Andrew Jackson - PowerPoint 2 by HC12080623137

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									Essential Question:




   Champion of         “King”
      the        OR   Andrew?
 “Common Man”?
Voting Requirements
  in the Early 19c
Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
Campaigning “on the Stump”
    Why Increased Democratization?
3   White male suffrage increased
3   Party nominating committees.
3   Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential
    electors.
3   Spoils system.
3   Rise of Third Parties.
3   Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
    etc.)
3   Two-party system returned in the 1832
    election:
        Dem-Reps  Natl. Reps.(1828)  Whigs
                      (1832)  Republicans (1854)
        Democrats (1828)
  Jackson’s First
Hermitage Residence
First Known Painting
  of Jackson, 1815
     General Jackson
During the Seminole Wars
The “Common Man’s”
Presidential Candidate
 Jackson’s Opponents in 1824




Henry Clay   John Quincy Adams     John C. Calhoun
   [KY]            [MA]                 [SC]


             William H. Crawford
                     [GA]
  Results of the 1824 Election

    A
 “Corrupt
Bargain?”
Opposition to John Quincy Adams
3   Some believed he allowed too much
    political control to be held by elites.
3   Some objected to his support of national
    economic development on constitutional
    grounds.
       Adams believed a strong, active central
        government was necessary.
           A national university.
           An astronomical observatory.
           A naval academy.

3   Many Americans saw Adams’ vision of a
    might nation led by a strong president as a
    threat to individual liberties.
                Tariff Battles
3   Tariff of 1816  on imports of cheap
    textiles.
3   Tariff of 1824  on iron goods and more
    expensive woolen and cotton imports.
3   Tariff of 1828  higher tariffs on
    imported raw materials [like wool & hemp].
       Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes
        from farmers in NY, OH, KY.
       The South alone was adamantly against it.
           As producers of the world’s cheapest
            cotton, it did not need a protective tariff.
           They were negatively impacted  American
            textiles and iron goods [or the taxed
            English goods] were more expensive!
Votes in the House for the “Tariff of Abomination”
        Land & Indian Policies
3   John Quincy Adams:
       His land policies gave westerners anothr
        reason to dislike him.
          He attempted to curb speculation for
           public lands  his opponent accused him of
           denying their individual rights and
           freedoms to expand westward!
       He supported the land rights of Native
        Americans against white settlers.
          1825  govt. officials negotiated a treaty
           with a group of Creek Indians to cede
           their land rights to GA.
              The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to
               renounce the treaty.
              Congress sided with the governor of GA.
            The 1828 Election
3   Jackson’s campaign was engineered by
    Senator Martin Van Buren of NY
       He wanted to recreate the old
        Jeffersonian coalition of:
           Northern farmers and artisans.
           Southern slave owners.
           Farmers with small land holdings.
        He created the Democratic Party from
         the remains of Jefferson’s old party:
           Created a national committee that
            oversaw local and state party units.
           Mass meetings, parades, picnics.
        A lot of political mudslinging on both sides.
Rachel Jackson




        Final Divorce Decree
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
1828 Election Results
The Center of Population in the
    Country Moves WEST
The New “Jackson Coalition”
3   The Planter Elite in the South
3   People on the Frontier
3   Artisans [competition from factory
    labor].
3   State Politicians  spoils system
      To the victor belong the spoils of
       the enemy! [William Marcy of NY]
3   Immigrants in the cities.
Jackson as Satan Dangles the Spoils of
     Victory over his Supporters
           Jackson’s Faith
       in the “Common Man”
3   Intense distrust of Eastern
    “establishment,” monopolies, &
    special privilege.
3   His heart & soul was with the
    “plain folk.”
3   Belief that the common man was
    capable of uncommon
    achievements.
The Reign of “King Mob”
Andrew Jackson as President
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
   The Webster-Hayne Debate




Sen. Daniel           Sen. Robert
 Webster                Hayne
   [MA]                  [SC]
              1830
Webster:
    Liberty and Union, now and
    forever, one and inseparable.
Jackson:
    Our Federal Union—it must be
    preserved.
Calhoun:
    The Union, next to our liberty,
    most dear.
Calhoun Ascends the Platform that Leads
             to Despotism
       1832 Tariff Conflict
3   1832 --> new tariff
3   South Carolina’s reaction?
3   Jackson’s response?
3   Clay’s “Compromise”
    Tariff?
Clays Sews Up Jackson’s Mouth (1834)
          Indian Removal
3   Jackson’s Goal?
3   1830  Indian Removal Act
3   Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831)
       * “domestic dependent nation”
3   Worcester v. GA (1832)
3   Jackson:
      John Marshall has made his
      decision, now let him enforce
      it!
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Indian Removal
The Grand National Caravan Moving West
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for
      Native Americans
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power


           VETO
1830  Maysville Road project
       in KY [state of his
       political rival, Henry
       Clay]
       The National Bank Debate




 Nicholas                  President
  Biddle                    Jackson
  [an arrogant
aristocrat from
 Philadelphia]
      Opposition to the 2 nd B.U.S.

  “Soft”                               “Hard”
(paper) $                            (specie) $

3   state bankers felt    3   felt that coin was
    it restrained their       the only safe
    banks from issuing        currency.
    bank notes freely.
                          3   didn’t like any bank
3   supported rapid           that issued bank
    economic growth           notes.
    & speculation.
                          3   suspicious of
                              expansion &
                              speculation.
    The “Monster” Is Destroyed!
3   “Pet Banks”
3   1832  Jackson
    vetoed the
    extension of the 2nd National
    Bank of the United States.
3   1836  the charter expired.
3   1841  the bank went
    bankrupt!
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
    The Bank & the 1832 Election
3   Jackson saw Biddle’s pushing forward a bill
    to renew the Bank’s charter earlier as an
    attempt to block his re-election!
       Biddle & his associates preferred Clay.
       Jackson refused to sign the bill to re-
        charter.
           The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I
            will destroy it!
        Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with
         Martin Van Buren.
        BUT, both parties [Democrats & Whigs]
         had contradictory positions regarding their
         party principles, to many of the issues of
         the day!
An 1832
Cartoon:
  “King
Andrew”?
    Positions on the Key Issues of 1832
          WHIGS                              DEMOCRATS

• Less concerned about the         • Felt the widening gap
    widening gap between rich          between rich and poor was
    and poor.                          alarming.
•   Opposed “liberal capitalism”   •   Believed that bankers,
    because they believed it           merchants, and speculators
    would lead to economic             were “non-producers” who
    chaos.                             used their govt. connections
•   Strong national govt. to           to line their own pockets.
    coordinate the expanding       •   Govt. should have a hands-
    economy was critical.              off approach to the economy
•   Opposes Indian removal.            to allow the little guy a
•   Favored tariffs.                   chance to prosper.
•   Supported a National Bank.     •   For Indian removal.
                                   •   Oppose tariffs.
                                   •   States’ rights.
                                   •   Oppose federal support for
                                       internal improvements.
                                   •   Opposed the National Bank.
1832 Election Results
       The 1836 Election Results




Martin Van Buren

“Old Kinderhook”
     [O. K.]
The Specie Circular (1836)
3 Speculators created “wildcat
   banks” that fueled the
   runaway inflation.
3 So, buy future federal land
   only with gold or silver.
     This move shocked the system.

3 Jackson’s goal  to curb
   the land speculation.
 Results of the Specie Circular
$ Banknotes loose their value.
$ Land sales plummeted.
$ Credit not available.
$ Businesses began to fail.
$ Unemployment rose.


   The Panic of 1837!
The Panic of 1837 Hits Everyone!
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844
    (one year before his death)




          1767 - 1845

								
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