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Problems of Urbanization The New Immigrants I. Through the GOLDEN DOOR – many immigrants came to the US because they were lured to the promise of a better life. Some of these immigrants sought to escape difficult conditions – poverty, famine, religious or political persecution. Other immigrants were “birds of passage” – short term stay for $ Immigrants from Europe Between 1870 – 1920, 20 million Europeans migrated to the US (mostly from GB, Ireland & Germany). However, in the late 1890s many began to come from South Eastern Europe (Austria and Russia) They arrived through what they deemed as the “Golden Door.” Jews left Russia as refugees – they were being driven out by pogroms – anti-Semitic campaign that led to the massacre of Jews Other Reasons Europeans left Homelands Overcrowding – population of Europe doubled to 432 million Jobs were plentiful in the US Spirit of Reform and Revolt in Europe ** Generally all Europeans came in through Ellis Island New York Immigrants from China & Japan Between 1851 & 1883 200,000 Chinese immigrated to the US Reasons for immigration – GOLD/ Plentiful Jobs – especially with the Railroad – helped build transcontinental RR US will restrict Chinese Immigration in 1882 (Chinese Exclusion Act) Japanese government allowed Hawaiians to recruit Japanese workers, eventually the US will annex the Hawaiian islands in 1898 – word spread about high American wages – causes Japanese immigration Immigrants from the West Indies & Mexico Mainly these people came in search of JOBS 200,000 migrated to the US between 1890 – 1920 Some Mexicans became US citizens without leaving their home – (Texas Annexation/ Mexican Cession/ Calif) Other Mexicans came because of governmental policy – National Reclamations of Land Act – irrigation of arid lands (JOBS) II. Life in the New Land Journey across the Atlantic was by steamship and lasted approximately 1 week. Many immigrants traveled in steerage or in cargo decks below the ships waterline. Generally the air was stale, they slept in lice infested bunks and shared bathing and bath facilities with several other daring soles. ELLIS ISLAND E.I. – was the immigration station in New York Harbor for countries across the Atlantic Statistics - 20% of immigrants that reached E I were detained - 2% of those that were detained were deported Processing immigrants - pass a physical examination – doctor - Report to a government inspector – check to see if they had legal requirements to enter US 1. literacy tests 2. prove they were able to work 3. have at least $25 ** Between 1905 &1907 it is estimated that 11,000 immigrants entered Ellis Island each day Angel Island Immigration Station on the west coast – primarily Asians entered the US at this location. Coming through Angel Island was quite different than entrance at Ellis Island. Immigrants were shackled and chained for days while questioned of their intention Culture Shock Culture Shock is confusion and anxiety resulting from being placed in a culture and a society that one doe not understand Problems Finding a place to live Getting a job Having few friends to help ** many dealt with this situation by forming Burroughs – same culture neighborhoods that shared common beliefs, customs, values, and religion ** these neighborhood formations gave rise to the idea of being a Hyphenated American – Italian-American (Salad Bowl vs Melting Pot Theory) Lower East Side Immigrant Family A Struggling Immigrant Family Another Struggling Immigrant Family Reaction to Immigration Strong Anti-immigrant feeling grew in the US Nativism Anti-Asian Sentiment Led to Chinese Exclusion Act Gentlemen’s Agreement I. Urban Opportunities The main reason that people moved to urban areas in because of opportunity. People saw these industrial areas as places of work and an escape from poverty. (Urbanization) A. Immigrants settle in Cities - most of the immigrants who came to the US became city dwellers – cheapest way to live 1. cities provided: unskilled laborers jobs and provided Social support of other immigrant families (lived in boroughs) Could practice their own language Could practice their own customs and beliefs Practiced their own religion 2. By 1910 immigrant families made up more than half the total population of 18 major US cities 3. Soon overcrowding becomes a problem B. Migration from country to city – Farming technology improved drastically during the second half of the 19c with such inventions as the steel plow, McCormick reaper, Cord binder – this meant that fewer laborers were needed --- causing many rural people to move to cities because of loss of jobs Cities also offered different cultural experiences and a faster paced lifestyle - NY CITY – 1st moving pictures, YANKEES - Chicago – Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show or Columbian Exposition - Boston - Redsox II. Urban Problems A. Housing – When the industrial revolution began there was not much housing opportunity for middle class workers 1. Housing on the Outskirts if Town 2. Rent rooms in boarding houses SOLUTION Row Houses – attached single dwellings that shared side walls Dumbbell Tenements – long, narrow, 5 or 6 story buildings that were shaped like barbells Mulberry Street Bend, 1889 5-Cent Lodgings Men’s Lodgings Women’s Lodgings Immigrant Family Lodgings Dumbbell Tenement Plan Tenement House Act of 1879, NYC Blind Beggar, 1888 Italian Rag-Picker 1890s ”Morgue” – Basement Saloon ”Black & Tan” Saloon B. Transportation – traveling about the cities safely and efficiently was difficult. Before Industrialization people went on foot or on horse drawn carriage, but innovations in mass transit made transportation much easier. 1. Cable Cars – 1st used in San Francisco 2. Street Cars developed in Richmond Virginia 3. Electric Subways – 1897 Boston ** Linked your city with suburbs C. Water – Cities also faced the problem of providing water that was safe to drink. As the urban population grew cities began to develop public water works. (first ones in NYC and Cleveland) The necessity for safe and clean water was important in order to reduce the spread of such diseases as cholera and typhoid. Therefore Chlorination was introduced in 1893 and filtration in 1908. Still by the early 20th century many people did not have plumbing. D. Sanitation – Most cities had serious sanitation problems 1. Horse manure piled up in the streets 2. Sewage flowed through open gutters 3. Factories produced fowl smoke 4. No dependable system of garbage clean up ** By 1900 most city governments will develop a sanitation department to combat this ongoing problem E. Fire – 1. Limited water supply in cities caused another disturbing problem - the spread of fire 2. Most major cities experienced a fire between the 1870s and 1880s 3. Another serious problem was that most cities were packed with wooden dwellings. These dwellings acted like kindling for fires. 4. People used kerosene and candles inside as a source of heat and light. Solutions 1. Firefighters were originally volunteers - Cincinnati will develop the first Fire Department 1900 2. Development of Automatic Sprinklers for buildings 3. Buildings will be made of brick and concrete F. Crime CON MEN Murders’ Alley & Robbers Roosts ”Bandits’ Roost” Mullen’s Alley ”Gang” The Street Was Their Playground Emergence of Political Machines I. Political Machines Run Cities Late 19c cities were in trouble CITY BOSS Social Darwinism – opened the way for a new political structure A. Political Machines – were an organized group that WARD BOSS controlled activities of a political party in a city and offered services to voters and business to merchants in return for votes LOCAL PRECINCT WORKERS - Structure = Pyramid Base - Main purpose of individuals was to get candidate elected B. Role of the Political Boss – controlled thousands of municipal jobs, including those in police, fire and sanitation departments By solving city problems they could reinforce voter loyalty C. Immigrants & Political machines - Received sympathetic understanding from political machines and in turn became loyal supporters - Political base for machines were 1st and 2nd generation immigrants raised in poverty/ generally did not have more than a grammar school education - Provided solutions for immigrants Helped them to become naturalized in return for votes II. Municipal Graft and Scandal Many political bosses fell victim to greed and corruption as their power and influence grew A. Election fraud and graft – since power of political machines was not always enough many bosses resorted to voter fraud in order to retain their political control Why USE FRAUD Kick Backs – illegal payments Grant Favors Accepted Bribes ** police did nothing to control corruption because often times they were hired by the political machines and their livelihood depended upon the paycheck received from the machine Tweed Ring Scandal William Marcy Tweed was head of Tamany Hall in NYC – powerful democratic political machines Tweed Ring – group of corrupt politicians that pocketed as much as $200 million from the city in Kickbacks. Thomas Nast – a cartoonist help to publicize the corrupt government in NYC Eventually in 1871 the Tweed Ring was broken up and Boss Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud and extortion. In 1873 he was sentenced to 12 years in prison – served 2 and escaped to Spain – Captured by Spanish Officials because they recognized by using Nast’s cartoons. Politics of the GILDED AGE The GILDED AGE is a period in history when the external glitter of wealth concealed the growing gap between the very rich and the poor masses – Charles Dickens 1. A Two-Party Stalemate Two-Party “Balance” 2. Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two Major Political Parties 3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs Democratic Republican Bloc Bloc White southerners Northern whites (preservation of (pro-business) white supremacy) African Americans Catholics Northern Recent immigrants Protestants (esp. Jews) Old WASPs (support Urban working for anti-immigrant poor (pro-labor) laws) Most farmers Most of the middle class 4. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. From 1870-1900 Govt. did very little domestically. Main duties of the federal govt.: Deliver the mail. Maintain a national military. Collect taxes & tariffs. Conduct a foreign policy. Exception administer the annual Civil War veterans’ pension. 5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office Party bosses ruled. Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party. The President just Senator Roscoe Conkling doled out federal jobs. 1865 53,000 people worked for the federal govt. 1890 166,000 “ “ “ “ “ “ I. Civil Service Replaces Patronage 1. Desire for Money and power made politics so corrupt at the local level of government that it effected the national level. 2. Since the beginning of the 19c presidents had complained about Patronage (Spoils System) – theory was that winning candidates deserved spoils – (started by Andy Jackson) – people were given the spoils whether they were qualified or not. 3. Instead of addressing national interests presidents had to deal w/ the headache of distributing government jobs – people who received the jobs used them for personal gain – corruption – GRANTISM ANYONE? 4. Reformers began to press for a federal system – based on a MERIT SYSTEM – qualifications -- A. Hayes Launches Reform 1876 election gave the office of Presidency to Rutherford B. Hayes. One month after his election he wrote in his diary “Now for civil service reform” idea had no legislative support 1. Other measures of the Hayes Administration Named independents to CABINET Fired government officials who had no work to do – cut government expenditures Set up commissions – investigated Custom Houses B. Garfield Continues Reforms In 1880 Hayes decided not to run for reelection At the 1880 Republican Convention a fight broke out between Stalwarts and Reformers Stalwarts – Republicans who opposed change in the spoils system Reformers – republicans who supported the merit system ** Reformers were also divided into two groups Mugwamps – republicans who were for reform Halfbreeds – favored the merit system but were loyal to their party 1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half Breeds Stalwarts Sen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe Conkling (Maine) (New York) compromise James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP) 1880 Presidential Election: Democrats Inspecting the Democratic Curiosity Shop 1880 Presidential Election To settle this dispute the Republican Presidential ticket would be split James A. Garfield (P) – Reformist/ Mugwamp Chester A. Arthur (VP) – Stalwart Eventually the Republicans win the election and Garfield gives many of his government jobs to people who support the Merit System July 2 1881 – Garfield walked through the DC train station and was shot 2 times by Charles Guiteau – whom Garfield had turned down for a job Garfield died – September 19, 1881 C. Arthur Turns Reformer and Supports Civil Service 1. His 1st message to Congress was to pass the PENDLETON ACT – authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal positions through the merit system ( By 1940 40% of all gov’t jobs were civil service jobs!) Benefits of this system Government more honest and efficient Stronger ties between government and wealthy 1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now! Chester A. Arthur: The Fox in the Chicken Coop? Pendleton Act (1883) Civil Service Act. The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. 1883 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. 1900 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs. Republican “Mugwumps” Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominate Chester A. Arthur. Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves. Social Darwinists. Laissez faire government to them: Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society. Their target was political corruption, not social or economic reform! The Mugwumps Men may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever. Will support Cleveland in the 1884 election. II. Attempts to Regulate Tariffs Fail Protective Tariff – tax on imports that attempt to protect domestic production A. In 1884 the Democratic Party captures the Presidency with GROVER CLEVELAND – 1st democratic president in 28yrs. (Southerner – disliked tariffs) Congress was Republican – Gridlock – Therefore Cleveland loses the election of 1888 to Benjamin Harrison even though Cleveland won the popular vote. Harrison wanted higher tariffs – helped to Pass the McKinley Tariff – increased the tariff to the highest level ever – 66% In 1892 Cleveland was elected again – (only president to serve 2 nonconsecutive terms – he supported the Wilson Gorman Bill – lowered tariffs but called for an income tax – he would not sign it because of the income tax – 1897 McKinley Inaugurated President and raised tariffs once more. 1884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland James Blaine * (DEM) (REP) A Dirty Campaign Ma, Ma…where’s my pa? He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…! Little Lost Mugwump Blaine in 1884 Rum, Romanism & Rebellion! Led a delegation of ministers to Blaine in NYC. Reference to the Democratic Party. Blaine was slow to repudiate the remark. Narrow victory for Dr. Samuel Burchard Cleveland [he wins NY by only 1149 votes!]. 1884 Presidential Election Cleveland’s First Term The “Veto Governor” from New York. First Democratic elected since 1856. A public office is a public trust! His laissez-faire presidency: Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich. Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans! Bravo, Señor Clevelando! The Tariff Issue After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries. Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. 1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! Mugwumps opposed it WHY??? President Cleveland’s view on tariffs???? Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888 presidential election. Filing the Rough Edges Tariff of 1888 1888 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison (DEM) * (REP) Coming Out for Harrison The Smallest Specimen Yet 1888 Presidential Election Disposing the Surplus Changing Public Opinion Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb the power of the trusts: Interstate Commerce Act – 1887 Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890 McKinley Tariff – 1890 Based on the theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism. Increased already high rates another 4%! Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (even McKinley lost his House seat!). 1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again! * (DEM) (REP) 1892 Presidential Election Cleveland Loses Support Fast! The only President to serve two non- consecutive terms. Blamed for the 1893 Panic. Defended the gold standard. Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. Refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894. Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
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