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					Nonverbal Communication
Expresses...
• Immediacy

• Responsiveness

• Synchrony
              Non verbal……
• Most nonverbal communication is
  unconscious or subconscious
• Occurs mostly face-to-face
• Three factors in message interpretation:
   Verbal Impact, 7 percent
   Vocal Impact, 38 percent
   Facial Impact, 55 percent
    Non-Verbal Communication – a
            definition…

• It is the way people:
  • Reinforce the spoken word
  • Replace the spoken word using their bodies
  to make visual signals or their voices to make
  oral but non-verbal signals
    Medium – NON VERBAL
• sign language – gestures



• action language – movements



• object language – pictures, clothes etc
Verbal Communication-7%
Bodily Movements, Gestures-55%
Voice tone-38%
        Types of Non-verbal
          Communication
 Kinesics
 Paralanguage or Para Linguistics
 Proxemics
 Haptics
 Oculesics
 Olfactics
 Chronemics
 Chromatics
 Silence
 Sign language
Kinesics
   (the study of body movements,
     gestures, facial expressions,
          etc., as a means of
           communication)
Kinesics
 Defined - the study of posture,
           movement, gestures,
           & facial expression.
          Kinesics: facial expression
• Birdwhistle (1970): the face is
  capable of conveying 250,000
  expressions
       Body Language (Kinesics)
• Body language includes facial expressions,
  gestures, and posture and stance.
• To interpret facial expressions correctly, it is
  important to take the communication context
  and culture into account.
• People in some cultures rarely show emotion
  (China); Asians will smile or laugh softly when
  they are embarrassed.
    Effective Use of Body language
• Mind the body talk
• Be careful with the handshake
• Establish good Eye contact
• Communicate at the level of the person
  before you
• We must be ourselves
• Graceful Movements and Confident posture
  improve the atmosphere at the workplace
 We categorize
  kinesics into
5 different kinds.
     1. Affect Displays
• Movements of the face to
  convey or show emotions
• Happy, sad, fear, anger, etc.
         2. Emblems
• Substitutions for words
• Specific verbal translation
• EX: “OK,” “peace,” “be quiet”
         3. Illustrators
• Accompany and literally illustrate
  the verbal message
• EX: Saying, “Let’s go” while motioning
  with your hands for them to go, it was
  “this big” while showing how big,
  making a circular motion while talking
  about a circle
Illustrator
      • Asking, “What time
        is it?”
      • At the same time,
        pointing to your
        watch.
   4. Regulators
• Monitor, maintain,
  or control the
  speaking of another
  individual
• EX: nodding your
  head, “keep going,”
  “speed up”
                   Regulators

• Who is sending
  an “I’m really
  listening”
  regulator                       QuickTime™ an d a
                         TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                            are need ed to see this picture .


  message? How
  do you know?
         5. Adaptors
• Satisfy a need & are usually
  unconscious
• 3 types:
   1. Self-adaptors
   2. Alter-adaptors
   3. Object-adaptors
          5. Adaptors
1. Self-adaptors: satisfy a physical
   need
   EX: scratching your head,
   pushing your hair out of your
   face
         5. Adaptors
1. Self-adaptors
2. Alter-adaptors: body movements
   you make in response to your
   current interactions
   EX: crossing your arms when
   someone unpleasant approaches
          5. Adaptors
1. Self-adaptors
2. Alter-adaptors
3. Object-adaptors: manipulation of
   objects; often happen when
   feeling hostile
   EX: clicking pen, chewing pencil
Vocal Cues
   Paralinguistic features - no word sounds
                             & non word
                             characteristics
                             of language.

Paralanguage or Para Linguistics ( systematic study of how a
speaker verbalizes)
Vocal Cues
  Paralinguistic features

  Vocal cues - all the oral aspects of sound
               except words themselves,
               which include...
               pitch, rate, inflection,
               volume, quality, sounds
               & silence, pronunciation,
               articulation, & enunciation.
• Voice
• Pitch variation
 Those who speak in monotones fail to keep
  listener’s attention
 People in authority or When excited speak in high
  pitched voice
• Speaking Speed
 Fluency in language is not the same thing as the
  speed of speaking
 We should present easy parts of message at a
  brisk pace and difficult, complicated parts at
  slower pace.
 In state of anxiety, urgency we speak fast and
  when relaxed at a comfortable speed.
                 Pause
Pace of speaking is also accompanied by pauses
But pauses have to be at the right moments
A pause can be highly effective in emphasizing
 the upcoming subject and in gaining listener’s
 attention
However frequent, arbitrary pauses spoil the
 speech and distract listener’s attention
Very important for a speaker to carefully
 monitor pauses
           Non fluencies
 Pauses often inserted with sounds like ah, oh, uh,
  um, you know, OK, yawning, laughing, chuckling…
 Carefully and sparingly used they add fluency to
  speaker, give them time to breathe/ relax, make
  listener more alert
 Too frequent insertions may irritate listener
       Volume Variation

Loudness of our voice should be adjusted
  according to size of audience
Some speakers believe only way to sound
  convincing is to speak louder
2. Proper word stress
Eg: Have you met my wife before?
Proxemics-Space Language

(study of distance individuals maintain between
each other while interacting and its significance)
      Proxemics-Space Language
• Intimate-Physical contact/touch to 1.5 feet
  eg with our family members, closest friends
  and selected people
• Personal-18 inches to 4 feet eg normal
  conversations with close friends,
  colleagues, associates and visitors
• Social-4 to 12 feet. Used mostly for formal
  purposes
• Public-12 feet to as far as we can see and
  hear
Proxemics
 Defined

 Territoriality

 Personal space - bubble of space that
                  moves with you.
Hall’s Distance Categories

  Intimate distance
  Contact to 18 inches
Proxemics:
Hall’s Distance Categories

  Public distance
  12 feet or more
Hall’s Distance Categories

  Personal distance
  18 inches to 4 feet
Hall’s Distance Categories

  Social distance
  4 feet to 12 feet
        Space (Proxemics)

People in the U.S. tend to need
more space than do persons of other
cultures. U.S. persons back away
when people stand too close.
Standing too close is interpreted as
being pushy or overbearing;
standing too close may also be
interpreted as unwelcome sexual
advances.
U.S. people need more space than do
 Greeks, Latin Americans, or Arabs.

 The Japanese stand even farther away
         than do U.S. persons.
     Haptics
• Refers to communicating through the use of
  bodily contact
• When used properly, touch can create
  feelings of warmth and trust
• When used improperly, touch can betray
  trust and cause annoyance
• Some cultures are very comfortable with
  bodily contact, others avoid it. Eg
 In US touching has a lot to do with hierarchy
 In Thailand it is offensive to touch head
           Touch (Haptics)
• Touch, when used properly, may create
  feelings of warmth and trust; when used
  improperly, touch may cause annoyance
  and betray trust.
• Hierarchy is a consideration when using
  touch in the U.S.: people who are older or
  higher rank may touch those who are
  younger or of lower rank; equals may touch
  each other.
“Don't Touch” Cultures
• Japan
• U.S. and Canada
• England
• Scandinavia
• Other N. European countries
Middle Ground Countries
      • Australia
      • France
      • China
      • Ireland
      • India
      • Middle East
        countries
 “Touch” Cultures
• Latin American
  countries
• Italy
• Greece
• Spain and Portugal
• Some Asian countries
• Russian Federation
Location of the Touch Is Important
• Appropriate touch in the U.S. is limited to
  shaking hands in business situations - no
  hugs or expressions of affection.
• In Thailand do not touch the head.
• Do not touch Asians on the shoulders or
  even the back of the worker's chair.
• Avoid touching a person with the left hand
  in the Middle East.
Several years ago, when President Carter was
mediating peace talks between Egypt and
Israel, Anwar Sadat frequently placed his
hand on President Carter’s knee. While this
subtextual message was intended as a
gesture of warm friendship, the subtler
message Sadat was conveying to the world
was that he was President Carter’s equal.


                 Fast, Body Language in the   49
                         Workplace
                Oculesics
• Study of eye-contact as a form of non-verbal
  communication.
• Eye contact is the most important cue
• Avoiding eye contact considered as insecure,
  untrustworthy
• Direct eye contact may be misinterpreted as
  hostility, aggressiveness
• Lowering eyes in China and Indonesia-sign of
  respect. They prefer indirect eye contact,
  prolonged eye contact is seen as sign of bad
  manners
                Eye Contact
Eye contacts – shrinking eyes, eye ball
  movement, broadening of eyes etc.,
Eye Expressions
    Gaze/Eye Contact (Oculesics)
Although people in the U.S. favor direct eye contact, in
other cultures, such as the Japanese, the reverse is true;
they direct their gaze below the chin. In the Middle East,
on the other hand, the eye contact is more intense than
U.S. people are comfortable with.
A prolonged gaze or stare in the U.S. is considered rude.
In most cultures, men do not stare at women as this may
be interpreted as sexually suggestive.
                 Olfactics

• The study of sense of smell
• Someone’s smell can have a positive or
  negative effect on the oral message
            Smell (Olfactics)
• Although people of the U.S. respond
  negatively to body odors, Arabs are
  comfortable with natural body odors.
• Other cultures in which smell plays an
  important role include the Japanese and
  Samoans.
              Chronemics
the study of the use of time in nonverbal
 communication.
The way we perceive time, structure our time
 and react to time is a powerful
 communication tool, and helps set the stage
 for the communication process.
            Time (Chronemics)
• Attitudes toward time vary from culture to
  culture.
• Countries that follow monochronic time
  perform only one major activity at a time
  (U.S., England, Switzerland, Germany).
• Countries that follow polychronic time work
  on several activities simultaneously (Latin
  America, the Mediterranean, the Arabs).
          Cultural Differences in
          Attitudes Toward Time
• U.S. persons are very time conscious and value
  punctuality. Being late for meetings is viewed as rude
  and insensitive behavior; tardiness also conveys that
  the person is not well organized.
• Germans and Swiss people are even more time
  conscious; people of Singapore and Hong Kong also
  value punctuality.
• In Algeria, on the other hand, punctuality is not widely
  regarded. Latin American countries have a manana
  attitude; people in Arab cultures have a casual attitude
  toward time.
                    Chromatics
• Communication of messages through colors
• It is a scientific movement which explores the physical
  properties of colour and the effect of color on
  humans
• The connotations colors have may be positive or
  negative depending on the culture
• In Us common to wear black when mourning, in India
  people prefer white
• In Hong Kong red is used for happiness or luck and
  traditional bridal dress; in Poland brides wear white
• In Asia people like colored shampoos, in US shampoos
  tend to be light colored
           Color (Chromatics)

• Colors have cultural variations in connotations.
  – Black is the color of mourning in the U.S., but white is
    worn to funerals by the Japanese.
  – In the U.S. white is typically worn by brides, while in
    India red or yellow is worn.
  – Purple is sometimes associated with royalty, but it is
    the color of death in Mexico and Brazil.
  – Red (especially red roses) is associated with romance
    in some cultures including the U.S.
United Airlines unknowingly got off on the
wrong foot during its initial flights from
Hong Kong. To commemorate the occasion,
they handed out white carnations to the
passengers. When they learned that to
many Asians white flowers represent bad
luck and even death, they changed to red
carnations.


               Ricks, Blunders in International   61
                          Business
Color Influences Communication


 Yellow cheers     Red excites       Blue comforts
      and             and                 and
elevates moods     stimulates           soothes




           In some              In some
           cultures             cultures
        black suggests       white suggests
           mourning              purity
                    Silence

• Another important aspect in communication
• When we are silent, we are also communicating!
  What we communicate depends on what kind of
  silence it is.
• Mostly subject of conversation plays major role in
  this
• The more emotionally loaded subject is, the more
  silence we need
• Silence in group conversations are difficult to be
  handled for lot of people
                     Silence
• Although U.S. persons are uncomfortable with
  silence, people from the Middle East are quite
  comfortable with silence.
• The Japanese also like periods of silence and do not
  like to be hurried. Such Japanese proverbs as,
  “Those who know do not speak - those who speak
  do not know,” emphasize the value of silence over
  words in that culture.
• In Italy, Greece, and Arabian countries, on the other
  hand, there is very little silence.
               Sign language
Visual Signs
• Crossed bones under a skull as a danger signal
• Cross over a cigarette as warning against smoking
• Lights-green or red at traffic points, railway
   stations, outside operation theatre of hospital,
   revolving light on the top of VIP vehicle/ambulance
Audio Signs
• Drum beats in jungles in olden times
• Alarm signals
• Blowing a horn
• Buzzer, bells
Nonverbal Signals
Vary from culture to culture




                               Microsoft Photo
What does this symbol mean to
            you?
            • In the United States it is a
              symbol for good job
            • In Germany the number one
            • In Japan the number five
            • In Ghana an insult
            • In Malaysia the thumb is used
              to point rather than a finger


                  -Atlantic Committee for the Olympic Games
• Suspiciousness is indicated by glancing away or
  touching your nose, eyes, or ears.
• Defensiveness is indicated by crossing your
  arms over your chest, making fisted gestures,
  or crossing your legs.
• Lack of interest or boredom is indicated by
  glancing repeatedly at your watch or staring at
  the ceiling or floor or out the window when the
  person is speaking.

                     Axtell, Gestures          68
    Additional Guidelines for
   Gesturing in Various Cultures
• The “V” for victory gesture, holding two
  fingers upright, with palm and fingers faced
  outward, is widely used in the U.S. and many
  other countries. In England, however, it is a
  crude connotation when used with the palm
  in.


                   Axtell, Gestures           69
An American engineer, sent to Germany by his U.S.
company who had purchased a German firm, was working
side by side with a German engineer on a piece of
equipment. When the American engineer made a
suggestion for improving the new machine, the German
engineer followed the suggestion and asked his American
counterpart whether or not he had done it correctly. The
American replied by giving the U.S. American “OK” gesture,
making a circle with the thumb and forefinger. The
German engineer put down his tools and walked away,
refusing further communication with the American
engineer. The U.S. American later learned from one of the
supervisors the significance of this gesture to a German:
“You asshole.”

                        Axtell, Gestures              70
• Interest is demonstrated by leaning forward
  toward the person with whom you are
  conversing.
• The posture of U.S. persons is casual, including
  sitting in a relaxed manner and slouching when
  standing (considered rude in Germany).
• Posture when seated varies with the culture;
  U.S. persons often cross their legs while seated
  (women at the ankle and men with the ankle on
  the knee).
• Most Middle Easterners would consider
  crossing the leg with the ankle on the knee
  inappropriate.
• Avoid showing the sole of your shoe or
  pointing your foot at someone in the Arab
  world.
• Follow the lead of the person of the other
  culture; assume the posture they assume.
       NONVERBAL POSTULATE

• Nonverbal gives emotional content
  What you say is/is not as important as how
  you say it
• Nonverbal is culturally determined, yet
  universal
• We send multiple nonverbal cues which can
  result in mixed messages
Clothing & Artifacts
 Objectives - study of human use of
            clothing & other artifacts as
            nonverbal codes.
Can you guess?
                Answer:
• Turkey: Homosexual
• Commonly: Perfect
• Japan: Money
Can you guess?
                  Answer:

• Turkey: obscene gesture
• No such gesture in English
• Brazil: Good luck!
Can you guess?
                 Answer:
• Turkey: You get nothing from me
• Commonly: Stop, enough
• W.Africa: You have 5 fathers!
Can you guess?
                   Answer:
• Turkey: Right wing political party
• Commonly: OK
• Japan: Five
The knuckle Grinder
Handshakes
Body Language (Kinesics):
Body Language (Kinesics):
Body Language (Kinesics):
Body Language (Kinesics):
Proxemics:
 Tips of effective use of non verbal
           communication
• Observe and understand the non verbal
  signals being sent your way on a moment –to
  moment basis

• Use eye contact
• Understand the cultural nuances of the
  various forms of non verbal communication.
• When there is a contradiction between the
  verbal and non verbal messages of the
  persons you are listening to try to assess the
  situation with the help of non verbal cues.
• Check context: Don't try to interpret cues isolated from other such
  cues, from the verbal communication, or from the physical or
  emotional context.

• Look for clusters: This is the nonverbal context itself. See if a
  resistance accompanies the arms being crossed to eye contact and a
  flat tone of voice.

• Consider past experience: We can more accurately interpret the
  behavior of people we know. For e.g. Your mother may always hugs
  when you come home from school and so you learn that this
  represent happiness in that particular situation.

• Practice perception checking: Recognize that you are interpreting
  observed behavior, not reading a mind, and check out your
  observation.
Get your act together!
• Bhakti Rasa - in devotion - where we evoked the Devine Creator and find him in the
  deepest recesses of our being.

• Vatsalya Rasa - Love and comfort expression of affection at its most natural, as a
  child delights in all that is fun.

• Raudra Rasa - Beware the ferocity of the Raudra's glare-rest consumes you.

• Karun Rasa - Compassion and care, if pain we share.

• Vibhatsa Rasa - Disgust - showing a disturbing shift in the mood.

• Shringar Rasa - Love, beauty divinity.

• Adbhut Rasa - The look of wonder.

• Madhur Rasa - For a child there is loveliness in all that he beholds .

• Hasya Rasa - laughter , Bounce with us in fun.

				
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