Coastal Vulnerability Projects by 2ENJD4oq

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									                      Coastal Vulnerability Assessment Western Australia Projects List
The Coastal Vulnerability Assessment Western Australia (CVA WA) Projects List is intended as a tool for the Department of
Planning (DoP), Department of Transport (DoT), local governments and other interested parties, to use to track and refer to
projects relevant to the assessment of coastal vulnerability. It is intended that by allowing greater awareness and sharing of
knowledge and methodologies, this tool can contribute to the ongoing improvement in the assessment and understanding of
coastal vulnerability.

The listed projects have been chosen on their relevance to the themes of coastal planning, climate change and sea level rise
within Western Australia. An arbitrary commencement date of 2005 has been chosen. This tool is intended to be an evolving
and interactive inventory of projects, rather than a static or definitive list. On this basis, interested parties and the public are
invited to submit recommendations for projects to be incorporated into the list, or provide other comments on how this tool
could be improved.

It is important to note that neither the DoP, DoT or the Western Australian Planning Commission have made judgements as
to the technical merit of the methodologies used in these studies and in no way endorses any of the projects or their findings.

At the current stage the list catalogues projects at Global, National, State and Regional, and Sub-Regional to Local scales.
The list also contains project information such as the project manager/reference details, study area, project objectives and
the project type (see Key below the list for a explanation of the project types). While it is somewhat arbitrary to divide the
broad range of coastal vulnerability assessment related projects into discrete ‘types’, it can be helpful for quickly seeing the
broad nature and scope of a project without delving into its specific objectives and outputs. It could also be helpful for
identifying gaps in the type of work being undertaken. Obviously many projects will have broad scopes that sit across more
than one ‘type’, but this does not diminish the usefulness of the analysis.

Additional information relating to data sources, methodologies and case studies are also provided below the project list.

If you require further information on the Coastal Vulnerability Assessment WA Projects list please email the coastal planning
officer, or fill out an online feedback form.




WALGA Climate Change Mapping Project:

The Western Australian Local Government Association (WALGA) is embarking on a project that will ‘map’ the climate
change projects and policies from around the state. This involves keeping a record of the project’s current status and the
contact details of the project ‘owner’ so that Local Governments can communicate with their neighbours and colleagues
across the sector to ensure that successful projects are shared and efforts not duplicated.

For further information on how you can contribute to this project, please visit:
http://www.walgaclimatechange.com.au/AnnouncementRetrieve.aspx?ID=54798
  Coastal
Vulnerability        Project
                                       Project Manager/               Study
                                                                                      Project Objectives
                                                                                                                                Project
Assessment                             Reference Details              Area                                                      Type*

  Projects
                IPCC Third
                                                                              The IPCC Third Assessment Report, Climate
                Assessment (2001)                                             Change 2001, is an assessment of available
                                       Intergovernmental Panel
                                       on Climate Change                      scientific and socio-economic information on
                                                                              climate change by an intergovernmental
                                       http://www.grida.no/publi   Global     panel (IPCC) established by the United
                                                                                                                                 1. 2. & 3.
                                       cations/other/ipcc_tar/                Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
                                                                              and the UN's World Meteorological
                                                                              Organization (WMO).

                IPCC Fourth
                                                                              Fourth report in a series intended to assess
                Assessment (2007)      Intergovernmental Panel                the scientific, technical and socio-economic
                                       on Climate Change                      information concerning climate change, its
                                       http://www.ipcc.ch/public              potential effects, and options for adaptation
  GLOBAL                               ations_and_data/publicat
                                                                   Global     and mitigation. The report is released in four
                                                                                                                                 1. 2. & 3.

                                       ions_and_data_reports.h                distinct sections being the Working Group
                                                                              reports (I, II & III) and the Synthesis Report
                                       tm                                     (Summary for Policy Makers).

                IPCC Fifth
                Assessment
                                       Intergovernmental Panel
                                       on Climate Change           Global     Starting – Due 2013.                               1. 2. & 3.
                                       http://www.ipcc.ch



                Smartline (2010)
                                       Chris Sharples
                                       (University of Tasmania)               Creation of a coastal geomorphic map
                                       chris.sharples@utas.edu                at a national scale (whole of Australia)
                                                                   National                                                         1.
                                       .au                                    for use in assessing the vulnerability of
                                       http://www.ozcoasts.org.               Australia’s coast to sea-level rise.
                                       au/

                                       Australian Government -                The creation of a national Digital Elevation
                Coastal Digital        Department of Climate                  Model (DEM) was the highest priority task
                Elevation Model        Change                                 identified for the national risk assessment.
                                       http://www.climatechang                DEMs provide a three dimensional model of
                (DEM)
                                                                              the ground surface topography and are
                                       e.gov.au/government/pro     National   critical to assessing risk from inundation in
                                                                                                                                    1.
                                       grams-and-                             low-lying areas. The mid resolution DEM
                                       rebates/national-                      covers the entire coast derived from SPOT
                                       landform-mapping.aspx                  High Resolution Stereoscopic Reference3D
                                                                              (SPOT) satellite imagery.

                                                                              This Report presents the findings of the first
                                                                              national assessment of the risks of climate
                Climate Change         Australian Government -                change for the whole of Australia’s coastal
                Risks to Australia’s   Department of Climate                  zone. The objectives of the first pass national
                Coast: A first pass    Change                                 coastal risk assessment are to:
                                       http://www.climatechang                - Initial assessment of the Climate Change
                national
                                                                              (CC) implications for Australia’s coastal
                assessment (2009)      e.gov.au/publications/co    National   regions.
                                                                                                                                  2. & 3.
                                       astline/climate-change-                - Identify high risk areas to CC impacts.
                                       risks-to-australias-                   - Identify impediments to developing effective
                                       coasts.aspx                            coastal adaptation responses.
                                                                              - Help identify national priorities for
                                                                              adaptation to reduce CC risk in the coastal
                                                                              zone.
                                       Australian Government –
                National               Department of Climate
                Framework for          Change
                Climate Change         http://www.climatechang                The Framework identifies national climate
                Science (2009)         e.gov.au/government/initi              change science priorities for the coming
                                                                   National                                                       1. & 2.
  NATIONAL                             atives/~/media/publicatio
                                       ns/science/national-
                                                                              decade and sets out ways to harness our full
                                                                              science capacity to address them.
                                       framework-cc-
                                       science.ashx

                Australian Climate
                Change Adaptation      National Climate Change
                Research Network       Adaptation Research                    Sets out the priority research agenda for the
                for Settlements        Facility (NCCARF)                      next 5-7 years to inform a better
                and Infrastructure     http://www.nccarf.edu.au               understanding of climate change risks and
                (2010)                 /national-adaptation-       National   impacts on settlements and infrastructure         1. & 2. & 3.
                                       research-plan-                         and how these risks can be managed and
                                                                              impacts reduced through planned adaptation
                                       settlements-and-
                                                                              interventions.
                                       infrastructure


                                                                              Inquiry into climate change and
                                                                              environmental pressures experienced by
                                                                              Australian coastal areas, with particular
                House of                                                      regard to:
                                                                              - existing policies and programs related to
                Representatives                                               coastal zone management, taking in the
                inquiry into climate                                          catchment-coast-ocean continuum
                change and                                                    - the environmental impacts of coastal
                environmental          Parliament of Australia                population growth and mechanisms to
                impacts on coastal     http://www.aph.gov.au/h                promote sustainable use of coastal
                                       ouse/committee/ccwea/c      National   resources                                           1. 2. 3.
                communities                                                   - the impact of climate change on coastal
                (2009)                 oastalzone/report.htm                  areas and strategies to deal with climate
                                                                              change adaptation, particularly in response
                                                                              to projected sea level rise
                                                                              - mechanisms to promote sustainable
                                                                              coastal communities
                                                                              - governance and institutional arrangements
                                                                              for the coastal zone.
               Estimating Sea       Antarctic Climate &
               Level Extremes                                                     Web tool specifically designed for designers,
                                    Ecosystems Cooperative                        planners and policymakers to assist in
               (2009)               Research Centre                               understanding how to:
                                                                 National         -assess the risk to existing assets from sea      1. 2. 3. & 4
                                    http://www.sealevelrise.i                     level rise and plan appropriate adaptation
                                                                                  -set appropriate design codes and planning
                                    nfo/
                                                                                  strategies for future developments.

                                                                                  This report, developed by CSIRO and the
                                                                                  Bureau of Meteorology through the
                                    CSIRO Adaptation                              Australian Climate Change Science
                                    Flagship                                      Program, provides:
               Climate Change in                                                  -information on observed climate change
               Australia (2007)                                                   over Australia and the likely causes
                                    http://www.csiro.au/reso
                                                                 National         -Projections of changes to about 30 climate           1.
                                    urces/Climate-Change-                         variables
                                    Technical-Report-                             -Information on how to use the projections in
                                    2007.html                                     risk assessments
                                                                                  The projections focus on the years 2030,
                                                                                  2050 and 2070 for various greenhouse gas
                                                                                  emission scenarios.
                                                                                  Sea level rise inundation maps have been
               Commonwealth                                                       developed for selected urbanised coast
                                                                                  around Australia. Three sea level rise
               Sea Level Rise                                                     scenarios for the period around 2100 are
               Risk Maps                                                          used: low (0.5 metres), medium (0.8 metres)
                                    Department of Climate                         and high (1.1 metres). These heights are
                                    Change and Energy                             added to highest astronomical tide to give
                                                                                  the ‘inundation scenarios’. The project aims
                                    Efficiency                   National         to communicate sea level rise risk to coastal
                                                                                                                                      1. & 2.
                                                                                  communities and the private sector in a way
                                    www.ozcoasts.org.au                           that will engage these communities and help
                                                                                  them prepare for future climate risks. The
                                                                                  maps have been produced using a ‘bucket
                                                                                  fill’ methodology with no allowance for local
                                                                                  or regional factors such as storms and
                                                                                  coastal erosion.
                                                                                  The aim of this report is to provide a general
                                                                                  overview of the state of government coastal
                                                                                  planning responses to the challenges posed
               Government           Antarctic Climate &                           by rising sea levels. Whilst a few
               Coastal Planning                                                   international jurisdictions have been included
                                    Ecosystems Cooperative                        to provide a point of contrast, the report
               Responses to         Research Centre                               predominantly focuses upon Australian
               Rising Sea Levels                                                  governments. The legislative and policy
               (2011)               http://www.acecrc.org.au     National         responses of the Australian Commonwealth              3.
                                    /Publications/Technical%                      Government, relevant state/territory
                                                                                  governments and selected local
                                    20Reports
                                                                                  governments are addressed. The report aims
                                                                                  to provide a comprehensive and succinct
                                                                                  overview of the responsibilities of the
                                                                                  respective levels of government in relation to
                                                                                  coastal planning, and specific responses to
                                                                                  the issue of sea level rise.
               The Critical
                                    Climate Commission                            The aim of this report is to provide up-to-date
               Decade: Climate
                                                                                  information on the science of climate change
               science, risks and                                                 and the implications of this knowledge for
               responses            http://climatecommission.g
                                    ov.au/topics/the-critical-
                                                                 National         societal purposes, both for mitigation                3.
                                                                                  strategies and for the analysis of and
                                    decade/                                       responses to risks that climate change poses
                                                                                  for Australia.


                                    Department of Transport,                      This high resolution baseline data set has
               LiDAR survey and
                                    Coastal Infrastructure                        been acquired for use in the study of coastal
               bathymetric                                                        processes and assessments of coastal
                                    Ric Mahoney
               mapping (2009)                                                     vulnerability and the potential impacts of sea
                                    Ric.mahoney@transport.       Two Rocks to
                                                                                  level rise. The project outputs include
                                    wa.gov.au                    Cape             complete and seamless data files of water
                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                 Naturaliste      depths and broad seabed imagery from
                                    http://www.planning.wa.g                      pseudo-reflectance, and a high resolution
                                    ov.au/674.asp                                 coastal 3D model of the land and seabed
                                                                                  between Two Rocks and Cape Naturaliste.


                                                                                  In 2008 the Department of Water
               Terrestrial LiDAR                                                  commissioned Fugro Spatial Solutions to
               (2008)               Department of Water                           undertake a land based LiDAR survey of
                                                                                  7000km² of the Swan Coastal Plain. The
                                    Peter Muirden                Swan Coastal
                                                                                  survey was conducted in February 2008 at              1.
                                    peter.muirden@water.w        Plain            1m x 1m resolution. The digital terrain model
                                    a.gov.au                                      which resulted is being used to determine
                                                                                  the patterns of flooding, groundwater/surface
                                                                                  water interaction and ecological systems.
   STATE                                                                          The aims include identifying the principal
AND REGIONAL   Coastal
                                                                                  landforms and processes of the coast and
                                                                                  nearshore waters as well as for comparative
               compartments &       Department of Planning,                       purposes to establish areas of relative
               sediment cells       Coastal Planning             Statewide –      susceptibility to environmental change. To
                                    Vivienne.panizza@plann       Strategic,       identify a hierarchy of planning units based
                                                                                                                                      1. & 2.
                                    ing.wa.gov.au                regional and     on natural coastal systems similar to the
                                                                 local scales     approach used to identify river catchments.
                                                                                  The marine and coastal planning units
                                                                                  should approximately accord with mapping
                                                                                  scales commonly used for the preparation of
                                                                                  statutory plans.

                                                                                  The Geological Survey of Western Australia
               WA Coast Project –
                                                                                  recognises the importance of geology and
                    Coastal                                                       geomorphology as the framework
                compartments &      Geological Survey of                          underpinning decisions in the coastal zone
                                                                 Naturaliste to
                 sediment cells     Western Australia                             and has recently completed a survey of the
                                                                 Lancelin -
                                    Bob Gozzard (DMP)                             coast between Lancelin and Cape                     1. & 2.
                                                                 Lancelin to      Naturaliste. The survey has characterised
                                    bob.gozzard@dmp.wa.g
                                                                 Kalbarri         the geomorphology and geology of the
                                    ov.au
                                                                                  nearshore, foreshore and backshore at a
                                                                                  high level of detail using the ‘Smartline’
                                                                                  mapping concept. Additional datasets
                                                                                      include a detailed assessment of the 198
                                                                                      beaches in the study area, a large-scale
                                                                                      geomorphological map of the coastal zone,
                                                                                      and an atlas of aerial-oblique photographs of
                                                                                      the coast.
                                                                                      The results of the study are aimed at coastal
                                                                                      engineers, planners, managers and
                                                                                      organisations that are involved in developing
                                                                                      and implementing coastal management
                                                                                      plans. The data provides a sound scientific
                                                                                      basis for decision making and should be
                                                                                      applied to underpin strategic coastal
                                                                                      planning and management decisions.
                                                                                      Schedule one of SPP 2.6 provides guidance
                 State Coastal           B. Bassett (Department                       on how to determine physical processes
                 Planning Policy         of Planning)                                 setbacks. It is comprised of 4 elements, the
                                         ben.bassett@planning.w                       baseline Horizontal Setback Datum (HSD),
                 SPP2.6 Review                                       Statewide
                                         a.gov.au                                     S1 (storm), S2 (historic), and S3 (sea level
                                                                                      rise). The policy is currently being reviewed,
                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                      and as a part of the review process a
                                         C. Bicknell (Department                      position statement has been adopted by
                                         of Transport)                                WAPC to allow for a vertical sea level rise of
                                         charlie.bicknell@transpo                     0.9m in relation to setback distances from
                                         rt.wa.gov.au                                 coastal processes over a 100 year timeframe
                                                                                      (to 2110).
                 Climate Change          Canberra, A.C.T.
                 Scenarios for Initial   Australian Greenhouse
                 Assessment of Risk
                                         Office.                                      This report provides regional climate change
                 in Accordance with                                                   scenarios for South Western Australia for
                 Risk Management                                                      use in the initial assessment of risks as
                 Guidance (2006)         http://pandora.nla.gov.au   South West
                                                                                      recommended by the Australian                       1.
                                         /pan/102841/20090728-       Region           Government. These scenarios have been
                                         0000/www.climatechang                        prepared by CSIRO for the Australian
                                         e.gov.au/impacts/publica                     Greenhouse Office.
                                         tions/risk-scenarios.html

                                                                                      The main research activities undertaken by
                 School of                                                            the School of Environmental Systems
                 Environmental                                                        Engineering may be divided into two main
                 Systems                 C.Pattiaratchi, T.Stul,                      areas, Coastal Physical Oceanography
                 Engineering (SESE                                                    (including circulation and mixing on the
                                         I.Haigh, M.Eliot                             continental shelf, nearshore processes,
                 – UWA) coastal          chari.pattiaratchi@uwa.e                     remote sensing application, island wakes
                 oceanography            du.au                                        and headland eddies, estuarine dynamics,
                 research                                            Statewide        water level variability including tsunamis) and   1. & 2.
                                         http://www2.sese.uwa.ed                      Coastal Sediment Transport (including
                                                                                      formation and maintenance of linear
                                         u.au/~pattiara/CoastalOc
                                                                                      sandbanks, formation and maintenance of
                                         eanography/                                  beach cusps, dynamics of seasonally open
                                                                                      tidal inlets, swash sediment transport
                                                                                      processes including beach groundwater
                                                                                      interaction, sediment transport processes on
                                                                                      continental shelves and submarine canyons).
                                                                                      The report aim was to identify and map
                                                                                      boundaries for two dimensional sediment
                                                                                      cells at each of the three spatial scales,
                                                                                      along approximately 350km of coast. The
                                                                                      ultimate objectives of determining the cells
                 Coastal Sediment        Report prepared by                           were to:
                 Cells Between                                                              Define ‘natural’ management units
                                         Damara WA Pty Ltd and
                 Cape Naturaliste                                                            informing the spatial extent of future
                                         Geological Survey of WA     Between                 local studies;
                 and the Moore           for the Department of
                                                                     Cape                   Identify single or adjoining cells where
                 River (2012)            Transport                                           joint coastal management will be
                                                                     Naturaliste             required by neighbouring coastal
                                                                                                                                        1. & 2.

                                         http://www.transport.wa.
                                                                     and the                 managers;
                                                                     Moore River            Establish a framework for linking marine
                                         gov.au/mediaFiles/mar_
                                                                                             and terrestrial projects that is founded
                                         CoastalSedimentCells_w                              on the connectivity of coastal
                                         eb.pdf                                              landforms, which supports integrated
                                                                                             coastal planning and management; and
                                                                                      Indicate areas of coast where estimation of
                                                                                      the coastal sediment budget would provide a
                                                                                      useful tool for coastal planning and
                                                                                      management.
                                                                                      Hazard risk assessment by Geoscience
                 Natural Hazard                                                       Australia and collaborating agencies (notably
                                                                                      Bureau of Meteorology and local
                 Risk in Perth,          Trevor Jones, Miriam                         governments). This study is aimed at
                 Western Australia       Middelmann & Neil                            estimating the impact on the Perth
                 (2005)                  Corby, Geoscience           Covers Perth     community of several sudden-onset natural
                                         Australia                   Metro Area       hazards. The natural hazards considered are       1. & 2.
                                                                     and SW           both meteorological and terrestrial in origin.
                                                                                      The hazards investigated most
                                         http://www.ga.gov.au/im
                                                                                      comprehensively are riverine floods in the
                                         age_cache/GA6523.pdf                         Swan and Canning Rivers, severe winds in
                                                                                      metropolitan Perth, and earthquakes in the
  SUB-   Perth                                                                        Perth region.

REGIONAL Metro   Background Paper                                                     A partnership has been formed between the
TO LOCAL Area    for Climate Change
                 Risk Assessment
                                                                     Central Perth
                                                                     Area (within
                                                                                      City of Perth, City of Vincent and EPRA to
                                                                                      conduct a joint climate change risk
                 Workshops:                                          the              assessment. The Key objectives of the
                                         City of Perth, City of                       project are:
                 Climate Change                                      administrative
                                         Vincent, East Perth                              To better understand the impacts of
                 Risks to Existing                                   boundaries of         climate change in the Project Area;
                                                                                                                                          2.
                                         Redevelopment
                 and Future                                          the City of          To identify and assess the risks posed
                                         Authority (EPRA)
                 Buildings                                           Perth, EPRA           by climate change in the Project Area;
                 (2011)                                              and the City          and
                                                                     of Vincent)          To identify effective adaptation
                                                                                           measures to mitigate these risks.
Swan Canning
River Climate
Change Risk
Assessment Study       Dr Kerry Trayler (Swan
(2010)                 River Trust)
                       Kerry.trayler@swanrivert
                                                   Windan
                       rust.wa.gov.au                              The study provides a methodology for local
                                                   Bridge (Swan)
                                                                   governments to plan, prioritise, and manage
                                                   to Riverton     the risks of sea level rise to economic, social
                                                                                                                          2.
                       http://www.swanrivertrust
                                                   Bridge          and ecological assets in the area.
                       .wa.gov.au/science/clima
                                                   (Canning)
                       te/Content/climate_chan
                       ge_risk_assessment.asp
                       x



                                                                   Currently looking to firstly produce a detailed
                                                                   coastal vulnerability risk assessment and
                                                                   adaptation plan study brief.
Integrated coastal
precinct climate                                                   The proposed Project Team for the
change risk                                                        preparation of the study brief consists of Dr
assessment                                                         Robert Kay (CZM) and Dr Ailbhe Travers
                                                                   (CZM). Mr Matt Eliot (Damara WA) will
                                                                   provide expert advice on engineering
                       City of Cockburn, City of                   components of the brief preparation (Project
                       Rockingham, City of         Coast           Team CVs are presented in Appendix A).
                       Fremantle and Town of       between         The approach to prepare the requested brief
                       Kwinana                     Fremantle       will follow that adopted by the Project Team
                       dvickery@cockburn.wa.g      Fishing Boat    for similar review projects and brief
                       ov.au                       Harbour and     preparations. These include the Cottesloe          1. & 2. & 3.
                                                                   Coastal Vulnerability Project (preparation of
                                                   Point Peron,    funding proposal and subsequent delivery of
                       http://www.kwinana.wa.g     including the   full project); the Local Adaptation Pathways
                       ov.au/whats_new.asp?NI      east coast of   Program (LAPP) (commissioned by the
                       D=208                       Garden Island   Office of Climate Change to prepare funding
                                                                   applications for 10 local governments
                                                                   throughout western Australia and contracted
                                                                   to subsequently deliver 3 full LAPP projects
                                                                   for City of Mandurah, the Eastern
                                                                   Metropolitan Regional Councils & Shire of
                                                                   Murchison); and the second phase of the
                                                                   Local Adaptation Pathways Program (LAPP
                                                                   II) for which CZM were commissioned to
                                                                   prepare 2 funding proposals and are
                                                                   currently in the process of delivering one full
                                                                   LAPP 2 project for the Mid-West Regional
                                                                   Council Group.
                                                                   The main aim of the Cottesloe Climate
                                                                   Change Vulnerability Assessment Project
                                                                   was to establish potential risk to existing key
Vulnerability of the                                               coastal infrastructure under a range of future
                                                                   climate scenarios. The overriding objectives
Cottesloe                                                          to achieve this aim were:
Foreshore to the       Town of Cottesloe                           • Analysis of contemporary coastal
Potential Impacts                                                  conditions (environmental conditions and
                                                   Cottesloe
of Climate Change      http://www.cottesloe.wa.                    resultant coastal change)                          2. & 3. & 4.
                                                   foreshore       • Determination of scenarios for future
(2008)                 gov.au/?p=942
                                                                   climate change
                                                                   • Prediction of impacts on the physical
                                                                   coastal environment
                                                                   • Implications of physical change for existing
                                                                   infrastructure.
                                                                   In addition, the possible strategic alternatives
                                                                   for adaptation were also considered.
                                                                   In 2005 the Department for Planning and
                                                                   Infrastructure (DPI) commissioned two
                                                                   studies of coastal process along the Perth
                                                                   metropolitan coastline. The aim of the
                                                                   studies were to provide a preliminary
                                                                   assessment of the physical processes
Northern Perth                                                     setback line, using schedule 1 in Statement
                                                                   of Planning Policy No. 2.6 State Coastal
Metropolitan Coast                                                 Planning Policy (SPP 2.6). While this policy
Coastal Setback                                                    cannot be applied retrospectively to
Study (2005) &                                                     development, in this instance it was used to
                       Department for Planning                     provide a framework for assessment and to
Southern Perth
                       and Infrastructure (now                     highlight areas of the coast where current
Metropolitan Coast                                 Cook Lump to
                       Department of Planning)                     development may be in need of additional
Coastal Setback                                    Fremantle &
                       and M P Rogers &                            study, due to possible erosion trends in the         1. & 2.
Policy (2005)                                      Fremantle to    future. The studies were limited in that they
                       Associates
                                                   Singleton       used only data readily available in the
                                                                   strategy’s timeframe, so outputs must be
                                                                   viewed in this context. Data was obtained
                                                                   from existing DPI monitoring programs,
                                                                   supplemented with locally specific reports i.e.
                                                                   Port Beach, Quinns Rocks, Kwinana and
                                                                   Two Rocks.
                                                                   The studies will help determine where future
                                                                   management focus may be required and
                                                                   identify where any proposed development
                                                                   may need more detailed coastal engineering
                                                                   studies. The process is not exhaustive and
                                                                   does not determine a final coastal setback.
Cockburn Sound
Coastal Alliance
Climate Change                                                     The Cockburn Sound Coastal Alliance has
Study                                                              expressed their intention to undertake work
                       Department of Defence,                      regarding the impact of climate change on
                                                   Cockburn        the Cockburn area.
                       City of Rockingham and                                                                           2. & 3.
                                                   Sound
                       City of Cockburn
            Mandurah Coastal
            Zone Climate
            Change Risk           City of Mandurah
            Assessment and                                                     To identify and prioritise risks arising from
                                                                               climate change, develop strategies to
            Adaptation Plan       http://www.mandurah.wa
                                                              Mandurah         manage them, and to develop a climate              2. & 3. & 4.
            2009                  .gov.au/HBItem_79613.P                       change adaptation plan.
                                  DF




                                  Hamish Anderson –                            The overarching objective of this project is to
                                                                               provide additional spatial information
            Climate Change        Climate Change Project                       products to inform the National Coastal
            impact modelling,     Leader - Geoscience                          Vulnerability Assessment (NCVA), which
            and quantifying       Australia (GA)                               complement existing NCVA projects and
            coastal               www.ga.gov.au                                support a more comprehensive and credible
            development                                                        assessment of climate change risks in the
                                                                               coastal zone.
Peel                              Department of Climate       Rockingham
                                                                                                                                    1. & 2.
                                  Change and Energy           to Bunbury       This study will undertake detailed modelling
                                  Efficiency (DCE)                             of coastal impacts under current climate and
                                  www.climatechange.gov.                       future climate change scenarios for the area
                                  au                                           south of Perth, from Rockingham to Bunbury.

                                                                               Delivery of Final Report and outputs,
                                                                               following comment from DCE, will be by 31
                                                                               December 2011
            The Yalgorup
            Coast: Binningup
                                  Damara WA Pty Ltd for                        The objective of this project was to describe
            to Cape Bouvard,                                                   the geomorphology of the Yalgorup Coast
                                  the Department of
            WA (2009)                                                          and identify areas of relative instability
                                  Planning and                Binningup to
                                                                               between Binningup and Cape Bouvard,                  1. & 2.
                                  Department of               Cape Bouvard     including sections of the beach and barrier
                                  Environment and                              dune potentially subject to risk in response to
                                  Conservation                                 projected environmental change.



            Bunbury storm                                                      Engages the services of Geoscience
            surge modelling                                                    Australia and other specialist modellers, to
                                                                               provide a computer model for studying the
                                  Joint project between the                    impacts of storm surge events on the
                                  State Government                             settlement of Bunbury, under various
                                                                               potential future climate change scenarios.
                                  through DoP, and the
                                                              Bunbury          For model validation and for building a              1. & 2.
                                  Federal Government                           hypothetical ‘worst case scenario’ the work
                                  through Geoscience                           will look at the historic data collected during
                                  Australia                                    Tropical Cyclone Alby. Crucially, the model
                                                                               will also attempt to take into account
                                                                               shoreline movement arising from erosion
                                                                               driven by sea level rise.


                                                                               The aim of Phase 1 of the Point Peron to
                                                                               Cape Naturaliste coastal adaptation
            Developing flexible                                                pathways project is to generate a series of
            adaptation                                                         coastal vulnerability profiles or ‘report cards’
            pathways for the                                                   at a whole-of-region, primary and secondary
            Point Peron to                                                     sediment cell scale. Preliminary sediment
South       Cape Naturaliste                                  Point Peron to
                                                                               cell profiles will enable the evaluation of the
                                                                               physical vulnerability of the coastal zone for
            coastal region of
West        WA - Phase 1
                                  City of Mandurah            Cape             the Point Peron to Cape Naturaliste coast.
                                                                               They will serve as the basis for subsequent
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                              Naturaliste
                                                                               impact assessment and inform economic
                                                                               evaluation of
                                                                                     a) cost of climate impact to the Point
                                                                                           Peron to Naturaliste coastal zone,
                                                                                           and
                                                                                     b) relative cost of adaptation options
                                                                                           to treat the identified impacts
            Developing flexible                                                The aim is to develop flexible adaptation
            adaptation                                                         pathways for the Point Peron to Cape
            pathways for the                                                   Naturaliste coastal region of WA. The project
            Point Peron to                                                     will develop adaptation planning options for
            Cape Naturaliste                                                   the region, which will be used to inform the
                                                              Point Peron to   delivery of the specific project outcomes:
            coastal region of     City of Mandurah            Cape                   1) an economic based regional test of            3.
            WA - Phase 2 and 3                                Naturaliste                 adaptation options to treat
                                                                                          identified impacts of coastal
                                                                                          climate change; and
                                                                                     2) Detailed demonstration of several
                                                                                          coastal adaptation pathways and
                                                                                          options at a local scale.

            Climate Change:
            Whole of                                                           The aim of the project is to identify the
            Landscape             South Coast Natural                          potential risks and impacts of climate change
            Analysis of the       Resource Management                          and seasonal variability on the natural
            Impacts and                                                        resource assets, land and seascapes,
Great       Options for the       http://www.southcoastnr
                                                              South Coast      industries and communities of the South
                                                                                                                                    2. & 3.
                                                              Region           Coast region of Western Australia, to allow
Southern    South Coast           m.com.au/pages/516/rep                       the South Coast community to develop
            Region (2009)         orts                                         actions and set priorities to minimise the
                                                                               impacts of climate change on the
                                                                               environment and the community.


            The Coast of the      Damara WA Pty Ltd and       Shire of         Provide a strategic planning guidance,
Wheatbelt   Shires of Gingin      Geological Survey of        Gingin and       management strategies and direction on
                                                                               appropriate land uses for future subdivision
                                                                                                                                    1. & 4.
            and Dandaragan,       Western Australia for the   Shire of
           Western Australia:   Department of Planning      Dandaragan        and development of coastal land in the Shire
           Geology,             and Department of                             of Gingin and Shire of Dandaragan by the
                                                                              identification of sediment cells that define
           Geomorphology        Transport                                     coastal stability and susceptibility to change
           and Vulnerability                                                  the coastal zone.
           (2012)               http://www.planning.wa.g
                                ov.au/681.asp




                                                                              The Study includes information that may be
                                                                              of assistance in progressing strategic
                                                                              planning for this part of the coast and
                                                                              comprises of:

                                                                              -The Dongara to Cape Burney Visual
                                                                              Landscape Assessment aims to assess
                                                                              landscape features in order to develop
                                                                              landscape management objectives and
                                                                              design guidelines within the Dongara to
                                                                              Cape Burney area.

                                                                              -The Dongara to Cape Burney Western
           Dongara to Cape                                                    Australia: Geomorphology report describes
           Burney Coastal                                                     the geomorphology of the coast between the
           Study                Department of Planning                        northern limit of the Dongara Townsite and
                                                            Dongara to        the mouth of the Greenough River at Cape
                                                                                                                                 2. & 3. & 4.
                                http://www.planning.wa.g    Cape Burney       Burney South. This will assist to identify
                                ov.au/709.asp                                 areas of relative instability including sections
                                                                              of the beach and dune system that are
                                                                              potentially subject to environmental change.

                                                                              -This assessment has been on-going and
                                                                              this report is proposed to be superseded by
                                                                              an all-encompassing Mid West assessment.
                                                                              This assessment is expected to be
                                                                              completed by the end of 2011.

                                                                              -The Dongara to Cape Burney Flora and
                                                                              Vegetation Survey was undertaken in 2008,
                                                                              and re-surveyed in 2011. It aims to provide a
                                                                              regional context of native vegetation in the
                                                                              Greater Geraldton region to allow informed
                                                                              planning decisions to be made.
           Coastal processes                                                  Aims are to understand coastal processes in
           and coastal                                                        the region, and use that knowledge to inform
                                                                              the coastal management priorities and
           management           City of Geraldton-                            practices of the City of Geraldton-
           options for Greys    Greenough, Geraldton                          Greenough.
           to Sunset Beach                                  Sunset Beach
                                Port Authority &
           (2010)                                           to Greys
                                Department of Transport
                                                            Beach (City of                                                         2. & 3.
                                                            Geraldton-
                                http://archive.cgg.wa.gov
                                                            Greenough)
                                .au/node/1522



Mid West                                                                      1. Identify and prioritise risks:
                                                                              The BROC consortium identified 68
                                                                              individual risks as well as 12 potential
                                                                              opportunities posed by climate change
                                                                              impacts to its operations and responsibilities.
           BROC Climate                                                       The risks were rated from low to extreme
           Change Adaptation                                                  using a risk profile index for near and long
           Action Plan (2010)                                                 term exposure time periods of 2030 and
                                                                              2070 respectively.
                                Mark Chadwick (City of      City of
                                                                              2. Develop Strategies:
                                Geraldton-Greenough)        Geraldton-        The BROC consortium developed strategies
                                markc@cgg.wa.gov.au         Greenough,        for managing risks, adaptive actions, and
                                                            Shire of          building resilience within communities. An
                                http://archive.cgg.wa.gov   Northampton,      analysis of proposed actions was                     2. & 3.
                                .au/attachment/climate-     Shire of Irwin,   consolidated to a total of 63 actions
                                                                              comprising 34 higher priority actions and 29
                                change-adaptation-          Shire of          lower priority actions.
                                action-plan                 Chapman
                                                            Valley            3. Identify knowledge gaps:
                                                                              The knowledge gaps are largely associated
                                                                              with the uncertainty of the science in
                                                                              predicting the degree of climate change
                                                                              especially for the long term projections to
                                                                              2070. For this reason the high emission
                                                                              scenario (A1FI) was chosen for the risk
                                                                              assessment using a precautionary approach
                                                                              for 2070, whereas the 2030 projections were
                                                                              based on the mid range scenarios (A1BI).
                                                                              Key objectives:
                                                                              -Identification, analysis and evaluation of
                                                                              climate change risks to future financial,
                                                                              infrastructure and environmental assets and
           Mid West Regional                                                  associated services of member Councils.
           Council Climate                                  Shires of
                                                                              -Formulation of a series of strategies by
           Change Risk          Mid West Regional           Coorow,           member Councils and the MWRC to manage
           Assessment and       Council                     Carnamah,         identified climate change risks.
           Adaptation Action                                Mingenew,                                                            2. & 3. & 4.
           Plan (2010)          http://www.mwrc.wa.gov.     Morawa,           -Creating ‘local ownership’ and instilling the
                                au/publications/folder.20   Mullewa,          capacity within member Councils to address
                                                                              the impacts of climate change by
                                10-11-17.9935615748/        Perenjori and     encouraging personal involvement in
                                                            Three Springs     developing and implementing adaptation.

                                                                              -Capacity building within member Councils to
                                                                              enhance the understanding of, and to build
                                                                              resilience to climate change.
                                                                                                  -Identification to climate change risks that
                                                                                                  require further investigation beyond the
                                                                                                  scope of the study.

                                                                                                  -Integration of results from the climate
                                                                                                  change risk assessment and adaptation
                                                                                                  responses into Climate Change Adaptation
                                                                                                  Action Plans for the member Councils and
                                                                                                  the MWRC.

                  Gascoyne
                                  Port Hedland
                                  Coastal                                                         To evaluate the combined effects of coastal
                                                        Landcorp, Department of                   inundation (flooding and storm surge) arising
                                  Vulnerability Study   Planning, and                             from cyclonic events for the Town of Port
                                  (2011)                Department of Water       Port Hedland,   Hedland and the surrounding area, and to
                                                                                  Wedgefield,     also assess shoreline stability over planning
                                                                                                  periods of up to 100 years (2110).
                                                        simon.rodgers@water.w     South                                                            1. & 2. & 3.
                                                        a.gov.au                  Hedland and     This study is critical in identifying
                                                                                  Shellborough    development opportunities and constraints
                                                                                                  for Port Hedland to meet the infrastructure
                                                                                                  requirements as population doubles over the
                                                                                                  next 15 years.

                                  Onslow Townsite
                                                                                                  Landcorp commissioned M P Rogers &
                                  Planning Coastal                                                Associates Pty Ltd to assess the appropriate
                                  Setbacks &                                                      setback to account for the action of physical
                                  Development           Landcorp, Department of                   coastal processes in line with SPP2.6 as well
                                  Levels (Draft July                                              as to investigate potential coastal inundation
                                                        Planning, and                             in order to determine the appropriate
                                  2011)                 Department of Water       4 Mile Creek    development levels.
                                                                                  to Beadon                                                          1. & 2.
                  Pilbara                               Philip.woodward@planni    Creek           This report has been split into two parts, the
                                                                                                  first dealing with the coastal setback
                                                        ng.wa.gov.au
                                                                                                  assessment while the second part
                                                                                                  investigates the extent of potential coastal
                                                                                                  inundation. This report presents the data,
                                                                                                  methods and findings of the Onslow Coastal
                                                                                                  Setback and Development Levels study.

                                  Karratha Coastal
                                  Vulnerability Study                                             The purpose of this study is to:
                                  (Draft November
                                                                                                  - evaluate the combined effects of storm
                                  2011)                 Landcorp, Department of                     surge, coastal inundation and shoreline
                                                        Planning, and                               movement on the future expansion of the
                                                                                                    townsite for Karratha (including Dampier
                                                        Department of Water       Karratha and      townsite)                                        1. & 2.
                                                                                  Dampier
                                                        Philip.woodward@planni                    - provide estimates of the storm surge
                                                        ng.wa.gov.au                                components and total water levels for a
                                                                                                    range of design return periods along
                                                                                                    Karratha coastline. (A hydraulic model is
                                                                                                    required as a part of this study).




                  Kimberley

                  Goldfields
                  -
                  Esperance

*Key for Project Types:
   1. Data Collection/Interpretation (i.e. the project involves investigation of Metocean Processes, Biological Drivers,
      Understanding Processes, Data Acquisition)
   2. Vulnerability Assessment/Risk Assessment (identification and evaluation of the consequences for infrastructure,
      communities and natural assets)
           Impact Assessment
           Hazard/Likelihood Assessment
   3. Adaptation Plan (following risk / impact / vulnerability assessments, identification of actions or responses to address
      risk / impacts / vulnerability)
   4. Strategy
   5. Policy

Notes:

When commencing coastal vulnerability studies various data sets/detailed information may be available, these may
include but are not limited to:
     Aerial photography - Landgate
     Shoreline movement photogrammetry - Department of Transport
     Tides and waves data - Department of Transport
     Bathymetric surveys - Department of Transport
     Local hydrographic and beach surveys - Department of Transport
     Coastal Data Analysis (Rottnest wave buoy report & Storminess paper) - Department of Transport
     Coastal Engineering Studies - Department of Transport
     Local Government Climate Change Management Toolkit – Developed by Curtin University Sustainability Policy
      Institute (CUSP) for the Western Australian Local Government Association (WALGA) – Managed & Operated by the
      Climate Change Officer at WALGA - http://www.walgaclimatechange.com.au/

References for available methods for undertaking risk assessment:
      Australian Standard – AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 Risk Management – Principles and Guidelines
      Engineers Australia – Risk Management Policy (2008) & Risk Management Strategies Guide.
      Australian Greenhouse Office (2006) Climate Change Impacts and Risk Management – A Guide for Business and
       Government. Report prepared for the Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of Environment and Water
       Resources, Commonwealth of Australia. http://www.climatechange.gov.au/impacts/publications/risk-
       management.html
      Harvey, N., & Woodroffe, C.D., 2008, “Australian Approaches to Coastal Vulnerability Assessment”, Sustainability
       Science, No. 3, pp. 67-87.
      Swan Canning River Climate Change Risk Assessment Study (2010).
       http://www.swanrivertrust.wa.gov.au/science/climate/Content/climate_change_risk_assessment.aspx


Case studies:

Interstate

A Snapshot of Future Sea-Levels: Photography of the King Tide (2009)
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/climatechange/09722KingTide.pdf
The summer king tide event forecast for the 12th of January was the largest predicted tide for 2009 that would be visible
during daylight hours. This presented a wonderful opportunity to engage the community in photographing the peak of the
king tide along the whole NSW coastline with two primary objectives in mind:
       Identifying areas vulnerable to tidal inundation, capturing the tide level against revetments, seawalls and jetties and
        other marine infrastructure; and
       Raising awareness throughout the wider community about the current projections for sea level rise to the end of the
        century (approximately 90cm).
The photographic event proved successful in engaging over 250 people to capture over 4000 images providing a broad,
state wide snapshot of areas and assets currently vulnerable to the threat of tidal inundation. This report presents a selection
of the photographs taken around the peak of the king tide on 12th January 2009, and some images of the very high spring
tide that occurred in December 2008. It presents a summary of the information gleaned for the photographic event, along
with general technical information about tides and the current status of information on climate change and rising sea levels.

Climate Change Impacts on Clarence Coastal Areas (2009)
www.ccc.tas.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=807
Tasmania’s City of Clarence coastal areas are subject to flood, storm surges and erosion, which are expected to increase
with climate change. The purpose of the Climate Change Impacts Study is to provide an integrated assessment of climate
change risks on coastal areas. The study assessed 17 localities within the City of Clarence that are potentially vulnerable to
coastal hazards in the present day, and by 2050 and 2100. The project furthermore, investigated adaptive management
options to deal with coastal hazards. The template Coastal Risk Management Plan was developed as part of the Climate
Change Impacts project to assist councils across Australia to understand their vulnerability to sea level rise associated with
global warming, and to prepare for the potential impacts of climate change. The project was undertaken by the Clarence
Council in conjunction with State Emergency Services and Australian Government Department of Climate Change.

Sydney Coastal Councils Group Climate Change Adaptation Project (2008)
http://www.sydneycoastalcouncils.com.au/system-approach-to-regional-climate-change-adaptation-strategies-in-
metropolises/index.php
The Sydney Coastal Councils Group (SCCG) is comprised of 15 Local Governments located on the coast of adjacent to the
Parramatta River. The SCCG was established in 1989 to promote coordination between member councils on environmental
and natural resource management issues relating to the sustainable management of the urban coastal environment. The
SCCG Systems Approach to Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Metropolises project has taken a systems
approach to assessing local government vulnerability to climate change and the barriers and opportunities associated with
adaptation at the Local Government scale. The project aims to demonstrate the merit of coordinated regional scale
responses to climate vulnerability through local government cooperation. The project is a collaboration between the SCCG,
CSIRO’s Climate Adaptation Flagship and University of the Sunshine Coast. It is part of the Australian Government’s
Department of Climate Change National Climate Change Adaptation Program.

Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy Climate Change Adaptation Project (2010)
ww.hccrems.com.au/climate_change/index.html
The Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy (HCCREMS) is a collaborative initiative in
sustainable development of fourteen Councils in the Hunter, Central and Lower North coast region of NSW. The Regional
Climate Change Adaptation Project is a partnership between HCCREMS, Newcastle Innovation and the Tom Farrell institute
for the Environment (University of Newcastle). The adaptation project aims to accurately identify climate change at a regional
scale and raise awareness and understanding in local governments, industry and community of how these impacts will
shape their activities, adaptation planning processes and inform risk assessment. The project also aims to link regional
community, industry and government to develop and implement adaptive strategies. Reports from the first two stages of the
project are available at the above address. Stage 1 of the project identifies regionally specific climate data to be used in
further stages of the project. Stage 2 focuses on the identification of key climate change variables and impacts for the
Hunter, Lower North Coast and Central Coast regions. The project aims to provide regional and sub regional climate change
scenarios at a scale that can accurately inform local adaptation planning by communities, industry and Councils.

Manly Council Ocean Beach Coastline Management Plan (2008)
www.manly.nsw.gov.au/content.aspx...
www.lgsa-plus.net.au/www/html/...
Manly Council is developing a Coastline Management Plan and Emergency Action Plan (EAP) in consultation with the
community, stakeholders and the Manly Coastline Committee. The Coastline Management Plan will provide a blueprint for
the future management of the Manly Beach area, ensuring that the impact from coastal processes is incorporated into future
development and planning. The EAP will manage the beach erosion and shoreline recession hazard in a manner that
maintains or improves beach amenity and ensures an acceptable risk of damage to beach front assets. The EAP takes into
account the potential for future climate change to affect the magnitude of coastal hazard through increased storm frequency
and intensity.

Western Port Human Settlements Impacts and Adaptation Project (2006)
http://www.seccca.org.au/project_summary.asp?data_id=13
The Western Port Greenhouse Alliance (WPGA) is a regional partnership of five Western Port Councils to address climate
change mitigation and adaptation. The councils involved include the Bass Coast, Frankston, Cardinia, Mornington Peninsula
and Casey Councils, located in the region to the immediate south-east of the Melbourne metropolitan area. The Western
Port Human Settlements Impacts and Adaptation Project (2006-2008) evolved from a WPGA initiated scoping study (2005-
2006) that established the need for more regional information on potential climate change impacts as well as greater
understanding of local decision making processes in relation to climate change adaptation. The project focuses on the
impacts of climate change on built environment and communities, and local adaptation responses to impacts. The project
aims to build Local Government knowledge and capacity to adapt to climate change as well as develop and approach to
climate change assessment and adaptation that can be transferred to local governments in other Australian regions.

International

Coastal hazards and climate change: A guidance manual for local government in New Zealand – 2nd Edition (July 2008)
http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/climate/coastal-hazards-climate-change-guidance-manual/
This Guidance Manual has been written primarily to support local authorities across New Zealand (policy, planning,
consents, building and engineering staff) in dealing with some of the risks posed by coastal hazards, such as erosion and
inundation, which will be exacerbated by continued climate change. It provides best practice information and guidance to
strengthen the integration of coastal hazards and climate change considerations in land-use planning and during resource
consent decision-making. More specifically, the Guidance Manual:
     provides information on the key effects of climate change on coastal hazards;
     provides a risk assessment framework for incorporating coastal hazard and climate change considerations into the
        decision making processes associated with policy development, planning and the awarding of resource consents; and
     promotes the development of long-term adaptive capacity for managing coastal hazard risk through the adoption of
        adaptive management and no-regrets response options.

City of London Adaptation Strategy (2010)
http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/Corporation/LGNL_Services/Environment_and_planning/Sustainability/Climate_change/
The City of London is the first Council in the UK to develop a comprehensive strategy for adapting to the impacts of climate
change. Adopted in 2007, Rising to the Challenge – The City of London Corporation’s Climate Adaptation Strategy was
developed using standard risk management tools in consultation with key stakeholders and service providers. The strategy
devolves responsibility for implementation to individual departments and puts a monitoring system in place for delivery. The
document assesses the major climate change risks facing the City and addresses these risks under the following headings;
flood risks, water resources, heat risks and pollution, and ground conditions. The strategy recommends a range of ‘no
regrets’, ‘low regrets’, ‘win win’ and ‘flexible’ options for adaptation. The strategy is an excellent example of good practice
and the City of London Corporation has been awarded Beacon Status.

East Riding of Yorkshire Council Coastline ‘Rollback’ (2005)
www.eastriding.gov.uk/cps/....
The East Riding of Yorkshire, U.K. and its neighbours are particularly at risk from climate change due to an eroding
coastline. East Riding of Yorkshire Council is implementing a coastal ‘rollback’ strategy to manage high rates of coastal
erosion as part of its Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan. ‘Roll back’ is a term used to describe the relocation of
property and infrastructure further inland from the eroding coast. The Council considers hard-engineered coastal defences
economically and environmentally unsustainable for protecting all development in the coastal zone. The East Riding of
Yorkshire Council website provides information on its Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan as well as rollback
programs for the caravan industry and residential and agricultural dwellings at risk from coastal erosion. With the need to
have a sustainable approach to maintaining the viability of the caravan industry on this fast eroding coastline, the concept of
"rollback" was developed by the East Riding of Yorkshire Council in partnership with the Environment Agency and caravan
park owners. Partners such as the Local Planning Authority have looked at the implications of re-locating the parks, and
developed guidelines, standards and policies within which any moves can be made. The rollback strategy for the caravan
industry has, to date, been highly successful. Whilst moving inland, the viability of the caravan industry is being maintained,
sustaining communities dependent on caravan tourism. The quality of tourism facilities and the local environment has
improved.

								
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