     years ? (Will they have an extended shelf-life ? Or will they
    need to be updated regularly ?
3   Do the learning and teaching support materials comply with
    government policies and guidelines for educational materials
    ?
4   Are the materials up-to-date with current theories, debates
    and discussions on the subject ?
5   Have appropriate stakeholders been consulted in the design,
    development and/or evaluation of the learning materials ?
6   Has a thorough market analysis been done to determine
    whether similar existing materials are available ?
    GAMES AND PUZZLES
    The following criteria should be considered
1   Does the material develop:
                          appropriate skills;
                           problem solving;


                                          64
                         cognitive development;
                            social interaction;
                         working together, etc.?
2   Is the presentation:
                                interesting;
                                 colourful;
                                   bright?
3              Is the technical quality of high standard?
    AUDIO CASSETTES
    The following criteria should be considered
1   Is the quality good?
                            Is the sound good?
                 Is the voice clear and well modulated?
              Is there a variation in tone and dynamics?
          Is the background sound or music not too loud?
2      Is the tempo of the dialogue easy to follow for the age
                                   group?
       Are there appropriate pauses for learner’s response?
3   Is a guide provided to support the educator towards the goals
    of the audio cassette?
4   Does the cassettes:
                    promote attentive listening skills;
                           achieve its purpose?
5   Does the resource hold your attention throughout?
6   Is the length appropriate for the age level?
7   Are there any technical concerns (clarity, etc)?
    VIDEO CASSETTES
    The following criteria should be considered
1                Is the video of high technical quality?
2           Are the graphics, animation, sound and music
                               reproduction
                              of high quality?
3   Is the material visually stimulating and does it achieve its
                                  purpose?
4                   In case of a dramatic production:
                  is the acting and setting convincing;
           is the language level appropriate for the users?
5   Does the resource hold your attention throughout?
6   Is the length appropriate for the age level?
        CD ROMs (INCLUDING REFERENCE WORKS,
     TRAINING PROGRAMS AND COMPUTER GAMES)
    The following criteria should be considered
1   Is a site license system available? (This is recommended)
2   Is a network version available? (Recommended)
3   Is the program learner friendly?
4   Is learner control provided through flexible pacing and
    optimal branching and linking?



                                         65
5    Is the multi-media potential demonstrated by the use of:
                high quality graphics and animation;
                          sound and music;
                              photo art;
                   creative learner participation?
6    Are clear installation instructions included?
7    Does the program provide a good Help-function and/or
     Instruction Manual?
8    Does the program enhance critical thinking skills (Problem
     solving, conceptualisation, synthesis of information)?
9    Are there any noticeable technical difficulties (ease of use,
     printing, graphics)?
10   Is the program engaging and interactive?




                                           66
GLOSSARY

Business plan – an action plan that entrepreneurs draw up for the purpose of starting a
business
Consumer – someone who uses goods and services to satisfy wants
Contemporary – existing at the present time
Chair technique – a problem-solving technique involving the identification of pros and cons
and objective opinion. The technique makes use of chairs as props (the learner sits on one to
identify pros & the other to identify cons) and an observer who acts as a silent conscience.
Delphi technique – this technique is used to solve common problems where there may be
hidden agendas or personal conflicts. Learners individually and anonymously identify
solutions to the problem. This is collated and re-circulated until an agreed upon solution is
found.
Ethical – based on the moral beliefs of right and wrong
Force-field analysis - a solution is identified to a problem. Driving and restraining forces are
identified and an action plan developed.
Ventures – commercial undertakings where there is a possibility of loss as well as profit
Workplace forum – committee of workers operating at the workplace to address issues that
concern them directly.
Assurance – insurance providing financial assistance for losses suffered as a result of death
Insurance – providing financial protection in the event of loss
Economic empowerment – the ability of people to take control of their lives and make
responsible economic decisions
Economic growth – an increase in the economic activity of the country which results in the
rise of the standard of living
Economy – an area in which production consumption and exchange takes place
Entrepreneur – a person with a good idea who combines the factors of production to produce
goods and services.
Exchange – swapping goods and services for money
Factors of production – physical, financial and human resources used in production
Fixed costs – costs that remain same regardless of the level of production
Franchise – the right to run a business using the name and idea of an established person
Global economy – the world wide economy
Market – the activity of buying and selling the goods and services
Marketing mix – the combination of price, product, place and promotion to make a product
or service desirable to the consumer
Needs analysis – identifying the needs of customers
Price – the amount of money paid for a product or service
Productivity – a measurement of the output of labour in production
Trade union – an association established by workers to look after their interests (eg salaries,
working conditions)
Variable costs – the costs that change with the level of production




                                              67
     Annexure A

     Guidelines For Contents

     The Content
     The following serves as a guideline for the contents included in the statements.

     Learning Outcome 1: The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and analyse the
     impact of changing and challenging environments on business practice in all sectors.

             Grade 10                                Grade 11                              Grade 12
   What is meant by the micro             Controlling the environments –        Challenges of macro
   market and macro business              which can be controlled and to        environment - see grade 11) -
   environments.                          what extent. Examine control          devising strategies to respond to
                                          factors e.g. more control over        these challenges.
   Micro: internal business               micro, less over market and even
  environment, immediate work             less over macro. Identify ways to     Examine how the contemporary
  environment, the departments            be involved in macro – if this has    socio economic issues impact on
  within business.                        benefits for business.                business operations and
 Macro: economic (SARB, JSE),                                                   productivity (e.g. reduction of
     physical, technological,             Challenges of macro                   labour force due to HIV/AIDS,
     political, legal (policy),           environment: changes in income        piracy, crime – loss of goods,
     institutional and international      levels, political changes,            etc.).
     (global).                            contemporary legal legislation -      How to evaluate decisions taken
 Market: consumers, suppliers,            labour restrictions, HIV/AIDS,                  Link to LO 4.
  competitors, intermediaries             micro lending, etc.)
  (agent) opportunities and threats.      Power relationships, networking,      Employment equity act
                                          lobbying – provide case studies.      Skills development act (skills
 Examine interrelatedness within         .                                      levies – implications for both
 components of the micro (internal       Realistically assess corporate         small and large business) –
 business) – e.g. between the            social investment projects.            analyse the impact of similar
 functions, departments,                 Include human rights issues.           legislation .
 organizational structure, operations,                                          SETA’s (Sectoral Education and
 - market: relationship between          Links between tertiary, secondary                Training Authorities)
 competitors, agents, physical           and primary enterprises (trees to
 environment and personnel, etc.)        timber to furniture to wholesaler to   Select a business from each of the
 Link to LO 4                            consumer).                             three sectors (primary, secondary
 Examine how the micro (internal                                                and tertiary and thereafter
   business) and market                                                         investigate the extent to which
   environments interrelate.                                                    their three environments (micro,
                                                                                macro and market) can be
 Socio-economic issues (poverty,                                                controlled.
HIV/AIDS, unemployment,
gambling, skills levy, crime, etc.).
Mention Corporate Social
responsibility – to address the above

Conduct research into the
neighbourhood businesses to recap
on primary, secondary and tertiary
enterprises.

                                                 Table 6.1 content LO1




                                                             68
Learning Outcome 2 : The learner is able to identify and research viable business
opportunities and to explore these and related issues through the creation of achievable
business ventures.
         Grade 10            Grade 11                              Grade 12
How to design research                .Identify entrepreneurial             What makes a business
instruments to collect                qualities from practice;              successful – key success factors.
information (questionnaires,          use practical situations              Case studies.
interview structures, etc.).                                                Set up and carry out a business
The protocol of conducting            How to transform a business           venture to generate income. This
research (consent, prior              plan into an action plan              should be based on a business and
organization of appointments)         (timelines, gantt charts,             action plan. Acquire funding if
Recap on needs and wants and          responsibilities, project planning,   needed.
apply this to their environment.      etc.)
                                                                            Know how to assess a business
What is a business opportunity        Starting business ventures            venture against criteria to
(integrate this with creative         beginning at school level with        measure human rights,
thinking in LO3)                      market days; encourage learners       inclusivity, and environmental
Recap on SWOT analysis                to expand.                            issues. Can do this through
How to apply a SWOT analysis                                                informal surveys, interviews, etc.
to assess business opportunities                                            see LO1
(introduce basic ethics in business   Business information -How to
opportunities)                        respond in a non-aggressive and       Business reports – presenting the
                                      professional fashion to questions     information, handling feedback .
How to develop business plans         about work and presentations.         Amend the information in the
linked to identified business         How to handle feedback and            light of the feedback.
opportunities.                        integrate this into work.             (testing)
Assess business plan against
environmental factors to assess       Acquiring business (franchising,      Business investments: JSE,
how it can be practically             outsourcing and leasing).             shares, unit trusts, and calculation
implemented.                          Advantages and disadvantages of       of interest;
                                      these.                                Other aspects - Assurance: life,
Business location factors :                                                 Retirement annuities.
labour, transport, regulations,       Forms of ownership: sole              Insurance : goods – compulsory
environmental factors, etc.           proprietor, partnerships, close       and non-compulsory.
                                      corporation, companies, done in       Unemployment insurance fund
                                      detail. ( establishment and           (UIF). RAF (Road accident
Business reports                      documentation)                        insurance)
Verbal presentations of research,     Then compare the company with
business plans, etc. Presentation     the others collectively. Look at      Examine how a particular type of
skills, use of support materials      legal implications and                ownership (sole trader, company,
(handouts, transparencies, etc.)      procedures.                           etc) can impact on success or
Written information – reports,                                              failure of business. Look at
business plans, business                                                    issues of capacity, taxation,
information and analysis.                                                   management, capital, division of
How to present and support                                                  profits, legislation, etc.
business information with tables,
graphs, diagrams and
illustrations.

Contracts: legal aspects, hire
purchase, rental, insurance, etc.)


                                           Table 6.2 Contents LO 2




                                                         69
Learning Outcome 3 : The learner is able to apply contemporary business knowledge
and skills to fulfill a variety of business roles.
         Grade 10                         Grade 11              Grade 12
 Research skills – find              Problem solving in a business           Advanced problem solving
 information to assist with          context.                                Apply creative thinking to solve
 problem solving                     Problem solving techniques (e.g.        complex business problems in
 Mindmapping                         forced field analysis, the chair        case studies and given scenarios.
 Brainstorming                       technique, the Delphi technique,
  Problem solving vs decision        the nominal group technique             Examine what is meant by
  making                             Explore the difference between          ethical behaviour and business
  Routine vs creative thinking       good and bad decisions.                 practice and explore the
 Mental blocks to creativity         Working with others to solve            relationship between ethical and
 Idea generation                     problems, generate ideas.               professional.
 How to use on indigenous            Recap on creative thinking and
 knowledge to solve problems         conventional vs non-conventional        Reflect on the business
 and identify business               solutions.                              environment and identify the
 opportunities                       Identify creative solutions to          issues that could challenge
                                     business problems and assess            ethical and professional
                                     these against the reality of the        behaviour (e.g. taxation, sexual
Using non-conventional thinking      business environment.                   harassment, pricing of goods in
to identify innovative business                                              rural areas, unfair advertising,
opportunities.                       What is meant by                        unauthorized use of funds,
Assess creative business             professionalism (theories and           misusing work time, etc.).
opportunities can realistically be   principles                              Ethical business ventures (e.g. not
implemented                                                                  start a venture at the expense of
                                     What does it mean to be                 someone else, payment of fair
Self mnagement:                      professional in the business            wages, etc.)
Time management                      environment?
 Personal goals                      Mention professional, effective         The difference between
 Definition of success                and ethical business practice)         leadership and management.
 Balanced life style (balancing                                              Different theories of management
 work with relaxation, etc.)         The importance of stress                and leadership.
 Developing a professional           management in pressurised work          The role of personal attitude and
 image (neatness of work,            environments.                           success and leadership.
 presentations, etc.)                Recap on balanced lifestyle,            Leaders and followers.
 Accessing resources to assist       success and personal goals.             Situational leadership.
 with professional image.            Theories of change management.
 Personal analysis: strengths,       Dealing with and adapting to            Conflict management theories –
 weaknesses, talents, talents,       change (including                       apply these to both individual and
 interests, etc.                     unemployment, retrenchment,             group scenarios (include
                                     globalization, affirmative action,      workplace forums, strikes, trade
 Knowledge of contemporary           etc.)                                   unions, etc.)
 business careers (includes          How to deal with business related       Correct procedures to deal with
 entrepreneurism, outsource and      crisis (e.g. tight deadlines, loss of   grievances.
 consulting avenues)                 property to fire, illness, etc.)        How to deal with difficult people
 Link personal assessment to
 business careers.                                                           Choose two to three business
                                     Recap on contemporary                   careers and research these in
                                     business careers                        depth (try to include visits to
 What are business objectives?       Plot paths on how to follow some        business, internet, career center
 (profit, productivity, service,     of these business careers (e.g.         research).
 etc.)                               study, training, employment)
 Interpersonal relationships in
 the workplace (different            Team dynamics theories                  Learners must be given class
 hierarchies, management levels,     Examine team work case studies          work, business assignments and
 the importance of each              (given or actual from class).           projects in which they work with
 individual towards achieving        Analyse case studies according to       other learners in pairs and teams
 the business objectives, etc.)      team dynamics theories.                 to accomplish these tasks
 Personal belief, values and how     Recap on criteria for successful        .


                                                         70
 these influence business          team performance.                   Assess themselves and team
 relationships (e.g. prejudice,    Group consensus.                    according to team criteria.
 discrimination, equity, etc.)     .                                   How to effectively perform
                                                                       specific role within a team
                                   Examine the role of citizens and    Examine workplace
 How to work in a team to          how they can through business       scenarioswhere workers are
 accomplish business objectives.   contribute to social and economic   expected to complete projects in
                                   development of their                teams, work together on the line.
                                   communities.                        Examine problem-solving and
                                   Analyse case scenarios of how       management of problems that
Conduct case study of school or    individuals have given back to      arise from working with others or
community in which they live.      their communities.                  in teams.
                                   Explore concept of “I can make a
 Identify areas of social or       difference”
 economic needs and ways in        Examine the concept of business
 which they (the learners) can     community and how the               Learner needs to show ways in
 contribute.                       individual can play a role within   which their business project can
                                   this community (e.g. HIV/AIDS       contribute towards their
                                   counselor, contribute time and      community.
                                   effort towards identified cause     Produce evidence of being
                                   etc.)                               involved in community
                                   Examine the role that business      development.
                                   and individual business
                                   practitioners can play in the
                                   social and economic
                                   development of communities.




                                                    71
Learning Outcome 4 : The learner is able to apply a range of management as well as
specialised knowledge and skills to successfully perform business operations.
         Grade 10                     Grade 11                     Grade 12
Give a description of the eight
business functions (general         Marketing: locating the consumer,      Human resource: labour
management, purchasing,             standardization and grading,           relation’s act, basic conditions of
production, marketing, public       storage, transport, financing, risk-   employment & employment
relations, human resource,          bearing and buying & selling.          equity act.
administration & financial),        Product policy: product                Procedures related to recruitment,
their role and importance within    development, design, packaging         selection and interviewing.
business.                           and trademarks.                        Legalities of employment
                                    Pricing: importance of pricing,        contracts
                                    pricing techniques, price              Procedures of induction and
Look at the relationship            determination, factors influencing     placements.
between the functions and the       pricing, price adjustments.            Conduct role plays and act out
difference between how they                                                activities related to interviewing,
operate within small and large       Marketing-                            selection and induction.
business enterprises (i.e. the      Distribution :channels of              Salary determination (piecemeal
sole trader vs departments in       distribution, intermediaries, direct   and time-related) includes
large industries). See LO 1         & indirect distribution.               personal tax. Link to basic
                                    Communication: sales promotion,        conditions of employment.
                                    advertising, publicity and personal    Employee benefits, pension,
Look at the concept of quality      selling.                               medical, other.
and how this relates to the         Examine marketing in both formal       Skills development act and link to
various business functions –        and informal sector.                   training, skills development act,
how this impacts on different       Foreign marketing: imports and         SETA’s, learnerships, skills
business structures (sole traders   exports                                programmes, qualifications,
vs large business).                 Use of technology for marketing        National Qualifications
                                    (electronic marketing, etc.)           Framework, SAQA, etc.

General management (top,
middle and lower management).       Learners will select an                Practical component – complete
Tasks (planning, organizing,        activity,then select the objective     project linked to training or
activating (leading, directing)     and use presentations and              marketing (e.g. develop and
and controlling.                    simulations to bring it to a           facilitate training programme,
Responsibilities – alignment        successful conclusion                  develop and market product)(see
between levels and tasks.                                                  gr 11)
Relationship between                Production function:
management and the success of       Systems: mass, batch & job.            .
business in achieving its           Information about production           Industrial relations: history of
objectives.                         planning                               trade unions, functions & role of
                                    Safety management (knowledge           trade unions and grievance
                                    about factory safety, machinery &      procedures: arbitration, etc.
Cover functions of                  occupational safety act, infectious
administration (handling of         diseases act, workplace safety         Case study :
information/data, management        policy.                                Identify a successful business and
of information, office practice                                            determine the contribution made
& discuss issues such as                                                   by quality to the success.
information technology. Where       Quality management systems
possible give learners              (SABS), quality control bodies and
opportunities to practice           policies.
administration skills with
information technology              Production costs:
(computers, faxes, phones, etc.)    Business calculations: total cost of
                                            production, unit cost of



                                                         72
                                    production, selling price
Financing (classification kinds     and calculation of profit.
of financing, sources of            Break-even analysis.
financing, budgeting,
introduction to investments,
kinds of capital)

Purchasing (procedures,
activities of purchasing
functions, cash & credit and
stock control)

Public Relations (importance
of PR, methods of PR – media,
brochures, direct contact, etc.)


                                   Table 6.4 content LO 4




                                               73
Annexure B : Example of year plan

Year Plan Example – Grade 10

Business Studies as a core or elective qualification component is allocated 4.5 teaching hours
per week. Given other school activities and holidays this should translate roughly into 36
hours a term.

The table below refers to the year plan suggested for grade 10.
It represents the next step in the development of lesson plans, by providing details for the
skeleton provided earlier.



TOPIC/         OBJECT      OUTCOME         SUMMARY OF                        ASSESSMENT                  Esti
THEME          IVES        S&              ACTIVITIES                        EVIDENCE                    mat
                           ASSESSME                                                                      ed
                           NT                                                                            lear
                           STANDARD                                                                      nin
                           S                                                                             g
                                                                                                         unit
                                                                                                         dur
                                                                                                         atio
                                                                                                         n
TERM ONE
Unit One       Relevant    Orientation:    Worksheets based on relevant      Shows understanding of      9hrs
Revision &     Grade 9     Baseline        Grade 9 EMS assessment stds       basic Business Economic
Baseline       EMS         assessment      (AC’s & PI’s). For example:       Concepts covered in Gr 9.
assessment     outcomes.   Revision            Business analysis             Can apply skills covered
                                               Business Plan                 in Gr 9.
                                               Concept of productivity       Can describe basic
                                               PR, social & environmental    attitudes and values
                                                     responsibility          underpinning BE as
                                           conditions of employment, etc.    covered in Gr 9.

Unit Two                   10.1.1          Determine what is meant by        Worksheets on               13hr
Exploring                  10.4.1          micro, market & macro             definition & nature of       s
Business                   10.1.2          environments.                     business environments
Environments               10.4.2          Identify and briefly discuss      Analysis of business
                                           the eight business functions      functions and
                                           Explore micro & market            interrelationship
                                           environment in detail.            Analysis of large vs
                                           Internal business functions       small business.
                                           (what are various                 Worksheet & case
                                           departments and how do            analysis of people
                                           these relate to one another?)     working together,
                                           Learners look at small            prejudice, etc. and
                                           business vs large business        application.
                                           operations structures in actual   Case study analysis of
                                           case studies (e.g. spaza shop     relationship between
                                           vs motor corporation)             micro & market
                                           Brainstorm ways in which          environments.
                                           people need to work together
                                           to accomplish business
                                           objectives (ensure learners
                                           can define business



                                               74
objectives)

Identify and discuss issues
that can impact on working
relationships (e.g. prejudice,
beliefs, values and diversity).
Relate to learners current
experiences.
Case study of relationships
between micro and market
environments.




    75
Unit Three     10.2.1      Identify different types of           Evaluation of research        14hrs
Creative       10.2.2      research instruments that can be           instrument
Business                   used to determine needs &             Report/presentation on use
Ventures       10.3.1      wants.                                     of instrument &
               10.3.2      Learners develop instrument.               results of survey.
               10.3.7      Learners apply instrument with        Classification of business
               10.2.4      identified group of individuals.           into primary,
               10.1.5      Analyse results of above                   secondary & tertiary.
                           research.                             Self-analysis and linking
                           Debate location factors                    to careers.
                           Do analysis of business in area,      Application of SWOT
                           how this meets various needs &             analysis.
                           wants – classify into primary,        Application of creative
                           secondary & tertiary enterprises.          thinking techniques.
                           Apply self-analysis and look at       Motivation for choosing
                           possible areas of career interest          specific business
                           in relation to business.                   venture (linked to
                           Revise what a SWOT analysis                own strengths,
                           is.                                        interests) & SWOT
                           Introduce learners to some                 analysis.
                           creative thinking techniques and
                           use these to identify possible
                           business venture (link to needs
                           & wants & local enterprises)
                           Apply SWOT analysis to
                           identified business venture.
                           Link business venture to
                           personal strengths and interests.
TERM TWO
Unit Four      10.2.3    to be integrated into learners          Business plan including       15h
                             business plan.                          financial analysis.
Planning for   10.2.6    Learners draw up business plan          Linking of plan to ways in     rs
Business       10.1.3        based on what they covered in           which it can
               10.3.10       Unit three.                             contribute to
                         Prepare learners for business plan          community
                             presentation and how to deal            development.
                             with questions. Revise business     Presentation of business
                             plan format & introduce how to          plan to “board”
                             do a financial analysis of a
                             business.
                         Link business plan to ways in
                             which to contribute positively
                             towards a community. This
                             aspect
                         Set up mock Board of Trustees to
                             which they need to present their
                             plans (other teachers, principal,
                             local business person, learners,
                             etc.).
                         Learners present business plans.
                         Identify contemporary socio
                             economic issues
                          Social responsibility of business

Unit Five      10.4.3    Cover levels & tasks of general         Test on knowledge of          12h
                         management                              tasks and levels of general
Managing       10.3.3    Learners to use knowledge of            management.                    rs
for success    10.3.8    levels and tasks of general             Analysis of self
               10.3.9    management to analyse case study        management tasks and
                         (given or of local business, video,     how these relate to
                         etc.)                                   business environment.
                         Refer back to business functions        Note: learners self
                         and how the interrelatedness of         management skills to be
                         these can contribute to the             continuously assessed
                         success/failure of a business.          against performance
                         Refer back to case study.               rubric.
                         Analyse own management skills


                                76
                                and relate to the business
                                environment.
                                Refer back to how people and
                                functions need to operate together
                                (as well as separately) and examine
                                the concept of team performance.
                                Identify criteria for successful team
                                performance and apply to case
                                studies and their performance in
                                teams on given tasks.
               9 hrs additional assessment

TERM 3


                                Examine the interrelatedness of         27h
Unit Six                        business and business law.               rs
Basic          10.4.5           Examine contracts : rental,
                                employee, commission-based, hire-
Business       10.2.7           purchase, etc.
Operations                      Learners to analyse given contracts
& Contracts.                    – draw up contact for specific
                                purpose.
                                Examine in detail the following
                                functions: administration,
                                financing, purchasing & public
                                relations.
                                Ensure learners understand and can
                                apply theory relating to these
                                functions.
                                Allow learners to practice
                                functions in given case scenarios,
                                problem-solve, etc.
                                Look at how individuals work
                                together to accomplish these
                                functions.
                                Learners examine selves in relation
                                to functions as possible careers.

               9 hrs additional assessment
TERM FOUR
Unit Seven     Integrated                                               36
Assessments    Assessment                                               hrs
               (Projects)
               CTA’s
               EA’s
               POE’s
                               Table 6.5 Year plan




                                        77
Annexure C

Converting A Business Plan Into An Action Plan – Educators Guide

Refer to unit 3 grade 10

The following guide illustrates what the educator needs to do to facilitate the conversion
of a business plan into an action plan. (See grade 10 learning outcome 2, assessment
standard 2)


ACTION            TIME            RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES               INDICATOR
REQUIRED
Collect all       Very early in   Educator              Learner          All plans
business plans    grade 11                              portfolios       collected
Select x          Early grade     Educator and          Business plans   Suitable plans
number of         11              learners              from grade 10    selected
plans
Select teams      Beginning of    Educator               List of         Team list
with specialist   unit 3                                 competencies,   completed
roles& group                                             portfolios,
dynamics                                                 preferences
Facilitate        Refer unit 3    Educator and           Template on     Completed
conversion                        learners               structure,      template of
                                                         calendar        action plan
                                     Table 6.6 – conversion




                                              78
Annexure D - Designing A lesson plan

Recap : The following steps were suggested when designing a lesson plan

Step 1 – investigate the learning outcomes and assessment standards
Step 2 – clarify the evidence required (indicators)
Step 3 – design the teaching, learning and assessment plan
Step 4 – design each learning and assessment activity
Step 5 - implement, reflect and record


Step 1 – Investigate the learning outcomes and assessment standards

The learning outcomes chosen for this illustration are the following:

Learning Outcome 1 - Challenging Environments
The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and analyse the impact of changing and
challenging environments on business practice in all sectors.
AND
Learning Outcome 3 - Business Roles
The learner is able to apply contemporary knowledge and skills to fulfil a variety of business
roles.
AND
Learning Outcome 4 -- Business Operations
The learner is able to apply a range of management as well as specialised knowledge and
skills to perform business operations successfully.

The assessment standards chosen for this illustration are the following :
10.1.1; 10.4.1; 10.4.2; 10.1.2 (see term plans )


Step 2 Clarify the evidence required:

The evidence required in this instance will be:
identification and description of the Micro and Market environment
description of the relationship between and within the micro and market environment
description of various business functions
explanation of the interrelationship of business functions and how they operate in small,
medium and big business contexts
describe the ways in which people work together and discuss factors that can influence these
relationships

Step 3 – Design the teaching, learning and assessment plan

   TEACHING & LEARNING                         ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES (tools,
   ACTIVITIES                                  methods & techniques)

   Design learning activities                  Self; peer; group; educator; parent
   Design assessment strategies                Tests
   Manage group activities                     Worksheets; Questionnaires


                                               79
  Manage time                                 Presentations
  Observe learners                            Charts and tables
  Assess learners                             Observations
  Record and report learners’ progress        Assignments and projects
  Make resources available


Step 4 – Design each learning and assessment activity (the lesson plan)

The lesson plan (learning and assessment)




Unit : ______________
Learning outcome(s)     __________________________________________________
Assessment standard(s) : Assessment standards : 10.1.1; 10.1.2 ; 10.4.1 and 10.4.2
Duration Start : _______________ Completed ________________________________


                                     LESSON PLAN
Educator Activities           Learner                Resources            Assessment
                              Activities                                  strategies
Determine prior learning      Pay attention          Portfolios           Worksheets
regarding the environment     Ask/ answer            LSM                  Tests
Provide explanations for      questions              Assessment sheets    Questionnaires
    micro, and market         Brainstorm             Checklists           Self assessment
        environments          Make                   Observation sheets   Peer assessment
    relationships             presentations          Questionnaires       Group
    factors influencing       Observe                Case studies         assessment
        teamwork              presentations of                            Educator
    description &             peers                                       assessment
        discussion of the 8   Discuss in groups                           Assignments
        business functions    Make notes                                  Projects
     their interrelatedness   Give examples
Provide case studies
Divide learners into groups
Organize classrooms
Design assessment tools
Moderate assessments
Design remedial tasks if
necessary



                                         Table 6.7




                                              80
SKVA’S
The unit above involves the following:

Knowledge:
Definition and description of two environments
Identification and description of components of each
Description of business functions
Interrelatedness of the above
Factors influencing teamwork

Skills:
Identification
Comparison
Classification
Listing
Application to practice

Values:
Appreciation of the business environment
Acceptance and positive attitude towards competition
Respect for others
Remove prejudices, against, for example, the disabled
Respect for belief systems, indigenous knowledge amongst others




                                  Table 6.8 : Lesson plan




                                             81
Annexure E

Research Assignment: Possible Topics

Grade 10

Type A

Investigate and report on one of the following topics:

(Ideally the task should be phrased, as a question in order to elicit the learner’s own
opinion based upon acquired subject knowledge opinion based upon acquired subject
knowledge.)

Different business environments
Different sectors
3.     Indigenous knowledge
4.     Self - Assessment
5.     Career Opportunities
6.     How to contribution to the community
7.     Levels and Tasks of Management
8.     Small, medium and big business
9.     Financing
10.    The Public Relations Function
11.    Any other relevant and contemporary topic



Type B

Practical Research

Monitoring of the fluctuation of the price of a specific consumer item over a period
  (e.g. Poster of price tags cut from item, with price and date, along with discussion; also
  fuel price, exchange rate of a particular currency, etc.)

Monitoring of newspaper articles over a period of time (e.g. six months) on a particular topic:
Scrap book / newspaper cutting, with name of newspaper and date on left side , main ideas
underlined, learner’s comment in own words on each article on right – e.g. minimum of 10
articles with comments. (Topics e.g. Inflation, Franchises, New inventions, Fuel prices,
Exchange rates etc.)

Job research assignment (e.g. Make use of the Grade 9 job research template)

Writing of a CV / Applying for a job / Job interview

Drawing up of a business plan for a selected enterprise (and enter for a Business plan
competition, e.g. Cape College, FEBDEV, Rapport, etc)




                                              82
Grade 11

Research Assignment: Possible Topics

Type A

Write an essay of four written pages on one of the following topics:

Ideally the task should be phrased, as a question in order to elicit the learner’s own opinion
based upon acquired subject knowledge opinion based upon acquired subject knowledge.

 The Macro Business Environment
 Linking the primary secondary and tertiary sectors
 Challenging contemporary socio-economic issues
 Salary and wages administration of a selected business
 Labour legislation in South Africa
 Business plans and action plans
 Location decisions

Type B

Monitoring of the fluctuation of the price of a specific consumer item over a period, along
  with discussion; also fuel price, gold price, exchange rate of a particular currency, etc.)

Monitoring of newspaper articles over a period of time (e.g. six months) on a particular topic:
  Scrap book / newspaper cutting, with name of newspaper and date on left side , main ideas
  underlined, learner’s comment in own words on each article on right – e.g. minimum of 10
  articles with comments. (Topics e.g. Inflation, Franchises, New inventions, Fuel prices,
  Exchange rates etc.)

More advanced job research assignment – e.g. compare 2 jobs you are interested in.
  (Make use of Grade 9 job research template for research purposes, however the
  assignment should be typed /written in paragraph format)

Market research regarding a specific product/service of a selected business


Any other relevant topic




                                               83
Annexure F

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT SKILLS


Examples Of Activities

Task with accompanying assessment rubric should be discussed with learners beforehand.


Type A
Educators sets tasks e.g.

Data response tasks set by educator using info from newspapers, business magazines
   etc. e.g.:

        data response exercise on newspaper/magazine article
        data response exercise on:
        analysis and interpretation of graph(s) / financial data / trends in newspaper
        analysis of information in tables
        identification of trends from economic data
        cartoons
        formulation of projections making use of graphs, tables etc.


Type B
Presentations (e.g. main concepts of previous day’s lesson, oral presentation of research
topic / current business event (with evidence e.g. notes/ hard copy of transparency
etc.)

Type C
Subject learning skills & creativity: e.g. Learners make meaning of a lesson by
identifying the keywords, arranging them colourfully, using images, illustrations, creatively in
their note books. These are assessed e.g. once per term/year (self/peer/educator), using a
rubric with the following criteria:

       effective for learning (the essential facts are reflected, making
       memorising easy)
       creative (originality)
       colourful

  Multiple choice question items

  Case study

  Paragraph given – learner to summarise, identify key words, draw mind map, answer
 questions requiring comprehension and further application by learner




                                               84
Annexure G


Current Business Topics

Educator provides source from newspaper, television etc. Sets questions requiring application
from learner.

Examples of activities:
(These will obviously change over time, sometimes even overnight.)


Grade 10

New inventions / product developments
Case study of persons awarded with entrepreneurship/banking/ business achievements
    (leadership etc)
Franchises
    Developments in purchasing / production (mines, motor industry etc) / marketing /
    financing (bank bankruptcies etc)
Interesting developments in marketing
Developments in the property industry
Mergers etc.
Small business developments




                                             85
    Annexure H - Rubric

    Example of a Rubric

    Business Studies Grade 11
    Outcome 2: The learner is able to identify and research viable business opportunities and to explore these and related issues
    through the creation of achievable business ventures

                       Assessment Standard: Collaboratively or independently starts a business venture based on an action plan.
Criteria                    Level 1               Level 2                      Level 3                          Level 4                      Level 5                    Level 6
                             0-29%               30%-39%                      40%-49%                          50%-59%                      60%-79%                    80%-100%
Collaboratively        Struggles to work     Works with others to     Assumes an active role in        Takes responsibility for        Plays an important role     Plays a very important
(with others)          with others to        implement action         working with others to           aspects of plan and             in assisting the group to   role towards the
implements action      implement an action   plan but acts in a       accomplish an action plan.       effectively carries these out   work towards the            implementation of the
plan                   plan                  dependent role rather                                     effectively                     implementation of the       action plan Adds value
                                             than taking initiative                                                                    action play.                to the group in the role
                                             and responsibility.                                                                                                   performed.
Independent            Needs assistance to   Is able to implement     Is able to implement all         Can implement action plan       Is able to successfully     Is consistently able to
implementation of      implement             some elements of a       elements of action plan but      effectively and is able to      implement action plan       successfully implement
Action Plan            procedures outlined   action plan.             struggles to adapt the plan to   devise viable alternatives      and has well thought        action plan and has well
                       in action plan                                 changing or unforeseen           when circumstances change       out alternative             thought out alternative
                                                                      circumstances.                   or are different to those       strategies                  strategies on hand and
                                                                                                       anticipated.                                                dealswith changing
                                                                                                                                                                   circumstances.
Acquiring of capital   Able to define the    Can differentiate        Able to differentiate, give      Can apply for and acquire       Is accountable for funds    Is accountable for funds
(can be case           term but does not     between various          examples and know the            limited amount of funds.        and repays loan with        and repays loan with
scenario based I.e.    have knowledge of     forms of capital and     sources that can supply                                          interest                    interest in given time
school is the bank,    how to acquire it.    give examples.           capital.                                                                                     period.
fake money).
Provision of           Unable to produce     Completed                Completed product/service is     Completed product/service       Completed                   Completed
services and goods     goods or service      product/service is       usually of good quality.         is consistently of good         product/service is          product/service is
                                             sometimes of good                                         quality                         consistently of a y high    consistently of a very
                                             quality                                                                                   quality.                    high quality.
                                                                                     Table 6.9



                                                                                          86
Annexure I: External Assessment. –
THE FOLLOWING IS A SUGGESTION ONLY

A typical examination (external assessment) question paper
Time : 3 hours
Grade : 12 – (see note 1)
Marks : 400
Proposed date : 2008

Coverage :
The question paper will cover the following learning outcomes:
LO 1 : Business Environments                 15%
LO 2 : Business Ventures                     10%
LO 3 : Business Roles                        10%
LO 4 : Business Operations                   65%

Format :
The suggested format of the question paper is as follows:

Section A: Objective Questions                Maximum 100 marks
Section B: Short structured questions         Maximum 240 marks
Section C: Essay; other presentation types    Maximum 60 marks


Section A: Objective questions                maximum 100 marks

These will consist of a variety of types of objective questions:

      Multiple choice
      True and false (with or without reason)
      Filling in the blanks
      Choosing from brackets
      Providing terms for descriptions
      Matching
Marks : since the above type of questioning requires simple recall, marks are
awarded per fact.

Section B: Suggestions for short structured essays:
These will carry 60 marks each. They will consist of a combination of questions from
different LO’s for example:

LO 4 plus LO1
LO 4 plus LO 2 and 3
LO 4 plus LO 1 and 3
LO 4 plus LO1 and LO2 and LO3




                                             87
Levels of questioning:
The above grouping will cater for all 4 levels of questioning:

Level 1 – recall
Level 2 – comprehension                (Recall and Comprehension constitute 70%)
Level 3 – application
Level 4 – analysis, synthesis, evaluation (levels 3 and 4 - 30% ; level 4 - 10% max)


Six questions to be set, each to carry 60 marks.
Four questions must be answered.              (4 x 60 = 240.)


Section C: Indirect Essays/ Presentation

This section will test interpretation, logical reasoning, originality, and insight (Level 4)
Two questions will be set and the candidate must answer any one..

Marking : a combination of marking strategies is used; marks are awarded for
facts and a rubric is used for other dimensions.



NOTE 1: VERY IMPORTANT!

THE REQUIREMENTS SHOWN ABOVE ARE DESCRIBED AS “GRADE 12
REQUIREMENTS”

THIS WILL BE APPLICABLE IN 2008.

HOWEVER, IN THE INTERIM, AS SOON AS F.E.T IS INFUSED INTO THE
EDUCATION SYSTEM, (SCHEDULED FOR 2006), THE GRADE 10 LEARNERS
NEED TO BE EXPOSED TO THIS FORMAT , IN PREPARATION FOR GRADE
12.




                                              88
                                 Annexure J
                   Learning Outcome Competence Descriptions
                             Learning Outcome 1

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and analyse the impact of changing
and challenging environments on business practice in all sectors.

    6 POINT          COMPETENCE                COMPETENCE             COMPETENCE
     SCALE           DESCRIPTION               DESCRIPTION            DESCRIPTION
                        GRADE 10                  GRADE 11               GRADE 12
80 – 100%          Identifies the various    Accurately tabulate     Devises viable and
OUTSTANDING               components                the                     appropriate
                          and supplies              comparison              strategies for
                          appropriate               and discusses           how a
                          examples of               with an                 business can
                          each of the               understanding           respond to
                          different                 the extent to           the
                          environments,             which a                 challenges of
                          and use the               business can            the macro
                          supplied                  control and             business
                          examples to               influence the           environment,
                          discuss and               micro                   critically
                          illustrates the           (internal),             evaluates
                          relationship              market and              such
                          between these             macro                   strategies and
                          environments.             business                makes
                   Critically analyses              environments.           achievable
                          and accurately     Identifies and                 recommendat
                          describes the             discusses with          ions as
                          features of the           understanding,          required.
                          micro                     and by means     Critically examines
                          (internal),               of appropriate          the concept
                          market and                examples how            of social
                          macro business            a business              responsibility
                          environments              constantly              (through
                          in detail.                needs to adapt          various
                   Identifies and                   to the                  sources and
                          discusses with            challenges of           tools) and the
                          understanding             the micro               (negative and
                          the effects of            (internal),             positive)
                          the                       market and              implications
                          contemporary              macro                   of this for
                          socio-                    business                both business
                          economic           By means of                    and
                          issues that               illustrations,          communities.
                          impact on                 critically       Critically analyses



                                            89
                     business                 analyses and            the impact of
                     including                accurately              recent
                     negative and             interprets the          legislation,
                     positive                 impact and              developed in
                     effects.                 challenges of           response to
              Plans the                       contemporary            redress and
                     investigation            socio-                  equity, on
                     and consults             economic                both small
                     primary and              issues on               and big
                     secondary                business                business
                     sources about            operations and          operations.
                     the nature of            makes             Selects businesses
                     business being           decisions for           from each
                     conducted in             specific                sector and
                     their vicinity           business                accurately
                     and accurately           situations.             describes by
                     classifies these    Accurately identifies,       means of
                     into primary,            and thoroughly          diagrams the
                     secondary and            (consulting the         three
                     tertiary                 primary and             environments
                     enterprises.             secondary               related to
                                              sources)                these sectors
                                              investigates            and the
                                              the links               extent to
                                              between                 which the
                                              various                 business can
                                              primary,                control these
                                              secondary and           environments
                                              tertiary                .
                                              enterprises.

MERITORIOUS   Identifies the various     Tabulate the          Devises viable
                     components                comparison            strategies for
                     and supplies              and discusses         how a
                     appropriate               with an               business can
                     examples of               understanding         respond to
                     some of the               the extent to         the
                     environments,             which a               challenges of
                     and use the               business can          the macro
                     supplied                  control and           business
                     examples to               influence the         environment,
                     discuss and               micro                 critically
                     illustrates the           (internal),           evaluates
                     relationship              market and            such
                     between these             macro                 strategies and
                     environments.             business              makes



                                        90
Critically analyses             environments.          achievable
       and accurately    Identifies and                recommendat
       describes the            discusses with         ions as
       features of              understanding          required.
       some of the              and examples    Critically examines
       micro                    how a business         the concept
       (internal),              constantly             of social
       market and               needs to adapt         responsibility
       macro business           to the                 (through –
       environments             challenges of          limited
       in detail.               the micro              sources and
Identifies and                  (internal),            tools) and the
       discusses with           market and             (negative and
       understanding            macro                  positive)
       the effects of           business               implications
       the               By means of                   of this for
       contemporary             illustrations,         both business
       socio-                   critically             and
       economic                 analyses and           communities.
       issues that              interprets the  Analyses the impact
       impact on                impact and             of recent
       business                 challenges of          legislation,
       including                contemporary           developed in
       negative                 socio-                 response to
       effects.                 economic               redress and
Plans the                       issues on              equity, on
       investigation            business               both small
       and consults             operations and         and big
       primary and              makes                  business
       secondary                decisions for          operations.
       sources about            specific        Selects businesses
       the nature of            business               from each
       business being           situations.            sector and
       conducted in      Identifies, and               describes the
       their vicinity           thoroughly             three
       and classifies           (consulting the        environments
       these into               primary and            related to
       primary,                 secondary              these sectors
       secondary and            sources)               and the
       tertiary                 investigates           extent to
       enterprises.             the links              which the
                                between                business can
                                various                control these
                                primary,               environments
                                secondary and          .
                                tertiary



                        91
                                              enterprises.

SATISFACTORY Identifies the various     Compares and            Devises viable
                    components                 discusses with          strategies for
                    and supplies               understanding           how a
                    the examples               the extent to           business can
                    of each of the             which a                 respond to
                    different                  business can            the
                    environments               control and             challenges of
                    and discusses              influence the           the macro
                    the relationship           micro                   business
                    between these              (internal),             environment,
                    environments.              market and              critically
             Critically analyses               macro                   evaluates
                    and describes              business                such
                    the features of            environments.           strategies and
                    the micro           Identifies and                 makes
                    (internal),                discusses with          recommendat
                    market and                 understanding           ions as
                    macro business             how a business          required.
                    environments               constantly       Critically examines
                    in detail.                 needs to adapt          the concept
             Identifies and                    to the                  of social
                    discusses the              challenges of           responsibility
                    with                       the micro               (through
                    understanding              (internal),             limited
                    the                        market and              sources and
                    contemporary               macro                   tools) and the
                    socio-                     business                implications
                    economic            Critically analyses            of this for
                    issues that                and interprets          both business
                    impact on                  the impact and          and
                    business                   challenges of           communities.
             Plans the                         contemporary     Shows broad
                    investigation              socio-                  understandin
                    and consults               economic                g of recent
                    secondary                  issues on               legislation,
                    sources only               business                developed in
                    about the                  operations and          response to
                    nature of                  makes                   redress and
                    business being             decisions for           equity, on
                    conducted in               specific                both small
                    their vicinity             business                and big
                    and accurately             situations.             business
                    classifies these    Identifies, and                operations.
                    into primary,              investigates     Selects businesses



                                       92
                 secondary and              (by consulting          from each
                 tertiary                   either the              sector and
                 enterprises.               primary or              describes the
                                            secondary               three
                                            sources) the            environments
                                            links between           related to
                                            various                 these sectors
                                            primary,                and the
                                            secondary and           extent to
                                            tertiary                which the
                                            enterprises.            business can
                                                                    control these
                                                                    environments
                                                                    .

ADEQUATE   Identifies the various     Compares and            Devises strategies
                  components of              discusses the           for how a
                  the micro                  extent to               business can
                  (internal),                which a                 respond to
                  market and                 business can            the
                  macro business             control and             challenges of
                  environments               influence the           the macro
                  and discusses              micro                   business
                  the relationship           (internal),             environment,
                  between these              market and              critically
                  environments.              macro                   evaluates
           Analyses and                      business                such
                  describes the              environments.           strategies and
                  features of the     Identifies and                 makes
                  micro                      discusses how           recommendat
                  (internal),                a business              ions as
                  market and                 constantly              required.
                  macro business             needs to adapt   Critically examines
                  environments               to the                  the concept
                  in detail.                 challenges of           of social
           Identifies and                    the micro               responsibility
                  discusses                  (internal),             and the
                  contemporary               market and              implications
                  socio-                     macro                   of this for
                  economic                   business                both business
                  issues that                environments.           and
                  impact on           Analyses and                   communities.
                  business                   interprets the   Shows an
           Investigates the                  impact and              understandin
                  nature of                  challenges of           g of recent
                  business being             contemporary            legislation,



                                     93
                conducted in             socio-                 developed in
                their vicinity           economic               response to
                and classifies           issues on              redress and
                these into               business               equity, on
                primary,                 operations and         both small
                secondary and            makes                  and big
                tertiary                 decisions for          business
                enterprises.             specific               operations.
                                         business         Selects a business
                                         situations.            from each
                                  Identifies and                sector and
                                         investigates           describes the
                                         the links              three
                                         between                environments
                                         various                related to
                                         primary,               these sectors
                                         secondary and          and the
                                         tertiary               extent to
                                         enterprises.           which the
                                                                business can
                                                                control these
                                                                environments
                                                                .

PARTIAL   Identifies components Compares and briefly Devises strategies
             of the business            discusses the        for how a
             environment with           extent to            business can
             difficulty but not         which a              respond to
             the relationship .         business can         the
           Describes the                control and          challenges of
             features of the            influence the        the macro
             micro (internal),          micro                business
             market and macro           (internal),          environment,
             business                   market and           evaluates
             environments.              macro                such
          Analyses and                  business             strategies and
                 describes the          environments.        makes
                 features of the Identifies and briefly      recommendat
                 micro                  discusses how        ions as
                 (internal),            a business           required.
                 market and             constantly      Examines the
                 macro business         needs to adapt       concept of
                 environments           to the               social
                 in detail.             challenges of        responsibility
          Identifies without            the micro            and the
                 discussion             (internal),          implications



                                 94
                    contemporary           market and             of this for
                    socio-                 macro                  both business
                    economic               business               and
                    issues that            environments.          communities.
                    impact on       Outlines the impact     Shows limited
                    business               and challenges         understandin
             Investigates by means         of                     g of recent
                    of observing           contemporary           legislation.
                    and could not          socio-           Selects a business
                    classify some          economic               from each
                    of the                 issues on              sector and
                    businesses into        business               describes the
                    different              operations and         three
                    sectors.               makes                  environments
                                           decisions for          related to
                                           specific               these sectors.
                                           business
                                           situations.
                                    Identifies the links
                                           between
                                           various
                                           primary,
                                           secondary and
                                           tertiary
                                           enterprises.

INADEQUATE      Can identify some Briefly discusses      Seldom devises
                   components            without              strategies for
                   of the                comparing the        how a
                   different             extent to            business can
                   business              which a              respond to
                   environments          business can         the
                   with difficulty       control and          challenges of
                   but not the           influence the        the macro
                   relationships.        micro                business
                Describes the            (internal),          environment,
                   features of the       market and           and strategies
                   micro                 macro                are never
                   (internal),           business             evaluated.
                   market and            environments. Examines the
                   macro           Only identifies how a      concept of
                   business              business             social
                   environments,         constantly           responsibility
                   but attaching         needs to adapt
                   the                   to the          Shows limited
                   description to        challenges of        understandin



                                  95
                             the wrong            the micro                 g of recent
                             environment.         (internal),               legislation.
                     Identifies some of the       market and          Selects a business
                            contemporary          macro                     but cannot
                            socio-                business                  identify the
                            economic              environments.             sector. can
                            issues that     Recognises the                  control these
                            impact on             impact and                environments
                            business              challenges of             .
                     Investigates by means        contemporary
                            of observing          socio-
                            without               economic
                            planning and          issues on
                            could not             business
                            classify the          operations and
                            businesses into       makes
                            different             decisions for
                            sectors.              specific
                                                  business
                                                  situations.
                                            Inaccurately
                                                  identifies the
                                                  links between
                                                  various
                                                  primary,
                                                  secondary and
                                                  tertiary
                                                  enterprises.




                               LEARNING OUTCOME 2

The learner is able to identify and research viable business opportunities and to explore
these and related issues through the creation of achievable business ventures.

    6 POINT           COMPETENCE                COMPETENCE              COMPETENCE
     SCALE            DESCRIPTION               DESCRIPTION              DESCRIPTION
                         GRADE 10                  GRADE 11                GRADE 12
80 – 100%            Designs and uses a       Critically and           Critically reflects
OUTSTANDING             well-structured       accurately analyses      on a business
                        and appropriate       the degree to which a    venture, assesses its
                        research              business embraces        entrepreneurial
                        instrument to         entrepreneurial          qualities, accurately
                        accurately assess     qualities and make       identifies its


                                            96
    the needs and           use of relevant            success factors and
    wants in an             examples.                  identifies areas for
    identified              Independently make         improvement.
    environment.            use of an illustration     Critically Analyses
Accurately identifies       to transform a             and accurately
    possible business       business plan into a       evaluates the extent
    opportunities           detailed action plan       to which a business
    (based on               and draw a well-           venture addresses
    researched needs        structured Gantt           issues such as
    and wants) and          charts separated from      human rights,
    correctly applies       the action plan.           inclusivity,
    SWOT analysis           Independently starts a     environmental
    to determine a          viable business            issues and further
    viable business         venture based on a         examples.
    venture.                well-structured and        Presents and clearly
Develops a well-            detailed action plan.      illustrates a variety
structured business         Presents and               of business related
plan including a            illustrates a variety of   information clearly
financial analysis that     business related           and accurately in
can be practically          information clearly        verbal and non-
Thoroughly                  and accurately in          verbal format
investigates using          verbal and non-verbal      (including graphs)
primary and                 format (including          and responds
secondary sources           graphs) and responds       professionally to
and debates and             professionally to          questions and
illustrates factors that    questions and              feedback. and
impact on business          feedback.                  accurately amends
location decisions.         Thoroughly plans and       information..
Presents and                consults the primary       Critically
    illustrates a           and secondary              Investigates by
    variety of              sources to                 means of primary
    business related        investigates avenues       and secondary
    information             of acquiring               sources a range of
    clearly and             businesses and             business investment
    accurately in           critically discusses       opportunities
    verbal and non-         the advantages and         available,
    verbal format.          disadvantages of           accurately
    (Including              these as well as their     distinguishes
    graphs).                contractual                between assurance
Describes accurately        implications.              and insurance (both
and in full the             Critically discusses       compulsory and
relevance of various        the benefits and           non-compulsory)
contracts and their         challenges of              and critically
legal implications in       establishing a             discusses the
different business          company versus all         viability and
contexts.                   forms of ownership         relevance of these



                           97
                                         (including taxation       to both individuals
                                         issues).                  and business.
                                                                   Accurately
                                                                   determines the
                                                                   extent to which a
                                                                   each form of
                                                                   ownership can
                                                                   contribute to the
                                                                   success or failure of
                                                                   a business

MERITORIOUS   Designs and uses an        Critically analyses the   Critically reflects
                  appropriate                 degree to which a    on a business
                  research                    business             venture, assesses its
                  instrument to               embraces             entrepreneurial
                  accurately assess           entrepreneurial      qualities, identifies
                  the needs and               qualities and        its success factors
                  wants in an                 make use of          and identifies areas
                  identified                  relevant             for improvement.
                  environment.                examples.            Analyses and
              Accurately identifies       Independently make       accurately evaluates
                  possible business      use of an illustration    the extent to which
                  opportunities          to transform a            a business venture
                  (based on              business plan into a      addresses issues
                  researched needs       detailed action plan      such as human
                  and wants) and         and draw a well-          rights, inclusivity,
                  applies SWOT           structured Gantt          environmental
                  analysis to            charts.                   issues and further
                  determine a            Independently starts a    examples.
                  viable business        viable business           Presents and
                  venture.               venture based on a -      illustrates a variety
              Develops a well-           detailed action plan.     of business related
              structured business        Presents a variety of     information clearly
              plan including a           business related          and accurately in
              financial analysis that    information clearly       verbal and non-
              can be implemented.        and accurately in         verbal format
              Thoroughly                 verbal and non-verbal     (including graphs)
              investigates using         format (including         and responds
              primary and                graphs) and responds      professionally to
              secondary sources          professionally to         questions and
              and debates factors        questions and             feedback. and
              that impact on             feedback.                 accurately amends
              business location          Thoroughly plans and      information.
              decisions.                 consults the primary      . Critically
              Presents a variety of      and secondary             Investigates by
                  business related       sources to                means of primary



                                        98
                   information           investigates avenues     and secondary
                   clearly and           of acquiring             sources a range of
                   accurately in         businesses discusses     business investment
                   verbal and non-       the advantages and       opportunities
                   verbal format.        disadvantages of         available,
                Describes accurately     these as well as their   accurately
                   and in full the       contractual              distinguishes
                   relevance of          implications             between assurance
                   contracts and         Critically discusses     and insurance (both
                   their legal           the benefits and         compulsory and
                   implications in       challenges of            non-compulsory)
                   different business    establishing a           and discusses the
                   contexts.             company versus some      viability and
                                         forms of ownership       relevance of these
                                         (including taxation      to both individuals
                                         issues).                 and business
                                                                  Accurately
                                                                  determines the
                                                                  extent to which a
                                                                  some forms of
                                                                  ownership can
                                                                  contribute to the
                                                                  success or failure of
                                                                  a business


SATISFACTORY Designs and uses an         Analyses the degree      Reflects on a
                 appropriate             to which a business      business venture,
                 research                embraces                 assesses its
                 instrument to           entrepreneurial          entrepreneurial
                 assess the needs        qualities using          qualities, identifies
                 and wants in an         relevant examples.       its success factors
                 identified              Collaboratively or       and identifies areas
                 environment.            independently make       for improvement.
             Accurately identifies       use of an illustration   Analyses and
                 possible business       to transform a           evaluates the extent
                 opportunities           business plan into a     to which a business
                 (based on               detailed action plan     venture addresses
                 researched needs        (including Gantt         issues such as
                 and wants) and          charts and timelines).   human rights,
                 applies SWOT            Collaboratively or       inclusivity,
                 analysis to             independently starts a   environmental
                 determine a             business venture         issues and further
                 business venture.       based on a detailed      examples.
             Develops a well-            action plan.             Presents and
             structured business         Presents a variety of    illustrates a variety



                                        99
           plan that can be          business related         of business related
           implemented.              information clearly in   information clearly
           Investigates using        verbal and non-verbal    and accurately in
           primary and               format (including        verbal and non-
           secondary sources         graphs) and responds     verbal format
           and debates factors       professionally to        (including graphs)
           that impact on            questions and            and responds
           business location         feedback.                professionally to
           decisions.                Plans and consults the   questions and
           Presents a variety of     primary and              feedback. and
               business related      secondary sources to     amends
               information           investigates avenues     information.
               clearly in verbal     of acquiring             Investigates by
               and non-verbal        businesses discusses     means of primary
               format.               the advantages and       and secondary
           Describes accurately      disadvantages of         sources a range of
               the relevance of      these as well as their   business investment
               contracts and         contractual              opportunities
               their legal           implications             available,
               implications in       Discusses the benefits   distinguishes
               different business    and challenges of        between assurance
               contexts.             establishing a           and insurance (both
                                     company versus some      compulsory and
                                     forms of ownership       non- critically
                                     (including taxation      discusses the
                                     issues).                 viability and
                                                              relevance of these
                                                              to both individuals
                                                              and business
                                                              Determines the
                                                              extent to which a
                                                              some forms of
                                                              ownership can
                                                              contribute to the
                                                              success or failure of
                                                              a business


ADEQUATE   Designs and uses a        Analyses the degree      Reflects on a
              research               to which a business      business venture,
              instrument to          embraces                 assesses its
              assess the needs       entrepreneurial          entrepreneurial
              and wants in an        qualities.               qualities, identifies
              identified             Collaboratively or       its success factors.
              environment.           independently            Analyses and
           Identifies possible       transforms a business    evaluates the extent



                                    100
              business              plan into a detailed     to which a business
              opportunities         action plan (including   venture addresses
              (based on             Gantt charts and         issues such as
              researched needs      timelines).              human rights,
              and wants) and        Collaboratively or       inclusively and
              applies SWOT          independently starts a   environmental
              analysis to           business venture         issues.
              determine a           based on an action       Presents a variety of
              business venture.     plan.                    business related
          Develops a business       Presents a variety of    information clearly
          plan that can be          business related         and accurately in
          implemented.              information clearly in   verbal and non-
          Investigates and list     verbal and non-verbal    verbal format
          factors that impact on    format (including        (including graphs)
          business location         graphs) and responds     and responds
          decisions.                to questions and         professionally to
          Presents a variety of     feedback.                questions and
          business related          Investigates avenues     feedback and
          information in verbal     of acquiring             amends information
          and non-verbal            businesses and           as necessary.
          format.                   discusses the            Investigates a range
          Describes the             advantages and           of business
          relevance of              disadvantages of         investment
          contracts and their       these businesses as      opportunities
          legal implications in     well as their            available,
          different                 contractual              distinguishes
              business contexts.    implications.            between assurance
                                    Discusses the benefits   and insurance (both
                                    and challenges of        compulsory and
                                    establishing a           non-compulsory)
                                    company versus some      and discusses the
                                    forms of ownership.      viability and
                                                             relevance of these
                                                             to both individuals
                                                             and business.
                                                             Determines the
                                                             extent to which a
                                                             particular form of
                                                             ownership can
                                                             contribute to the
                                                             success or failure of
                                                             a business
PARTIAL   Designs an                Outlines the             Reflects on a
             inappropriate          entrepreneurial          business venture,
             instrument and         qualities.               assesses its
             uses it in research    Collaboratively          entrepreneurial



                                   101
                 to assess the         transforms a business    qualities.
                 needs and wants       plan into an action      Describes the extent
                 in an identified      plan. (including Gantt   to which a business
                 environment.          charts and timelines).   venture addresses
             Identifies possible       Collaboratively starts   issues such as
                 business              a business venture       human rights,
                 opportunities         based on an action       inclusively and
                 based on the          plan                     environmental
                 incorrect research    Presents a variety of    issues
                 results.              business related         Presents and a
             Develops a business       information in verbal    variety of business
             plan that cannot be       and non-verbal           related information
             implemented due to        format (including        in verbal and non-
             incorrect                 graphs)                  verbal format.
             information.              Investigates avenues     Investigates some
             Investigates and list     of acquiring             business investment
             factors that impact on    businesses and names     opportunities
             business location         the advantages and       available,
             Presents a variety of     disadvantages of         distinguishes
             business related          these as well as their   between assurance
             information in verbal     contractual              and insurance (both
             or non-verbal format.     implications             compulsory and
             Describes the             Outlines the benefits    non-compulsory).
             relevance of              and challenges of        Identifies the forms
             contracts in              establishing a           of ownership only
             businesses context        company versus some      but cannot relate
             but could not             forms of ownership.      them to success or
             describe their legal                               failure.
             implication in
             different business
             context.
INADEQUATE   Designs an                Lists the                Can reflect on a
                 instrument that is        entrepreneurial      business venture,
                 not suitable for          qualities.           without doing the
                 research of the       Collaboratively          meaningful
                 needs and wants.      transforms a business    observations.
             Could not identify        plan into an action      Describes the extent
                 possible business     plan.                    to which a business
                 opportunities due     Collaboratively starts   venture addresses
                 to failure to             a non-viable         some issues such as
                 conduct a                 business venture.    human rights,
                 research.             Presents a particular    inclusively and
             Develops an               business related         environmental
                 incorrect business    information in verbal    issues
                 plan.                 and non-verbal           Presents limited
             Investigates and          format.                  business related



                                      102
                       could not list nor    Investigates avenues      information in
                       debate the factors        of acquiring          verbal or rnon-
                       that impact on            businesses and        verbal format...
                       business location.        names the             Describes some
                    Presents particular          advantages or         business investment
                   business related              disadvantages of      opportunities
                   information in verbal         these.                available.
                   or non-verbal format.     Lists only the benefits   Identifies some
                   Name the different        and challenges of         forms of ownership
                       contracts but         establishing a            but cannot relate
                       could not             company versus some       them to success or
                       describe its          forms of ownership        failure.
                       relevancy to
                       businesses.




                            LEARNING OUTCOME 3

The learner is able to demonstrate and apply contemporary knowledge and skills to
fulfill a variety of business roles.

   6 POINT          COMPETENCE            COMPETENCE                    COMPETENCE
    SCALE            DESCRIPTION           DESCRIPTION                  DESCRIPTION
                       GRADE 10               GRADE 11                      GRADE 12
80 – 100%          Accurately and        Consistently and              Consistently and
OUTSTANDING           articulately           successfully                  successfully
                      explains and           applies creative              applies creative
                      illustrates with       thinking to                   thinking to
                      examples how           address business              respond
                      creative thinking      problems and to               accurately to
                      can contribute         improve business              challenges in
                      towards                practice                      dynamic and
                      successful and     Critically and                    complex
                      sustainable            accurately                    business
                      business practice      discusses the                 contexts
                   Successes fully apply     theories and              Critically and
                      creative thinking      principles of                 articulately
                      to generate            professionalism               discusses and by
                      entrepreneurial        and ethics, and               means of
                      opportunities and      exhaustively                  illustrations
                      accurately solve       explores how                  debates how


                                            103
    business                  these relate to the       professional,
    problems.                 business                  responsible,
Critically and                environment               ethical and
    accurately            Consistently and              effective
    analyses the              successfully              business
    concept of self-          applies the               practice should
    management and            appropriate               be conducted in
    clearly discusses         principles, and           changing and
    how this is               skills of                 challenging
    relevant in a             professional,             business
    business context.         responsible,              environments.
Critically and                ethical and           Critically and
    realistically             effective business    intensively reflects
    assesses                  practice to carry     on situations and
    themselves and            out business          activities and makes
    accurately                ventures              appropriate
    identifies            Accurately and            recommendations
    possible business         articulately          for improvements.
    careers that they         explains and          Critically and
    are interested in         applies concepts      accurately
    following.                relating to stress,   differentiates
Accurately identifies         crisis and change     between
    the appropriate           management with       management,
    ways in which             practical             leadership styles
    people need to            examples.             and approaches,
    work together to      Intensively               make use of
    accomplish                researches by         examples.
    business                  consulting            Consistently and
    objectives and            primary and               successfully
    critically discuss        secondary source          applies conflict
    factors that can          variety of                management
    influence these           business careers          skills to
    relationships             and accurately            appropriately
Accurately identifies         identifies                resolve
    the criteria for          appropriate paths         differences in
    successful and            for personal and          business
    collaborative             career growth and         situations
    team                      advancement.              (including work
    performance in a      Consistently and              place forum)
    business context          successfully          Critically and
    and critically            applies team              accurately
    assesses a team           dynamics theories         selects and
    against these             to critically             consistently
    criteria.                 analyse specific          motivates their
Accurately identifies         business-based            choice of
    appropriate ways          case studies              possible



                         104
                  in which a             Critically and                business careers
                  business can               accurately                and associated
                  contribute                 analyses the              career paths.
                  responsibly                citizenship roles     Consistently and
                  towards its                and                   successfully
                  immediate                  responsibilities      collaborates with
                  community.                 that business         others to contribute
                                             practitioners need    towards the
                                             to perform within     achievement of
                                             a business            specific objectives.
                                             environment and       Consistently,
                                             illustrate with           successfully and
                                             examples.                 meaningfully
                                                                       contributes time
                                                                       and effort to
                                                                       advancing the
                                                                       well-being of
                                                                       others in a
                                                                       business context
MERITORIOUS   Accurately explains,       Consistently applies      Consistently applies
                  with examples              creative thinking         creative thinking
                  how creative               to address                to respond
                  thinking can               business                  accurately to
                  contribute                 problems and to           challenges in
                  towards                    improve business          dynamic and
                  successful and             practice                  complex
                  sustainable            Critically discusses          business
                  business practice.         the theories and          contexts.
              Applies creative               principles of         Critically discusses
                  thinking to                professionalism           and by means of
                  generate                   and ethics, and           illustrations
                  entrepreneurial            exhaustively              debates how
                  opportunities and          explores how              professional,
                  accurately solve           these relate to the       responsible,
                  business                   business                  ethical and
                  problems.                  environment               effective
              Critically analyses        Consistently and              business
                  the concept of             successfully              practice should
                  self-management            applies the               be conducted in
                  and clearly                principles, and           changing and
                  discusses how              skills of                 challenging
                  this is relevant in        professional,             business
                  a business                 responsible,              environments.
                  context.                   ethical and           Critically reflects on
              Critically and                 effective business    situations and
                  realistically              practice to carry     activities and makes



                                        105
                   assesses                  out business         appropriate
                   themselves and            ventures             recommendations
                   identifies            Accurately explains      for improvements.
                   possible business         and applies          Critically
                   careers that they         concepts relating        differentiates
                   are interested in         to stress, crisis        between
                   following.                and change               management,
                Accurately identifies        management with          leadership styles
                   the ways in               practical                and approaches,
                   which people              examples.                make use of
                   need to work          Intensively                  examples
                   together to               researches by        Consistently applies
                   accomplish                consulting               conflict
                   business                  primary and              management
                   objectives and            secondary source         skills to
                   critically discuss        variety of               appropriately
                   factors that can          business careers         resolve
                   influence these           and accurately           differences in
                   relationships             identifies paths         business
                Accurately identifies        for personal and         situations
                   the criteria for          career growth and        (including work
                   successful and            advancement.             place forum)
                   collaborative         Consistently applies     Critically selects
                   team                      team dynamics            and consistently
                   performance in a          theories to              motivates their
                   business context          critically analyse       choice of
                   and assesses a            specific business-       possible
                   team against              based case studies       business careers
                   these criteria.       Critically analyses          and associated
                Accurately identifies        the citizenship          career paths.
                   ways in which a           roles and            Consistently
                   business can              responsibilities     collaborates with
                   contribute                that business        others to contribute
                   responsibly               practitioners need   towards the
                   towards its               to perform within    achievement of
                   immediate                 a business           specific objectives.
                   community.                environment and      Consistently and
                                             illustrate with          meaningfully
                                             examples.                contributes time
                                         .                            and effort to
                                                                      advancing the
                                                                      well-being of
                                                                      others in a
                                                                      business context
SATISFACTORY Accurately explains         Frequently applies       Frequently applies
                how creative                creative thinking         creative thinking



                                        106
   thinking can               to address                to respond to
   contribute                 business                  challenges in
   towards                    problems and to           dynamic and
   successful and             improve business          complex
   sustainable                practice                  business
   business practice.     Critically discusses          contexts.
Applies creative              the theories and      Critically discusses
   thinking to                principles of             and debates how
   generate                   professionalism           professional,
   entrepreneurial            and ethics, and           responsible,
   opportunities and          explores how              ethical and
   solve business             these relate to the       effective
   problems.                  business                  business
Analyses the concept          environment               practice should
   of self-               Consistently applies          be conducted in
   management and             the principles,           changing and
   clearly discusses          and skills of             challenging
   how this is                professional,             business
   relevant in a              responsible,              environments.
   business context.          ethical and           Reflects on
Realistically assesses        effective business    situations and
   themselves and             practice to carry     activities and makes
   identifies                 out business          appropriate
   possible business          ventures              recommendations
   careers that they      Accurately explains       for improvements.
   are interested in          and applies           Differentiates
   following.                 concepts relating         between
Carefully identifies          to stress, crisis         management,
   the ways in                and change                leadership styles
   which people               management                and approaches,
   need to work           Intensively                   make use of
   together to                researches variety        examples
   accomplish                 of business           Frequently applies
   discuss factors            careers and               conflict
   that can influence         identifies paths          management
   these                      for personal and          skills to resolve
   relationships              career growth and         differences in
Carefully identifies          advancement.              business
   ways in which a        Frequently applies            situations
   business can               team dynamics             (including work
   contribute                 theories to               place forum)
   responsibly                analyse specific      Selects and
   towards its                business-based            frequently
   immediate                  case studies              motivates their
   community.             Critically analyses           choice of
                              the citizenship           possible



                         107
                                          roles and             business careers
                                          responsibilities      and associated
                                          that business         career paths.
                                          practitioners needFrequently
                                          to perform within collaborates with
                                          a business        others to contribute
                                          environment       towards the
                                                            achievement of
                                                            specific objectives.
                                                            Frequently and
                                                                meaningfully
                                                                contributes time
                                                                and effort to
                                                                advancing the
                                                                well-being of
                                                                others in a
                                                                business context
ADEQUATE    Explains how             Applies creative       Applies creative
              creative thinking         thinking to         thinking to respond
              can contribute            address business    to challenges in
              towards                   problems and to     dynamic and
              successful and            improve business complex business
              sustainable               practice.           contexts.
              business practice      Discusses the          Discusses and
           Uses creative                theories and        debates how
              thinking to               principles of       professional,
              generate                  professionalism     responsible, ethical
              entrepreneurial           and ethics, and     and effective
              opportunities and         explores how        business practice
              solve business            these relate to the should be conducted
              problems.                 business            in changing and
           Analyses the concept         environment.        challenging
              of self-               Applies the principles business
              management and            and skills of       environments.
              discusses how             professional,       Reflects on
              this is relevant in       responsible,        situations and
              a business                ethical and         activities and makes
              context.                  effective business recommendations
           Assesses themselves          practice to carry   for improvements.
              and identifies            out business        Differentiates
              possible business         ventures.           between
              careers that they      Explains and applies management and
              are interested in         concepts relating leadership styles
              following.                to stress, crisis   and approaches.
           Identifies the ways in       and change          Applies conflict
              which people              management.         management skills



                                    108
             need to work         Researches a variety       to resolve
             together to             of business             differences in
             accomplish              careers and             business situations
             business                identifies paths        (including work
             objectives and          for personal and        place forums).
             discuss factors         career growth and       Selects and
             that can influence      advancement.            motivates their
             these                Applies team               choice of possible
             relationships (e g      dynamics theories       business careers and
             prejudice, beliefs,     to analyse              associated career
             values and              specific business-      paths.
             diversity).             based case studies      Collaborates with
          Identifies the criteria Analyses the               others to contribute
             for successful          citizenship roles       towards the
             and collaborative       and                     achievement of
             team                    responsibilities        specific objectives.
             performance in a        that business           Meaningfully
             business context        practitioners need      contributes time and
             and assesses a          to perform within       effort to advancing
             team against            a business              the well-being of
             these criteria.         environment.            others in a business
          Identifies ways in                                 context
             which a business
             can contribute
             responsibly
             towards its
             immediate
             community.


PARTIAL   Unable to link            Occasionally uses        Occasionally
             creative thinking          creative thinking       applies creative
             with business              to address              thinking to
             practice.                  business                respond to
          Uses creative                 problems and to         challenges in
             thinking to                improve business        dynamic
             generate                   practice                business
             entrepreneurial        discusses the theories      contexts.
             opportunities.             and principles of    Debates how
          Describes the                 professionalism         professional,
             concept of self-           and ethics.             responsible,
             management and         Has a good                  ethical and
             discusses how              knowledge of the        effective
             this is relevant in        principles, and         business
             a business                 skills of               practice should
             context.                   professional,           be conducted in



                                   109
             Assesses themselves           responsible,              changing and
                 for career                ethical and               challenging
                 opportunities but         effective business        business
                 unable to link to         practice.                 environments.
                 any career.            Explains the concepts    Reflects on
             Identifies the ways in        relating to stress,   situations and
                 which people              crisis and change     activities without
                 need to work              management            making
                 together.              Researches some          recommendations.
             Identifies the criteria       business careers      Differentiates
                 for successful            and identifies        between some
                 and collaborative         paths for personal    management and
                 team                      and career            leadership styles.
                 performance.              growth.               and approaches.
             identifies ways in         Describes team           Occasionally
                 which a business          dynamics                  applies conflict
                 can contribute            theories.                 management
                 towards its            Describes the                skills to resolve
                 immediate                 citizenship roles         differences in
                 community.                and                       business
                                           responsibilities          situations
                                           that business         Selects possible
                                           practitioners need        business careers
                                           to perform within         and associated
                                           a business                career paths.
                                           environment           Occasionally
                                                                 collaborates with
                                                                 others to contribute
                                                                 towards the
                                                                 achievement of
                                                                 specific objectives.
                                                                 Occasionally and
                                                                 meaningfully
                                                                 contributes time and
                                                                 effort to advancing
                                                                 the well-being of
                                                                 others in a business
                                                                 context

INADEQUATE   Unable to explain          Seldom uses creative     Seldom applies
                creative thinking          thinking to              creative thinking
                properly.                  address business         to respond to
             Unable to use                 problems.                some challenges
                creative thinking       Describes the               in dynamic
                skills.                    theories and             business
             Describes the                 principles of            contexts.



                                       110
                       concept of self-        professionalism      Describes how
                       management.             and ethics               professional,
                    Identifies career       Has a scanty                responsible,
                       opportunities but       knowledge of the         ethical and
                       unable to               principles, and          effective
                       assesses                skills of                business
                       themselves              professional,            practice should
                       properly.               responsible,             be conducted in
                    Unable to accurately       ethical and              changing and
                       identify the ways       effective business       challenging
                       in which people         practice                 business
                       need to work         Explains some of the        environments.
                       together.               concepts relating    Reflects on some
                    Unable to identify         to stress, crisis    situations and
                       the criteria for        and change           activities.
                       successful and          management           Describes some
                       collaborative        Identifies some of      management and
                       team                    business careers.    leadership styles.
                       performance.         Describes some team     Seldom applies
                    Unable to identify         dynamics theories        conflict
                       properly ways in     Unable to describe          management
                       which a business        clearly the              skills to resolve
                       can contribute          citizenship roles        differences in
                       towards its             and                      business
                       immediate               responsibilities         situations
                       community.              that business        Selects possible
                                               practitioners need       business careers.
                                               to perform within    Seldom collaborates
                                               a business           with others to
                                               environment          contribute towards
                                                                    the achievement of
                                                                    specific objectives.
                                                                    Seldom contributes
                                                                        time and effort
                                                                        to advancing the
                                                                        well-being of
                                                                        others in a
                                                                        business context

                                Learning Outcome 4

The learner is able to demonstrate and apply a range of management as well as
specialised knowledge and skills to perform business operations successfully.

    6 POINT           COMPETENCE                 COMPETENCE           COMPETENCE
     SCALE         DESCRIPTION GRADE             DESCRIPTION          DESCRIPTION


                                           111
                       10                    GRADE 11              GRADE 12
80 – 100%     Accurately identifies      Critically and         Critically and
OUTSTANDING       and critically         accurately analyses        accurately
                  discusses the          and articulately           analyses and
                  eights business        discusses the              articulately
                  functions fully.       following tasks            discusses
              Critically and             and activities of          relevant
                  accurately             the marketing              legislation and
                  analyses how the       function:                  the following
                  business functions     marketing                  aspects of the
                  are interrelated       activities                 human
                  and how these          product policy             resource
                  operate in small,      pricing policy             function:
                  medium and big         distribution           recruitment and
                  business context       marketing              selection
                  make use of            communication          employee
                  examples.              foreign marketing      contracts
              Accurately identifies      Accurately selects     induction and
                  the levels and         a marketing            placement
                  tasks of general       activity and carries   salary
                  management and         this out               administration
                  critically uses this   successfully to        employee benefits
                  information to         achieve an             skills
                  analyse these          identified business    development
                  within a public        objective make use     Accurately selects
                  and private            of an example.             a human
                  organisation.          Critically and             resource
              Critically analyses and    accurately analyses        activity and
                  accurately and         and articulately           carries this out
                  articulately           discusses the              successfully to
                  explains the           following aspects          achieve an
                  following              of the production          identified
                  functions and their    function:                  business
                  importance in              systems                objective,
                  achieving business         production             make use of
                  objectives:                     planning          an example.
                  administration             safety             Critically
                  financing                       manageme          investigates
                  purchasing                      nt                the
                  public relations           quality control        developments
                                             production             in industrial
                                                  costs             relations that
                                                                    relate to
                                                                    contemporary
                                                                    business
                                                                    practice by



                                 112
                                                                    consulting
                                                                    various
                                                                    primary and
                                                                    secondary
                                                                    sources.
                                                                Critically and
                                                                    accurately
                                                                    analyses how
                                                                    the quality of
                                                                    performance
                                                                    within the
                                                                    business
                                                                    functions can
                                                                    influence the
                                                                    success or
                                                                    failure of a
                                                                    business,
                                                                    make use of
                                                                    an illustration
MERITORIOUS   Identifies and             Critically analyses    Critically analyses
                  critically discusses   and articulately           and
                  the eights business    discusses the              articulately
                  functions fully.       following tasks            discusses
              Critically analyses        and activities of          relevant
                  how the business       the marketing              legislation and
                  functions are          function:                  the following
                  interrelated and       marketing                  aspects of the
                  how these operate      activities                 human
                  in small, medium       product policy             resource
                  and big business       pricing policy             function:
                  context make use       distribution           recruitment and
                  of examples            marketing              selection
              Identifies the levels      communication          employee
                  and tasks of           foreign marketing      contracts
                  general                Accurately selects     induction and
                  management and         a marketing            placement
                  critically uses this   activity and carries   salary
                  information to         this out to achieve    administration
                  analyse these          an identified          employee benefits
                  within a public        business objective     skills
                  and private            make use of an         development
                  organisation.          example.               Selects a human
              Critically analyses and    Critically analyses        resource
                  articulately           and articulately           activity and
                  explains the           discusses the              carries this out
                  following              following aspects          successfully to



                                 113
                  functions and their   of the production     achieve an
                  importance in         function:             identified
                  achieving business    systems               business
                  objectives:           production            objective,
                  administration        planning              make use of
                  financing             safety management     an example.
                  purchasing            quality control   Critically
                  public relations      production costs      investigates
                                                              the
                                                              developments
                                                              in industrial
                                                              relations that
                                                              relate to
                                                              contemporary
                                                              business
                                                              practice by
                                                              consulting
                                                              limited
                                                              primary and
                                                              secondary
                                                              sources.
                                                          Critically analyses
                                                          how the quality of
                                                          performance
                                                          within the
                                                          business functions
                                                          can influence the
                                                          success or failure
                                                          of a business,
                                                          make use of an
                                                          illustration
SATISFACTORY   Identifies and           Analyses and      Analyses and
                  discusses the         articulately          articulately
                  eights business       discusses the         discusses
                  functions fully.      following tasks       relevant
               Analyses how the         and activities of     legislation and
                  business functions    the marketing         the following
                  are interrelated      function:             aspects of the
                  and how these         marketing             human
                  operate in small,     activities            resource
                  medium and big        product policy        function:
                  business context      pricing policy    recruitment and
                  make use of           distribution      selection
                  examples              marketing         employee
               Identifies the levels    communication     contracts
                  and tasks of          foreign marketing induction and



                                114
              general               Selects a              placement
              management and        marketing activity     salary
              uses this             and carries this out   administration
              information to        to achieve an          employee benefits
              analyse these         identified business    skills
              within a public       objective make use     development
              and private           of an example.         Selects a human
              organisation.         Analyses and               resource
           Analyses and             articulately               activity and
              articulately          discusses the              carries this out
              explains the          following aspects          to achieve an
              following             of the production          identified
              functions and their   function:                  business
              importance in             systems                objective,
              achieving business        production             make use of
              objectives:                   planning           an example.
              administration            safety             Investigates the
              financing                     manageme           developments
              purchasing                    nt                 in industrial
              public relations          quality control        relations that
                                        production             relate to
                                            costs              contemporary
                                                               business
                                                               practice by
                                                               consulting
                                                               limited
                                                               primary or
                                                               secondary
                                                               sources.
                                                           Analyses how the
                                                               quality of
                                                               performance
                                                               within the
                                                               business
                                                               functions can
                                                               influence the
                                                               success or
                                                               failure of a
                                                               business,
                                                               make use of
                                                               an illustration
ADEQUATE   Identifies and briefly   Analyses and           Analyses and
              discusses the         discusses the              discusses
              eights business       following tasks            relevant
              functions.            and activities of          legislation and
           Analyses how the         the marketing              the following



                              115
             business functions    function:                  aspects of the
             are interrelated      marketing                  human
             and how these         activities                 resource
             operate in small,     product policy             function:
             medium and big        pricing policy         recruitment and
             business contexts.    distribution           selection
          Identifies the levels    marketing              employee
             and tasks of          communication          contracts
             general               foreign marketing      induction and
             management and        Selects a              placement
             uses this             marketing activity     salary
             information to        and carries this out   administration
             analyse these         to achieve an          employee benefits
             within a public or    identified business    skills
             private               objective.             development
             organisation.         Analyses and           Selects a human
          Analyses and explains    discusses the              resource
             the following         following aspects          activity and
             functions and their   of the production          carries this out
             importance in         function:                  to achieve an
             achieving business        systems                identified
             objectives:               production             business
             administration                 planning          objective.
             financing                 safety             Investigates
             purchasing                     manageme          developments
             public relations               nt                in industrial
                                       quality control        relations that
                                       production             relate to
                                            costs             contemporary
                                                              business
                                                              practice.
                                                          Analyses how the
                                                              quality of
                                                              performance
                                                              within the
                                                              business
                                                              functions can
                                                              influence the
                                                              success or
                                                              failure of a
                                                              business
PARTIAL   Identifies and           Briefly discusses      Briefly discusses
              describes the        the following tasks        relevant
              eights business      and activities of          legislation and
              functions.           the marketing              the following
          Indicates how the        function:                  aspects of the



                            116
                business functions     marketing                  human
                are interrelated       activities                 resource
                and how these          product policy             function:
                operate in small,      pricing policy         recruitment and
                medium and big         distribution           selection
                business context.      marketing              employee
             Identifies the levels     communication          contracts
                and tasks of           foreign marketing      induction and
                general                Selects a              placement
                management             marketing activity     salary
                within a public or     and carries this out   administration
                private                but did not achieve    employee benefits
                organisation.          the identified         skills
             Describes the             objectives.            development
                following              Briefly discusses      Selects a human
                functions and their    the following              resource
                importance in          aspects of the             activity and
                achieving business     production                 carries this out
                objectives:            function:                  but did not
                administration             systems                achieve the
                financing                  production             identified
                purchasing                      planning          objectives
                public relations           safety             Explains
                                                manageme          developments
                                                nt                in industrial
                                           quality control        relations that
                                           production             relate to
                                                costs             contemporary
                                                                  business
                                                                  practice..
                                                              Outlines how the
                                                                  quality of
                                                                  performance
                                                                  within the
                                                                  business
                                                                  functions can
                                                                  influence the
                                                                  success or
                                                                  failure of a
                                                                  business
INADEQUATE   Identifies and describe   Describes the          Describes relevant
                 some the eights       following tasks            legislation and
                 business functions.   and activities of          the following
             Indicates how the         the marketing              aspects of the
                 business functions    function:                  human
                 are interrelated.     marketing                  resource



                               117
Identifies the levels or   activities                function:
   tasks of general        product policy        recruitment and
   management              pricing policy        selection
   within a public or      distribution          employee
   private                 marketing             contracts
   organisation.           communication         induction and
Describes following        foreign marketing     placement
   functions:              Selects a             salary
         administration    marketing activity    administration
                           and attempts to       employee benefits
       financing           carry it out.         skills
       purchasing          Briefly discusses     development
       public              some of the           Selects a human
           relations       following aspects     resource activity
                           of the production     and attempts to
                           function:             carry it out.
                               systems           explains the
                               production            developments
                                    planning         in industrial
                               safety                relations.
                                    manageme     Indicates how the
                                    nt               quality of
                               quality control       performance
                               production            within the
                                    costs            business
                                                     functions can
                                                     influence the
                                                     success or
                                                     failure of a
                                                     business.




                   118
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