Reflective Pre-Assessments and Formative Assessments

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					      Tiered Assignments:
Creating Levels for Student Work




           Jacque Melin - GVSU
              Tiering is…

 A form of                 NOT the only kind of
  differentiation            differentiation, though
 Differentiation            it is foundational
  according to readiness    NOT locking students
 Based upon students’       into “ability boxes” --
  readiness for a            groups are flexible and
  particular task            vary according to the
                             task
 Driven by pre-
  assessment                NOT more work or
                             “better” work for some
                             levels – tasks are
                             equitable
Tiered assignments should be:

-Different work, not simply more or less work
-Equally active
-Equally interesting and engaging
-Fair in terms of work expectations and time
needed
-Require the use of key concepts, skills, or ideas
-Are used as practice or daily work, NOT as an
assessment task to be graded.
-Learn from each other – share work!
        How to Distribute Tiers
        Deciding on Who Gets
    Which Version on an Assignment

Option 1—Everyone does Tier 1
Option 2—Let Students Choose a Tier
Option 3—Put the Students into Cooperative Groups
Option 4—All Tiers for All Students (Layered
 Curriculum)
Option 5—The Teacher Decides Which Students Get
 Which Tiers
                 Basic Elements Defining
                  the Core Curriculum
Process:         Content           Process:           Product
Thinking                           Research
Skills                             Skills

Thinking Skill   Subject Matter    Research           Culmination or
                                   Skills and/or      Exhibition
                                   Resources


 List             The causes        After reading      Write a
                  and effects of    the text, pages    paragraph to
                  the Industrial    42-49.             share the
                  Revolution                           information.
              Differentiating the Core:
   Modifying the Process Element – Thinking Skills
Process:      Content           Process:           Product
Thinking                        Research
Skills                          Skills

List          The causes        After reading      Write a
              and effects of    the text, pages    paragraph to
              the Industrial    42-49.             share the
              Revolution                           information.


 Judge with    The causes        After reading      Write a
 criteria      and effects of    the text, pages    paragraph to
               the Industrial    42-49.             share the
               Revolution                           information.
             Differentiating the Core:
  Modifying the Process Element – Research Skills

 Process:      Content           Process:             Product
 Thinking                        Research
 Skills                          Skills
List          The causes        After reading        Write a
              and effects of    the text, pages      paragraph to
              the Industrial    42-49.               share the
              Revolution                             information.

 Judge with    The causes        Interview an         Write a
 criteria      and effects of    American history     paragraph to
               the Industrial    professor at the     share the
                                 university; use
               Revolution                             information.
                                 the Internet; and
                                 read the text,
                                 Chapter IV.
            Differentiating the Core:
          Modifying the Product Element
 Process:      Content           Process:             Product
 Thinking                        Research
 Skills                          Skills
List          The causes        After reading        Write a
              and effects of    the text, pages      paragraph to
              the Industrial    42-49.               share the
              Revolution                             information.

 Judge with    The causes        Interview an         Write an editorial
 criteria      and effects of    American history     and debate the
               the Industrial    professor at the     positive and
                                 university; use      negative
               Revolution
                                 the Internet; and    consequences of
                                 read the text,       the Industrial
                                 Chapter IV.          Revolution.
              Differentiating the Core:
            Modifying the Content Element
 Process:         Content                Process:             Product
 Thinking                                Research
 Skills                                  Skills
List             The causes             After reading        Write a
                 and effects of         the text, pages      paragraph to
                 the Industrial         42-49.               share the
                 Revolution                                  information.

 Judge      The patterns in the          Interview an         Write an editorial
            behaviors and trends of      American history     and debate the
 with
            consumers and producers      professor at the     positive and
 criteria   who contributed to the
                                         university; use      negative
            causes and subsequent
            effects of the Industrial    the Internet; and    consequences of
            Revolution.                  read the text,       the Industrial
                                         Chapter IV.          Revolution.
      3 Levels of Challenge - CbC
Green—Tasks are foundational and appropriate for the
  current grade level. Success depends on understanding
  and applying required knowledge and skills. Green
  level tasks meet a rigorous grade level proficiency
  standard.

Blue—Tasks are advanced and complex. Success depends
  on extending one’s skills in order to recognize and
  address the added layers of complexity.

Black—Tasks are extremely advanced and highly complex.
  Success depends on creatively applying and extending
  one’s skills, at times in very unfamiliar territory.
Tiered
Graphic
Organizers

Tier 1
Tiered
Graphic
Organizers

Tier 2
Tiered
Graphic
Organizers

Tier 3
                    Task/Work
• Make sure the directions are clearly stated in student-
  friendly language.
• Include specific details (e.g., “Give a minimum of three
  examples”)
• Include criteria for quality or a rubric so students
  clearly know your expectations for their work.
• As appropriate, sequence the steps students need to
  follow.
• Include examples or samples of work as necessary.
• Explain how students will share their work.
• Double-check that the directions can be followed by
  students independently.
                     Task Cards/Work Cards
Write a letter to yourself
stating at least five key
points that you would like to            Write a letter to your principal
remember about                           comparing what you have
differentiated instruction and           learned about differentiated
how you will use these                   instruction to what is
things in your classroom.                happening in your school.




             Write a persuasive letter to
             your school board president
             convincing him/her that your
             school district must adopt
             the philosophy of
             differentiated instruction in
             your district.
Layered Curriculum – Kathie Nunley
“Between various learning profiles, various abilities
and exceptionalities, multiple languages and
cultures, I began to come to two very important
conclusions. First, although I am considered a
regular educator there are no regular students in my
room. And secondly, every student deserves a
special education.”
                             Dr. Kathie Nunley
                   Layer C
• Foundation Layer
• Basic knowledge and understanding
• Students collect factual information in a
  learning style, reading level, and language that
  is most comfortable to him or her.
                       Layer C
• Can offer as little as 3 or 4 assignment choices or as
  many as 20.
• Students will not do all assignments, but enough to
  accumulate point totals needed to move on to next
  layer.
Example: 30 points are needed to move on. Each
  assignment worth 5 points, so student must do 6
  Layer C assignments.
                    Examples:
• All lists of C layer activities should provide
  assignments for:
   -visual learners (reading, demos)
   -auditory learners (lecture, video)
   -tactile learners (models, flash cards)
                   Layer B
• According to Kathie Nunley, the “B” layer deals
  with “application or manipulation of the
  information learned in the C layer. Problem
  solving or other higher level thinking tasks can
  be placed here.”
• Relates to application and analysis in Bloom’s
  Taxonomy
                        Examples:
• All “B” layer projects should be based upon
  information learned at the “C” layer
   –   Lab activities
   –   Designing a game for a specific topic
   –   Drawing a cartoon
   –   Designing a worksheet
   –   Brainstorming quiz/test questions
   –   Inquiry projects—designing a lab
                 Layer A
• Critical thinking about the topic.
• Examining how the material integrates into
  the world around them.
• Bloom’s taxonomy -- highest order
  – Synthesis
  – Evaluation
                  Examples:
•   Experiments
•   Research
•   Power Points
•   Podcasts, Movies, Websites
•   Posters, Books
                        Sidebars
• SIDEBARS: Another way to differentiate instruction is to be
   ready for students who learn the material quickly and
   accurately. Teachers can create a “sidebar activity” for
   these students who have demonstrated successful
   completion of an assignment (or unit). A “sidebar activity”
   is an assignment that moves laterally across the curriculum
   to further strengthen student understanding and aptitude.
   It requires several class periods (or even longer, like an on-
   going project). This is not “curriculum compacting”
   whereby the teacher accelerates faster students through
   the assigned curriculum. Rather, it is more of a “scenic
   turn-out” *from the assigned curriculum.
(* Betty Shoemaker)

• For example, here is a SideBar designed for US History
  students who successfully completed a reading notetaking
  assignment in their textbook.
                              Sidebars
Create a CliffsNotes study guide for a new student in our AP History course.
   This booklet must assist the student in learning how to take notes for this
   chapter. If you’d rather, create a “Note Taking in History for Dummies.”
   Your guide should include helpful tips for reading the textbook.

For example:
• how to distill 3-4 paragraphs from the chapter down to a couple of
    summary sentences.
• how to locate key details that shed light on a main idea
• how to generate study-review questions at various levels of complexity
· quiz-type questions – recall basic information
· essay-type questions – deeper information processing

Your booklet could also include:
• key vocabulary terms
• study tips for learning and remembering historical information
• illustrations / graphics to highlight important points
            Differentiation by Readiness
                English - To Kill a Mockingbird - Think Dots
LEVEL 1

1) Describe the setting of To Kill a Mockingbird.

2) Explain an example of person vs. person in To Kill a Mockingbird.

3) From whose point of view is the story told? What clues tell you?

4) In a Venn Diagram, compare and contrast one of the characters in
To Kill a Mockingbird to a character in a different book.

5) How do the citizens of Maycomb react to Atticus’s decision to
defend Tom Robinson? Write about two examples.

6) Find three examples of the following in To Kill a Mockingbird:
similes, metaphors, and idioms. Create a list.
                      Differentiation by Readiness
                     English - To Kill a Mockingbird - Think Dots (continued)

LEVEL 2
1) Describe how the setting of To Kill a Mockingbird has influenced the
   story so far.
2) Explain at least three types of conflict with examples in To Kill a
   Mockingbird.
3) In what ways would the story be different if told from another
   character’s point of view? Give support for your opinion. “If only
   ______________ had been telling the story, it would have been
   different…”
4) In a Venn Diagram, compare and contrast the Ewells family and the
   Cunninghams family to a family in another movie.
5) In a newspaper article, explain how the local reaction to Atticus’s
   decision to defend Tom Robinson reflects the time period in which the
   novel takes place. Writer the newspaper article as it would have
   appeared during the setting of the novel.
6) What effect do the similes, metaphors, and idioms Harper Lee uses
   have on a reader’s understanding of the novel? Explain your thought in
   a critic’s blurb.
                     Differentiation by Readiness
                   English - To Kill a Mockingbird - Think Dots (continued)

LEVEL 3
1) Describe at least three ways the setting is reflected in the context of To
   Kill a Mockingbird.
2) Explain the most significant sources of conflict in To Kill a
   Mockingbird.
3) In your opinion, what does the point of view tell you about Harper
   Lee?
4) In a Venn Diagram, compare and contrast Scout as a narrator to
   another narrator of a movie or story.
5) Apply the quote “What is right is not always popular. What is popular
   is not always right” as an epigraph to a short essay explaining Atticus
   Finch’s decision to defend Tom Robinson.
6) What kind of writing style does Harper Lee have? Provide examples to
   illustrate your point.
                         Additional Resources for
                           Tiered Assignments
Danzi, J., Reul, K., & Smith, R. (2008). Improving student motivation in mixed ability classrooms using differentiated
instruction. Retrieved from
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/3d/4e/ f0.pdf

Lopez, D.M., & Schroeder, L. (2008). Designing strategies that meet the variety of learning styles of
students. Retrieved from
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/3d/5b/d1.pdf

Mawhinney, T.S. (2000). Finding the Answer. Principal Leadership, 4(1), Retrieved from
http://leading4learning.com/Finding_the_Answer.pdf

McQuarrie, L., McRae, P., & Stack-Cutler, H. (2008). Differentiated instruction provincial research review: Choice,
complexity and creativity. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI).

Rakow, S. (2007). All Means all: Cassrooms that work for advanced learners. Middle Ground: National Middle School
Association, 11 (1), 10-12.

Roberts, J., & Inman, T. (2007). Strategies for differentiating instruction best practices for the classroom. Waco, Texas:
Prufrock Press Inc.

Tomlinson, C. (1999). The differentiated classroom. New Jersey: Pearson. P. 83-87

Tomlinson, C.A., & Strickland, C.A. (2005). Differentiation in practice. Alexandria, VA, USA: Association for
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Supervision and Curriculum Development.

				
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