The Integrated Circuit by ewghwehws

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									The Integrated Circuit

           Brad Jones
           AC Computer Science
           Mrs. Schulz
           August 2003
  Technology Before the
    Integrated Circuit

• Pieces of Technology relied on vacuum tubes.
• These tubes were much larger in size, and in
  number.
• Since vacuum tubes were the only option, equipment
  was a lot more bulky and heavy.
• In the late 1950s, the Integrated Circuit was created.
           Beginning

• It is the size of a human nail.
• Circuits measured in MICRONS.
• A MICRON is a millionth of a meter.
• The diameter is 1/100 the diameter of
  the human hair.
• Made of silicon.
    Steps to Create (1)

• The wafer is as thin as a sheet of paper.
• Grow layers on the wafer using
  photolithography.
• Use diffusion to cement impurities to the
  wafer.
• Metallization is used to create
  interconnections.
     Steps to Create (2)

• Ion implantation is used to create more
  interconnections that are capable of conducting
  electricity.
• Then the wafer is exposed to ultra-violet light to
  cement all the patterns onto the wafer.
• Lastly, etching occurs. Etching is the running of
  electrically charged gas through the grid of
  connections.Then it is tested for malfunctions.
     Impact on Society

• Created in 1958
• Makes devices like laptops, computers,
  PDAs, and cellphones possible.
• The circuit lets people delve into places
  that they usually could not, like the inner
  Earth, and even space.
                         The Integrated Circuit



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           Bibliography

• www.ti.com/corp/docs/company/history/firstic.sht
  ml - Texas Instruments Online

• www.pbs.org/transistor/background/events/incinv
  .html - PBS Online

• www.bartleby.com/65/in/integrated.html -
  Bartleby Resources

								
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