Diversity and Classification of Organisms Packet ( 100 pts.) Name: Date: Per.:
Refer to Chapter 17, 18.4, 19.1, 19.5, 20, 23.1 and valid internet resources.
For an online copy with hyperlinks go to
Part A Organizing Life’s Diversity (refer to pages 518-521, 533 -537 and valid internet sources)
1. What is a species?
2. What is the binomial system of classification?
3. What was a limitation of Linnaeus’ system of classification?
4. What are the 8 levels of biological classification from largest to smallest?
5. Differentiate between an organism’s common name and species name.
6. Which of the following levels of classification provides the most specific information about an organism: class,
order, or family? Explain how these three terms are related.
7. What are the 3 major domains used to classify all organisms? Which are prokaryotic cells?
8. Which of the domains contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms?
9. What are the four kingdoms that make up the domain Eukarya?
10. Which domain is most ancient?
11. What cellular structures set the domain Eukarya apart from the other two domains?
12. Which kingdom within the domain Eukarya is predominantly made up of unicellular organisms?
13. What is phylogeny?
14. Watch The Six Kingdom Classification System Part 1
a. What was Linnaeus’ true name?
b. What was the organism that had characteristics of both the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom?
15. Go to Khan Academy “Taxonomy and the Tree of Life” Take notes on the last page of this packet.
Part B Build and Analyze a Cladogram (refer to pages 524 – 528 and valid internet sources)
1. What is a cladogram?
2. What information does a cladogram provide?
3. What is a derived trait?
4. On a cladogram, how can you tell which organisms are closely related?
5. Go to Classzone.com>Animated Biology>Unit 6 Ch.17 Build A Cladogram
a. Which clade was the earliest common ancestor of all of the groups?
b. What derived characteristic is shared by the Aves Clade?
Part C Is your Molecular Clock Ticking? (refer to pages 530 – 532 and valid internet sources)
1. What conclusion can you draw between two species that have very similar amino acid sequences in their
2. What is a molecular clock and how does it measure evolutionary time?
3. What do scientists use to link molecular data and real time?
4. Go to Classzone.com > Animated Biology > Unit 6 Ch. 17 Molecular Clock
a. What “powers” a molecular clock?
b. When does the molecular clock start ticking?
c. How does a mutation change a phenotype?
d. What event caused the dragonfly population to be separated?
e. How do scientists calculate the time that passed since the two dragonfly species had a common ancestor?
f. What was the phenotypic change that evolved between the two species of dragonflies?
Part D Classification of Prokaryotes (refer to pages 534-535, 555 – 558 and valid internet sources)
1. Go to this link for Archaebacteria and compare/contrast with Eubacteria
2. Compare and contrast these domains.
Bacteria Both Archae
3. Bacteria and Archae can be classified by metabolism, structural comparisons and molecular comparisons.
4. How is conjugation similar to sexual reproduction?
5. What type of reproduction results in endospores?
6. Watch Life on our Skin
a. What percent by weight of our biosphere is bacteria?
b. Why are bacteria like tourists?
c. Bacteria and fungi living on our skin might be beneficial – how?
Part E Meet the Protista (refer to pages 574 – 576 and valid internet sources)
1. Explain why protists are difficult to classify.
2. Complete the table:
Group Characteristics Examples
3. Watch “The Mighty Water Bear”
a. What is the scientific name of this organism?
b. Why is it called a “water bear”?
Part F Fun with Fungi (refer to pages 589 -594 and valid internet sources)
1. How do fungi differ from plants and animals?
2. List examples and characteristics of the different phyla of Fungi.
Primitive Fungi Sac Fungi Bread Molds Club Fungi
(asexual, sexual, both?)
3. What is a Mycorrhizae and what does it do?
4. Draw a mushroom. Label the fruiting body, the hyphae and mycelium, and the spore-producing structures.
5. Watch “The Fabulous Fungi”
a. We know about __________% maximum of the 1.5 million species of fungi on our planet.
b. Some mushrooms partner up with trees forming a symbiotic relationship. What is each species gaining from
Part G Plant Diversity (refer to pages 610 – 627 and valid internet sources)
1. Which domain does the kingdom Plantae fall under?
2. Into how many divisions can modern plants be classified?
3. Watch “Speedy Plants”
a. What is the name of the plant featured in this video?
b. In which phylum do they belong?
4. Fill in the blank for the first two statements then place a check √ if the statement applies to the phylum.
Use pgs. 617 - 622 Bryophyta Pterophyta Gymnosperm Angiosperm
What is the general name for each phylum
Provide a specific example for each phylum
√ Check below if the statement applies to the phylum above
Common ancestor is green algae
Depend on water for reproduction
Depend on pollination for reproduction
Seeds enclosed in fruit
Seeds not enclosed in fruit
Have cuticles and stomata
Either one or two cotyledon’s
5. DRAW and analyze a CLADOGRAM:
Starting with a diagonal line, the out-group is placed on the first branch.
Just past the first branch, the most common derived trait is listed; in this case vascular tissue is composed of
tube-like cells. The branching point or node on a cladogram marks the point where shared derived
Next, the second most common derived trait is determined, which in this case is seeds.
Ferns lack seeds and are thus placed on the second branch.
The third most common derived trait is flowers. Conifers do not have flowers and are thus placed on the
Flowering plants are placed at the end.
Refer to your cladogram for the following questions.
a. What characteristics do ferns have that mosses do not?
b. What differentiates ferns from conifers (pine trees)?
c. What characteristics do ferns, confers, and flowering plants all have in common?
d. Are flowering plants more closely related to conifers or ferns?
e. What differentiates conifers from flowering plants?
Part H Kingdom Animalia (refer to pages 694 – 698 and valid internet sources)
1. See page 703. List the phyla within the animal kingdom. How many do you have?
2. At the cellular level, what is the main difference between plants and animals?
3. What are the four distinguishing characteristics that organisms within the domain Eukarya, kingdom Animalia
4. Why is a mutation in a homeotic gene devastating to an organism?
5. Watch this Link To which animal phylum do humans belong?
6. Go to Classzone.com > Animated Biology > Unit 8 Ch. 24 What Type of Arthropod?
a. What type of Arthropod is the pillbug?
b. What type of Arthropod is a barnacle?
7. Go to Classzone.com > Animated Biology > Unit 8 Ch. 25 What Type of Fish Is It?
a. What type of Fish is the African Lung Fish?
b. What type of Fish is the Coelacanth?
8. Watch: Common Past; Different Paths
a. What term is used for the beginning of limbs?
b. From the video, what do animal embryos share?