The Tissue Level of Organization
Outline and Objectives
1. Define the relation of the cellular level to the major structures of tissues that
endow tissues with distinct properties.
2. Describe how the tissue level of organization is utilized by pathologists when
examining organ biopsies.
TYPES OF TISSUES AND THEIR ORIGINS
3. Classify the tissues of the body into four major types.
4. Describe the type of tissues derived from the three embryonic germ layers.
5. Describe the use of biopsy to remove living material for microscopic
6. Describe the three functions of cell junctions.
7. Describe the five most important kinds of cell junctions.
8. Describe the general features of epithelial tissue and give examples of
in organs in which they reside.
9. Mention the areas in the body that are encompassed by covering and lining
epithelium and by glandular epithelium.
Covering and Lining Epithelium
10. Note that the tissue structure is directly related to the job it has in an organ.
11. Define the terminology that indicates the types of cell layering.
12. Relate the terms for the variety of cell shapes with their appearance and
13. Considering the layers and cell shapes in combination, outline the
of covering and lining epithelium.
14. Illustrate the structure of the different simple epithelial tissues in addition to
showing histological representations and examples of organs that contain
15. Illustrate the structures of the different stratified and transition epithelial
tissues in addition to showing histological representations and examples of
organs that contain them.
16. Discuss the value of Pap smears.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
17. Illustrate the structures of the different pseudostratified epithelial tissues in
addition to showing histological representations and examples of organs that
18. Define a gland and distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands.
Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands
19. Indicate how structural classification is based on numbers of associated cells
and describe the single type of unicellular gland.
Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands
20. Show how functional classification is related to the mode used by the cells to
deliver their secretory products.
21. Describe the important and prominent characteristics of connective tissue.
General Features of Connective Tissue
22. Describe the three basic elements of connective tissue.
Components of Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue Cells
23. Discuss the cells that compose connective tissue in terms of origin, function,
Connective Tissue Matrix
24. Describe the factors of a connective tissue matrix that bestow specific
properties required in the various organs.
25. Name the chemical components of ground substance and how each is
responsible for differing physical consistencies of connective tissues.
26. Identify the different constituents of collage, elastic, and reticular fibers, as
well as the alternate structures and mechanical properties of each used in
27. Discuss Marfan syndrome and the abnormal development of elastic fibers.
Classification of Connective Tissue
28. Describe the features employed to classify the range of connective tissues and
the major classifications.
Embryonic Connective Tissue
29. Note the origins and unique nature of some embryonic connective tissues.
TYPES OF MATURE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
30. Discuss the three features of mature connective tissue.
Loose Connective Tissue
31. List the structure, function, and location of loose connective tissue.
32. Discuss liposuction in terms of the connective tissue involved, locations, and
Dense Connective Tissue
33. List the structure, function, and location of dense connective tissue.
34. List the structure, function, and location of cartilage connective tissue.
35. Discuss cartilage growth and repair.
36. List the structure, function, and location of bone connective tissue.
37. List the structure, function, and location of blood connective tissue.
38. List the structure, function, and location of lymph tissue.
39. Describe an epithelial membrane general structure.
40. Distinguish between an epithelial and a synovial membrane.
41. List the location and function of mucous membranes.
42. List the location and function of serous membranes
43. List the location and function of synovial membranes.
44. Contrast the three types of muscle tissue with regard to external appearance
and internal structure, organs of location, modes of control, nature of
contraction, and function.
45. Describe the general structural features and functions of the two types of cells
in nervous tissues.
46. Discuss the new technology called tissue engineering.
TISSUE REPAIR: RESTORING HOMEOSTASIS
47. Examine the cellular requirements of tissue repair and distinguish between
tissues which are and are not capable of regeneration.
The Repair Process
48. Compare the different processes that occur between repair of minor versus
serious tissue damage.
49. Describe the formation of adhesions.
Conditions Affecting Repair
50. Discuss the factors of nutrition, blood circulation, and age in the tissue repair
AGING AND TISSUES
51. Discuss the effect of aging on tissues.
DISORDERS: HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES
52. Describe disorders of epithelial and connective tissues.
53. Discuss the symptoms of Sjogren’s Syndrome.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
54. Discuss the signs and symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus.
55. Define medical terminology associated with tissues.