Problems of Urbanization by F0MFuK


									Problems of Urbanization
The New Immigrants

   I. Through the GOLDEN DOOR – many
    immigrants came to the US because they
    were lured to the promise of a better life.
    Some of these immigrants sought to escape
    difficult conditions – poverty, famine, religious
    or political persecution. Other immigrants
    were “birds of passage” – short term stay for
Immigrants from Europe
   Between 1870 – 1920, 20 million Europeans migrated to the US
    (mostly from GB, Ireland & Germany). However, in the late
    1890s many began to come from South Eastern Europe (Austria
    and Russia) They arrived through what they deemed as the
    “Golden Door.”
   Jews left Russia as refugees – they were being driven out by
    pogroms – anti-Semitic campaign that led to the massacre of
   Other Reasons Europeans left Homelands
     Overcrowding – population of Europe doubled to 432 million

     Jobs were plentiful in the US

     Spirit of Reform and Revolt in Europe

    ** Generally all Europeans came in through Ellis Island New York
Immigrants from China & Japan

   Between 1851 & 1883 200,000 Chinese immigrated
    to the US
       Reasons for immigration – GOLD/ Plentiful Jobs –
        especially with the Railroad – helped build transcontinental
       US will restrict Chinese Immigration in 1882 (Chinese
        Exclusion Act)
   Japanese government allowed Hawaiians to recruit
    Japanese workers, eventually the US will annex the
    Hawaiian islands in 1898 – word spread about high
    American wages – causes Japanese immigration
Immigrants from the West Indies &
   Mainly these people came in search of JOBS
   200,000 migrated to the US between 1890 – 1920
   Some Mexicans became US citizens without leaving
    their home – (Texas Annexation/ Mexican Cession/
   Other Mexicans came because of governmental
    policy – National Reclamations of Land Act –
    irrigation of arid lands (JOBS)
II. Life in the New Land

   Journey across the Atlantic was by steamship
    and lasted approximately 1 week. Many
    immigrants traveled in steerage or in cargo
    decks below the ships waterline. Generally
    the air was stale, they slept in lice infested
    bunks and shared bathing and bath facilities
    with several other daring soles.
E.I. – was the immigration station in New York Harbor for countries across
    the Atlantic
    - 20% of immigrants that reached E I were detained
    - 2% of those that were detained were deported
Processing immigrants
    - pass a physical examination – doctor
    - Report to a government inspector – check to see if they had legal
    requirements to enter US
          1. literacy tests
          2. prove they were able to work
          3. have at least $25
** Between 1905 &1907 it is estimated that 11,000 immigrants entered Ellis
    Island each day
Angel Island

   Immigration Station on the west coast –
    primarily Asians entered the US at this
    location. Coming through Angel Island was
    quite different than entrance at Ellis Island.
    Immigrants were shackled and chained for
    days while questioned of their intention
Culture Shock
   Culture Shock is confusion and anxiety resulting from being
    placed in a culture and a society that one doe not understand
   Problems
     Finding a place to live

     Getting a job

     Having few friends to help

    ** many dealt with this situation by forming Burroughs – same
        culture neighborhoods that shared common beliefs, customs,
        values, and religion
    ** these neighborhood formations gave rise to the idea of being a
        Hyphenated American – Italian-American
    (Salad Bowl vs Melting Pot Theory)
Lower East Side Immigrant Family
A Struggling Immigrant Family
Another Struggling Immigrant Family
Reaction to Immigration

   Strong Anti-immigrant feeling grew in the US
       Nativism
       Anti-Asian Sentiment

       Led to
           Chinese Exclusion Act
           Gentlemen’s Agreement
I. Urban Opportunities

   The main reason that people moved to urban areas
    in because of opportunity. People saw these
    industrial areas as places of work and an escape
    from poverty. (Urbanization)
   A. Immigrants settle in Cities - most of the
    immigrants who came to the US became city
    dwellers – cheapest way to live
       1. cities provided: unskilled laborers jobs and provided
        Social support of other immigrant families (lived in
           Could practice their own language
           Could practice their own customs and beliefs
           Practiced their own religion
 2. By 1910 immigrant families made up more than
  half the total population of 18 major US cities
 3. Soon overcrowding becomes a problem

B. Migration from country to city – Farming technology
  improved drastically during the second half of the
  19c with such inventions as the steel plow,
  McCormick reaper, Cord binder – this meant that
  fewer laborers were needed --- causing many rural
  people to move to cities because of loss of jobs
   Cities also offered different cultural
    experiences and a faster paced lifestyle
   - NY CITY – 1st moving pictures, YANKEES
   - Chicago – Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show or
    Columbian Exposition
   - Boston - Redsox
II. Urban Problems

   A. Housing – When the industrial revolution began
    there was not much housing opportunity for middle
    class workers
       1. Housing on the Outskirts if Town
       2. Rent rooms in boarding houses
       SOLUTION
           Row Houses – attached single dwellings that shared side
           Dumbbell Tenements – long, narrow, 5 or 6 story buildings
            that were shaped like barbells
Mulberry Street Bend, 1889
5-Cent Lodgings
Men’s Lodgings
Women’s Lodgings
Immigrant Family Lodgings
Dumbbell Tenement Plan

Tenement House Act of 1879, NYC
Blind Beggar, 1888
Italian Rag-Picker
1890s ”Morgue” – Basement Saloon
”Black & Tan” Saloon
B. Transportation – traveling about the cities safely
   and efficiently was difficult. Before Industrialization
   people went on foot or on horse drawn carriage, but
   innovations in mass transit made transportation
   much easier.
   1. Cable Cars – 1st used in San Francisco
   2. Street Cars developed in Richmond Virginia
   3. Electric Subways – 1897 Boston
** Linked your city with suburbs
   C. Water – Cities also faced the problem of
    providing water that was safe to drink. As the urban
    population grew cities began to develop public water
    works. (first ones in NYC and Cleveland) The
    necessity for safe and clean water was important in
    order to reduce the spread of such diseases as
    cholera and typhoid. Therefore Chlorination was
    introduced in 1893 and filtration in 1908. Still by the
    early 20th century many people did not have
   D. Sanitation – Most cities had serious sanitation
       1. Horse manure piled up in the streets
       2. Sewage flowed through open gutters
       3. Factories produced fowl smoke
       4. No dependable system of garbage clean up

       ** By 1900 most city governments will develop a sanitation
        department to combat this ongoing problem
   E. Fire –
   1. Limited water supply in cities caused another disturbing problem -
    the spread of fire
   2. Most major cities experienced a fire between the 1870s and 1880s
   3. Another serious problem was that most cities were packed with
    wooden dwellings. These dwellings acted like kindling for fires.
   4. People used kerosene and candles inside as a source of heat and
   Solutions
   1. Firefighters were originally volunteers - Cincinnati will develop the
    first Fire Department 1900
   2. Development of Automatic Sprinklers for buildings
   3. Buildings will be made of brick and concrete
   F. Crime
       CON MEN
       Murders’ Alley & Robbers Roosts
”Bandits’ Roost”
Mullen’s Alley ”Gang”
The Street Was Their Playground
Emergence of Political Machines

        I. Political Machines Run
           Late 19c cities were in
                                                CITY BOSS
           Social Darwinism – opened
            the way for a new political
A.       Political Machines – were an
         organized group that                   WARD BOSS
         controlled activities of a
         political party in a city and
         offered services to voters
         and business to merchants
         in return for votes              LOCAL PRECINCT WORKERS
-        Structure = Pyramid Base
-        Main purpose of individuals
         was to get candidate elected
   B. Role of the Political Boss – controlled thousands of municipal
    jobs, including those in police, fire and sanitation departments
   By solving city problems they could reinforce voter loyalty
   C. Immigrants & Political machines
   - Received sympathetic understanding from political machines
    and in turn became loyal supporters
   - Political base for machines were 1st and 2nd generation
    immigrants raised in poverty/ generally did not have more than a
    grammar school education
   - Provided solutions for immigrants
   Helped them to become naturalized in return for votes
II. Municipal Graft and Scandal
   Many political bosses fell victim to greed and corruption as their
    power and influence grew
   A. Election fraud and graft – since power of political machines
    was not always enough many bosses resorted to voter fraud in
    order to retain their political control
     Kick Backs – illegal payments

     Grant Favors

     Accepted Bribes

       ** police did nothing to control corruption because often times
        they were hired by the political machines and their livelihood
        depended upon the paycheck received from the machine
Tweed Ring Scandal
   William Marcy Tweed was head of Tamany Hall in NYC –
    powerful democratic political machines
   Tweed Ring – group of corrupt politicians that pocketed as much
    as $200 million from the city in Kickbacks.
   Thomas Nast – a cartoonist help to publicize the corrupt
    government in NYC
   Eventually in 1871 the Tweed Ring was broken up and Boss
    Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud and extortion. In
    1873 he was sentenced to 12 years in prison – served 2 and
    escaped to Spain – Captured by Spanish Officials because they
    recognized by using Nast’s cartoons.
Politics of the GILDED AGE

   The GILDED AGE is a period in history when
    the external glitter of wealth concealed the
    growing gap between the very rich and the
    poor masses – Charles Dickens
1. A Two-Party Stalemate
Two-Party “Balance”
  2. Intense
 Voter Loyalty
     to the
  Two Major
Political Parties
       3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs

    Democratic              Republican
       Bloc                    Bloc

 White southerners       Northern whites
  (preservation of         (pro-business)
  white supremacy)
                          African Americans
 Catholics
                          Northern
 Recent immigrants        Protestants
  (esp. Jews)
                          Old WASPs (support
 Urban working            for anti-immigrant
  poor (pro-labor)         laws)
 Most farmers            Most of the middle
     4.   Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt.

 From 1870-1900  Govt. did very
  little domestically.
 Main duties of the federal govt.:
    Deliver the mail.
    Maintain a national military.
    Collect taxes & tariffs.
    Conduct a foreign policy.
 Exception  administer the annual
  Civil War veterans’ pension.
        5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office

 Party bosses ruled.
 Presidents should
  avoid offending any
  factions within their
  own party.
 The President just               Senator Roscoe Conkling
  doled out federal jobs.
    1865  53,000 people worked for the federal govt.
    1890  166,000     “      “      “   “      “    “
I. Civil Service Replaces Patronage

   1. Desire for Money and power made politics so corrupt at the
    local level of government that it effected the national level.
   2. Since the beginning of the 19c presidents had complained
    about Patronage (Spoils System) – theory was that winning
    candidates deserved spoils – (started by Andy Jackson) – people
    were given the spoils whether they were qualified or not.
   3. Instead of addressing national interests presidents had to deal
    w/ the headache of distributing government jobs – people who
    received the jobs used them for personal gain – corruption –
   4. Reformers began to press for a federal system – based on a
    MERIT SYSTEM – qualifications --
A. Hayes Launches Reform

   1876 election gave the office of Presidency to
    Rutherford B. Hayes. One month after his election
    he wrote in his diary “Now for civil service reform”
    idea had no legislative support
   1. Other measures of the Hayes Administration
       Named independents to CABINET
       Fired government officials who had no work to do – cut
        government expenditures
       Set up commissions – investigated Custom Houses
B. Garfield Continues Reforms

   In 1880 Hayes decided not to run for reelection
   At the 1880 Republican Convention a fight broke out
    between Stalwarts and Reformers
       Stalwarts – Republicans who opposed change in the spoils
       Reformers – republicans who supported the merit system
       ** Reformers were also divided into two groups
           Mugwamps – republicans who were for reform
           Halfbreeds – favored the merit system but were loyal to their
   1880 Presidential Election: Republicans

   Half Breeds                           Stalwarts

Sen. James G. Blaine                Sen. Roscoe Conkling
      (Maine)                            (New York)

      James A. Garfield       Chester A. Arthur (VP)
1880 Presidential Election: Democrats
Inspecting the Democratic Curiosity Shop
1880 Presidential Election
   To settle this dispute the Republican Presidential
    ticket would be split
       James A. Garfield (P) – Reformist/ Mugwamp
       Chester A. Arthur (VP) – Stalwart

       Eventually the Republicans win the election and Garfield
        gives many of his government jobs to people who support
        the Merit System

       July 2 1881 – Garfield walked through the DC train station
        and was shot 2 times by Charles Guiteau – whom Garfield
        had turned down for a job
       Garfield died – September 19, 1881
C. Arthur Turns Reformer and Supports
Civil Service
   1. His 1st message to Congress was to pass the
    PENDLETON ACT – authorized a bipartisan civil
    service commission to make appointments to federal
    positions through the merit system ( By 1940 40% of
    all gov’t jobs were civil service jobs!)
   Benefits of this system
       Government more honest and efficient
       Stronger ties between government and wealthy
         1881: Garfield Assassinated!

Charles Guiteau:
I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is
President now!
     Chester A. Arthur:
The Fox in the Chicken Coop?
              Pendleton Act (1883)

 Civil Service Act.
 The “Magna Carta” of
  civil service reform.
 1883  14,000 out of
  117,000 federal govt.
  jobs became civil
  service exam positions.
 1900  100,000 out of
  200,000 civil service
  federal govt. jobs.
       Republican “Mugwumps”
 Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominate
  Chester A. Arthur.
 Reform to them  create a
  disinterested, impartial govt. run by an
  educated elite like themselves.
 Social Darwinists.
 Laissez faire government to them:
   Favoritism & the spoils system seen as
    govt. intervention in society.
   Their target was political corruption,
    not social or economic reform!

Men may come
and men may go,
but the work of
reform shall go
on forever.

 Will support
  Cleveland in the
  1884 election.
II. Attempts to Regulate Tariffs Fail

   Protective Tariff – tax on imports that attempt to protect domestic
   A. In 1884 the Democratic Party captures the Presidency with GROVER
    CLEVELAND – 1st democratic president in 28yrs. (Southerner – disliked
    tariffs) Congress was Republican – Gridlock – Therefore Cleveland
    loses the election of 1888 to Benjamin Harrison even though Cleveland
    won the popular vote. Harrison wanted higher tariffs – helped to Pass
    the McKinley Tariff – increased the tariff to the highest level ever – 66%
   In 1892 Cleveland was elected again – (only president to serve 2
    nonconsecutive terms – he supported the Wilson Gorman Bill – lowered
    tariffs but called for an income tax – he would not sign it because of the
    income tax –
   1897 McKinley Inaugurated President and raised tariffs once more.
           1884 Presidential Election

Grover Cleveland              James Blaine
    * (DEM)                             (REP)
           A Dirty Campaign

Ma, Ma…where’s my pa?
He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!
Little   Lost Mugwump

         Blaine in 1884
            Rum, Romanism & Rebellion!

                        Led a delegation of
                         ministers to Blaine in
                        Reference to the
                         Democratic Party.
                        Blaine was slow to
                         repudiate the remark.
                        Narrow victory for
Dr. Samuel Burchard      Cleveland [he wins NY
                         by only 1149 votes!].
1884 Presidential Election
         Cleveland’s First Term
 The “Veto Governor” from New York.
 First Democratic elected since 1856.
 A public office is a public trust!
 His laissez-faire presidency:
    Opposed bills to assist the poor as
     well as the rich.
    Vetoed over 200 special pension bills
     for Civil War veterans!
Bravo, Señor Clevelando!
             The Tariff Issue
 After the Civil War, Congress raised
  tariffs to protect new US industries.
 Big business wanted to continue this;
  consumers did not.
 1885  tariffs earned the US $100 mil.
         in surplus!
 Mugwumps opposed it  WHY???
 President Cleveland’s view on tariffs????
 Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888
  presidential election.
Filing the Rough Edges

   Tariff of 1888
       1888 Presidential Election

Grover Cleveland     Benjamin Harrison
     (DEM)                  * (REP)
Coming Out for Harrison
The Smallest Specimen Yet
1888 Presidential Election
Disposing the Surplus
              Changing Public Opinion

 Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal
  with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb
  the power of the trusts:
    Interstate Commerce Act – 1887
    Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890
    McKinley Tariff – 1890
       Based on the theory that prosperity
        flowed directly from protectionism.
       Increased already high rates another 4%!
    Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (even
     McKinley lost his House seat!).
        1892 Presidential Election

Grover Cleveland      Benjamin Harrison
 again! * (DEM)               (REP)
1892 Presidential Election
         Cleveland Loses Support Fast!

 The only President to serve two non-
  consecutive terms.
 Blamed for the 1893 Panic.
 Defended the gold standard.
 Used federal troops in the 1894
  Pullman strike.
 Refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman
  Tariff of 1894.
 Repealed the Sherman Silver
  Purchase Act.

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