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The Indian Removal

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The Indian Removal Powered By Docstoc
					1-Where did the Cherokee originally live (geographical area not
exact location)?

2-Why did the U. S. government want to move the Cherokees?

3-How did the white settlers plan to “civilize” the Cherokee?

4-What did Sequoyah invent and how did it help his people?

5-Why did the Cherokee decide to write a code of law and who did
they have to enforce their laws?

6-What was the Cherokee Constitution modeled after and what
were the branches?

7-Who were the Cherokee allied with during the American
Revolutionary War?
8- Who was the Cherokee chief that signed the Treaty of Indian
Springs and what Georgia Governor convinced him to sign it?

9- Who was the leader of the Upper Creek during the Oconee
Wars?

10-What was the name of the permanent Cherokee capital and what
newspaper was printed there?

11-Who was the principal Chief of the Cherokee from 1827-1866?

12- According to the Cherokee law, who owned the land?

13- Name the Cherokee leader who became a successful planter
and businessman.
The Indian Removal



   The Creek Confederacy,
 the Cherokee Nation, and the
      Trail of Tears
          Creek Confederacy
•The Creek Indians were the most plentiful
Indian tribe in GA when the colonist arrived

•Very traditional ways had them clashing with
the settlers who tried to take the land they lived
on

•Led by Alexander McGillivary fighting against
the settlers in the Oconee Wars

•Treaties, Wars (Yamasee, French & Indian, Oconee,
etc.) and corrupt leadership doomed the Creeks.
        Creek Confederacy
•William McIntosh was Creek Chief and
first cousin to the Governor of Georgia.

•He and George Troup (Governor)
worked out the Treaty of Indian Springs
that sold the last of the Creek lands in
Georgia ($200,000)

•The Creeks set his house on fire, shot
him, drug him out of the house, stabbed
him and took his scalp as a warning to
those who would deal with the whites.
       The Cherokee Background
• Cherokee settle in what are now
  Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi
   - these mountain river valleys full of
    wildlife, fish, trees

• “Cherokee” is Choctaw name meaning
  “people of the cave country”
 Cherokee Drive out the Creek

• Mountain terrain makes farming
  difficult for Cherokee

• Traditional Cherokee tribe
  council makes decisions
  democratically
The Cherokee Adapt to Changes

• Had been allied with Britian due to
  trade.

• Colonies win independence in 1783,
  Cherokee situation changes
       Moving the Cherokee
• New U.S. Congress treats Cherokee as
 conquered enemy
  - move Cherokee to end warfare,
   gain land for settlers

• Government relocates Cherokee to new
  Cherokee Nation
   - covers parts of GA, NC,TN, and AL

• Sends government agents to live with
  Cherokee, teach skills
     “Civilizing” the Cherokee
• Some settlers want to “civilize” Cherokee
    -read/write English, follow written
      code of laws
    -dress like whites, convert to Christianity

• Missionaries go to live and work with tribe

• Cherokee resist Christianity, welcome
  education and tools
  A Written Cherokee Language
• Cherokee Nation believes civilization
  program necessary to survive
    - hope to be left alone if they adopt
      white ways
    - see need to change lifestyles

• Nation buys printing press with English
  and Cherokee alphabet
   - press located in New Echota, the
     Cherokee Nation capital
    A Written Cherokee Language
• Sequoyah sees European advantage in
  having
  written communication
     -develops 86-symbol alphabet based on
     Cherokee syllables, 1821
     -simple enough for those who speak
     Cherokee to learn in days

• Cherokee Phoenix- Cherokee Nation’s
  first newspaper, starts in 1828
     -printed in English and Cherokee
               Translation

Eng. Word   Cherokee     Pronunciation
Chicken     tsa-ta-ga    chaw tah gah

Horse       so-qui-li    sew kwi lee

Pig         si-qua       see kwa
          Changes in Lifestyle

• Cherokee soon imitate whites in other ways

• Many become wealthy, build lavish homes,
  some become planters, raise cotton, own
  slaves

• Cherokee planters start taking over
  Cherokee politics
 Government Modeled After U.S.
• Cherokee National Council tells U.S.
  it will cede no more land

• Concern over property rights grows,
  written laws established

• Established the Light Horse Guard as their
  police to enforce the laws.
  The Cherokee Constitution

• Cherokee Constitution written in
  1827; similar to U.S Constitution
   - establishes legislative, executive,
     judicial branches

• Defines Cherokee territory; land
  belongs to nation, not individuals
   Respected Cherokee Leaders
• Two men become respected leaders of
  Cherokee Nation in 1820s

• Major Ridge —leader in Creek War,
  successful planter, businessman

• John Ross —one-eighth Cherokee;
  becomes chief, 1827—1866

• Ridge and Ross come into conflict in
  1830s
                              Quiz
1- What Treaty between William McIntosh and George
   Troup gave up the last of the Creek lands in Georgia for
   $200,000?
2- In what geographical area were the Cherokee lands
   located?

3- How did traditional Cherokee tribe councils make their
   decisions (whites did not like it because it was too slow.)

4- In what Cherokee capital did they print the Cherokee
   Phoenix?

5- What important contribution did Sequoyah make?
6-In what languages was the Cherokee Phoenix printed
  in?

7- Who was the leader of the Upper Creek Indians
   during the Oconee Wars?

8-What did the whites in GA want to do to the
  Cherokees to make them more like they were?

9. According to the Cherokee Constitution, who owned
   the Cherokee territory?

10-_______ served as the Cherokee Chief from 1827-
  1866.
                       Quiz
1-In what languages was the Cherokee Phoenix printed
  in?

2- Who was the leader of the Upper Creek Indians
   during the Oconee Wars?

3-What did the whites in GA want to do to the
  Cherokees to make them more like they were?

4- According to the Cherokee Constitution, who owned
   the Cherokee territory?

5-_______ served as the Cherokee Chief from 1827-
  1866.
                           Quiz
6- What Treaty between William McIntosh and George
   Troup gave up the last of the Creek lands in Georgia for
   $200,000?

7- In what geographical area were the Cherokee lands
   located?

8- How did traditional Cherokee tribe councils make their
   decisions (whites did not like it because it was too slow.)

9- In what Cherokee capital did they print the Cherokee
   Phoenix?

10- What important contribution did Sequoyah make?
          Indian Removal


• White settlers are determined to have
  all of the Southeastern land occupied
  by the Cherokee. They eventually
  succeed

VIDEO 1
  Early Removal of Creek and Cherokee

• Removal of Native Americans from Georgia
  starts with Compact of 1802

• U.S. promises Native Americans land in
  Arkansas, Oklahoma if they leave

• Most Creek are relocated to Oklahoma by
  1827
     The Cherokee Refuse to Leave

• Cherokee surrender some land, but will not
 give up more after 1819

• U.S. cannot honor Compact of 1802; white
  Georgians furious

• Georgia orders missionaries to leave,
  removes Cherokee supporters
    -creates Georgia Guard to enforce laws
     against Cherokee
The Cherokee Turn to the Supreme
             Court
 • President Andrew Jackson elected in 1828
   now wants to take their land

 • Jackson persuades Congress to pass
   Indian Removal Act, 1830
    -Cherokee can live within Georgia laws or
     move west of Mississippi

    -Cherokee do not accept this; take two
    cases to U.S. Supreme Court
     The Cherokee Sue Georgia
• Cherokee sue in Cherokee Nation v.
  Georgia
  (1831)
     -Cherokee argue that Georgia laws
     should not apply to Nation

• Supreme Court says Cherokee have no
  right to sue (state they are a “dependent
  nation)”
     The Cherokee Sue Georgia
• Different outcome in Worcester v. Georgia
 (1832)
    -Georgia orders missionaries to swear
     oath and get permits or leave
    -orders Georgia Guard to imprison
     missionaries who disobey

• John Marshall (Supreme Court
 Chief Justice): Georgia laws
 not valid in independent Cherokee
Nation
      Georgia Defies Court Ruling
• Georgia refuses to accept Worcester v. Georgia
  decision
     -sets up land lottery awarding Cherokee land to
     Georgians
     -thousands move onto Cherokee land

• Federal government refuses to enforce Supreme
  Court decision
     -says Supreme Court lacks enforcement power
     -Jackson encourages Georgians to defy order
      Negotiating with the Federal
             Government
• Major Ridge, John Ross disagree on
  how to proceed

• Ridge, son John Ridge, Elias Boudinot
  form Treaty Party to negotiate Treaty
  of New Echota
     -cedes Southeastern Cherokee land
      for land in Oklahoma

• Ross, 15,000 Cherokee sign petition
  disavowing Treaty

• U.S. ratifies Treaty of New Echota;
  Cherokee must move in two years
    Opposition to the Treaty
• Ross opposes Treaty
    -proposes alternatives, none
     accepted

• Cherokee hope things will change
  when Jackson leaves office
    -decide to wait, do not move
            The Trail of Tears
• U.S. fears whites may kill Cherokee if tribes
  stay in Georgia
     -claim moving Cherokee west is for their
      own protection

• Federal troops put Cherokee in prison
  stockades, 1838
     -burn Cherokee settlements, crops to
      prevent escape
     -stockade conditions terrible, hundreds die
       Imprisonment and Forced
              Movement
• Chief Ross asks to let Cherokee handle own
  relocation
      -President Martin Van Buren denies request

• Federal troops escort Cherokee west in winter of
  1838–39
     -route known as the Trail of Tears

• Many Cherokee die along route, including Ross’s
  wife

• Cherokee re-elect John Ross as chief once they
  arrive in Oklahoma
             Cost of Removal
• Accounts of Trail of Tears deaths vary

• U.S. government records 500 deaths
     -missionary accounts close to 4,000;
      generally accepted as accurate

• Cherokee removal part of larger pattern of
  Native American removal
VIDEO 2
                       Quiz
1. Removal of the Native American from Georgia
   started with this legal document.
2. This organization was created to enforce the laws
   against the Cherokee in Georgia.
3. This U.S. President persuaded Congress to pass the
   Indian Removal Act of 1830.
4. The Cherokee Nation v. ______ was a Supreme
   Court case that argued that Georgia laws should not
   apply to the Cherokee Nation
5. In the Supreme Court case of Worcester v. Georgia,
   the Court ruled in the Cherokees favor (T or F)
6. Major Ridge, John Ridge , and Elias Boudinot all were
member of the ________party that signed away the
remainder of the Cherokee lands.
7. The Treaty of New Echota was well received by the
Cherokee people. (T or F)
8. John Ross opposed the Treaty of New Echota (T or F).
9. The federal troops moved the Cherokees during what
season of the year which caused many deaths.
10. Generally accepted deaths from the Trail of Tears
ranged as high as 4,000. (T or F)

				
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