Chapter 4

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					Chapter 4

The Tissue Level of Organization

Outline and Objectives

INTRODUCTION

      1. Define the relation of the cellular level to the major structures of tissues that

            endow tissues with distinct properties.

      2. Describe how the tissue level of organization is utilized by pathologists when

            examining organ biopsies.

TYPES OF TISSUES AND THEIR ORIGINS

      3. Classify the tissues of the body into four major types.

      4. Describe the type of tissues derived from the three embryonic germ layers.

      5. Describe the use of biopsy to remove living material for microscopic

            examination.

CELL JUNCTIONS

      6. Describe the three functions of cell junctions.

      7. Describe the five most important kinds of cell junctions.

EPITHELIAL TISSSUE

      8. Describe the general features of epithelial tissue and give examples of

            functions

            in organs in which they reside.

      9. Mention the areas in the body that are encompassed by covering and lining

            epithelium and by glandular epithelium.

      Covering and Lining Epithelium
10. Note that the tissue structure is directly related to the job it has in an organ.

11. Define the terminology that indicates the types of cell layering.

12. Relate the terms for the variety of cell shapes with their appearance and

    general character.

13. Considering the layers and cell shapes in combination, outline the

    classification

    of covering and lining epithelium.

Simple Epithelium

14. Illustrate the structure of the different simple epithelial tissues in addition to

    showing histological representations and examples of organs that contain

them.

Stratified Epithelium

15. Illustrate the structures of the different stratified and transition epithelial

    tissues in addition to showing histological representations and examples of

    organs that contain them.

16. Discuss the value of Pap smears.

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

17. Illustrate the structures of the different pseudostratified epithelial tissues in

    addition to showing histological representations and examples of organs that

    contain them.

Glandular Epithelium

18. Define a gland and distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands.

Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands
    19. Indicate how structural classification is based on numbers of associated cells

       and describe the single type of unicellular gland.

    Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands

    20. Show how functional classification is related to the mode used by the cells to

        deliver their secretory products.

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    21. Describe the important and prominent characteristics of connective tissue.

    General Features of Connective Tissue

    22. Describe the three basic elements of connective tissue.

    Components of Connective Tissue

    Connective Tissue Cells

    23. Discuss the cells that compose connective tissue in terms of origin, function,

        and mobility.

    Connective Tissue Matrix

    24. Describe the factors of a connective tissue matrix that bestow specific

        properties required in the various organs.

    Ground Substance

    25. Name the chemical components of ground substance and how each is

        responsible for differing physical consistencies of connective tissues.

    Fibers

    26. Identify the different constituents of collage, elastic, and reticular fibers, as

        well as the alternate structures and mechanical properties of each used in

        specific organs.
    27. Discuss Marfan syndrome and the abnormal development of elastic fibers.

    Classification of Connective Tissue

    28. Describe the features employed to classify the range of connective tissues and

       the major classifications.

    Embryonic Connective Tissue

    29. Note the origins and unique nature of some embryonic connective tissues.

TYPES OF MATURE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    30. Discuss the three features of mature connective tissue.

    Loose Connective Tissue

    31. List the structure, function, and location of loose connective tissue.

    32. Discuss liposuction in terms of the connective tissue involved, locations, and

       possible complications.

    Dense Connective Tissue

    33. List the structure, function, and location of dense connective tissue.

    Cartilage

    34. List the structure, function, and location of cartilage connective tissue.

    35. Discuss cartilage growth and repair.

    Bone Tissue

    36. List the structure, function, and location of bone connective tissue.

    Blood Tissue

    37. List the structure, function, and location of blood connective tissue.

    Lymph

    38. List the structure, function, and location of lymph tissue.
MEMBRANES

    39. Describe an epithelial membrane general structure.

    40. Distinguish between an epithelial and a synovial membrane.

    Mucous Membranes

    41. List the location and function of mucous membranes.

    Serous Membranes

    42. List the location and function of serous membranes

    Synovial Membranes

    43. List the location and function of synovial membranes.

MUSCLE TISSUE

    44. Contrast the three types of muscle tissue with regard to external appearance

       and internal structure, organs of location, modes of control, nature of

       contraction, and function.

NERVOUS TISSUE

    45. Describe the general structural features and functions of the two types of cells

       in nervous tissues.

    46. Discuss the new technology called tissue engineering.

TISSUE REPAIR: RESTORING HOMEOSTASIS

    47. Examine the cellular requirements of tissue repair and distinguish between

       tissues which are and are not capable of regeneration.

    The Repair Process

    48. Compare the different processes that occur between repair of minor versus

       serious tissue damage.
     Adhesions

     49. Describe the formation of adhesions.

     Conditions Affecting Repair

     50. Discuss the factors of nutrition, blood circulation, and age in the tissue repair

     processes.

AGING AND TISSUES

     51. Discuss the effect of aging on tissues.

DISORDERS: HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES

     52. Describe disorders of epithelial and connective tissues.

     Sjogren’s Syndrome

     53. Discuss the symptoms of Sjogren’s Syndrome.

     Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

     54. Discuss the signs and symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus.

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

     55. Define medical terminology associated with tissues.

				
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