Answer Key Goal # 5 by bx10fCla

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									                               Answer Key Goal # 5
COMPETENCY GOAL 5: Becoming an Industrial Society (1877-1900) - The learner will describe
innovations in technology and business practices and assess their impact on economic, political, and
social life in America.
    Objectives
    5.01 Evaluate the influence of immigration and rapid industrialization on urban life.
    5.02 Explain how business and industrial leaders accumulated wealth and wielded
    political and economic power.
    5.03 Assess the impact of labor unions on industry and the lives of workers.
    5.04 Describe the changing role of government in economic and political affairs.
Immigrants flock to America.
 Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from northern and western
  Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden). During the
  half-century from 1871 until 1921, most immigrants came from southern and
  eastern Europe ( Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, and present day Hungary and
  Yugoslavia), as well as Asia (China and Japan who move to the west coast most
  of the time). A large number of Jews came from Eastern Europe to escape
  religious persecution
 Like earlier immigrants, these immigrants came to America seeking
  freedom and better lives for their families.
 Immigrants made valuable contributions to the dramatic industrial
  growth of America during this period. Chinese workers helped to
  build the Transcontinental Railroad, which help influenced the West
  Coast the most . Immigrants worked in textile and steel mills in the
  Northeast, the clothing industry in New York City, and Slavs,
  Italians, and Poles worked in the coalmines of the East. They often
  worked for very low pay and in dangerous working conditions to
  help build the nation’s industrial strength.
 During this period, immigrants from Europe entered America
  through Ellis Island in New York harbor. Their first view of
  America was often the Statue of Liberty, standing nearby, as their
  ships arrived following the voyage across the Atlantic.
 Immigrants will move in Dumbbell tenements that are very small
  and very dark. Tenements are house that share walls with other
  buildings and two families normally lived on each floor.
 Immigrants began the process of assimilation into what was termed
  the American “melting pot.” While often settling in ethnic
  neighborhoods in the growing cities, they and their children worked
  hard to learn English, adopts American customs, and become
  American citizens. The public schools served and essential role in
  the process of assimilating immigrants into American society. Jacob
  Riis was a Danish-born journalist who wrote about the urban poor
  and how the immigrants would live in ethnic neighborhood.
 Despite the valuable contributions immigrants made to building
  America during this period, immigrants often faced hardship and
  hostility. There was fear and resentment that immigrants would
  take jobs for lower pay than American workers, and there was
  prejudice based on religious and cultural differences.
 Mounting resentment led Congress to limit immigration, through the
  Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and Immigration Restriction Act of
  1921. These laws are Nativism, which is discrimination against immigrants.
 JANE ADDAMS founded the Hull House in Chicago. It was a
  settlement house to help immigrants adjust to life in the city and to
  help the poor.
Growth of Cities
 As the nation’s industrial growth continued, cities such as Chicago,
  Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York grew rapidly as
  manufacturing and transportation centers. Factories in the large
  cities provided jobs, but workers’ families often lived harsh
  conditions crowded into tenements and slums. Tenements were
  apartment buildings with small narrow apartments. Often they had
  no windows and ventilation was poor. There were no fire escapes and
  no fire extinguishers. Sometimes the walls were covered in
  newspaper or fabric. Many row houses and smaller tenements were
  built with wood and other flammable materials. Needless to say it
  was quite dangerous.
 The rapid growth of cities caused housing shortages and the need for
  new public services, such as crime, fire, sewage, water systems and
  public transportation. New York City began construction of the
  world’s first subway system around the turn of the 20th century, and
  many cities built trolley or streetcar lines. The American people
  embraced the trolley with extraordinary rapidity and enthusiasm. In
  1890, when the federal government first canvassed the nation's rail
  systems, it enumerated 5,700 miles of track, 500 miles for cable cars,
  and 1,260 for the trolley. By 1893, only six years after Frank Julian
  Sprague successful Richmond experiment, more than 250 electric
  railways had been incorporated in the United States, and more than
  60 percent of the nation's 12,000 miles of track had been electrified.
   By the end of 1903 America's 30,000 miles of street railway were 98
   percent electrified. It was one of the most rapidly accepted
   innovations in the history of technology.



What fueled the modern industrial economy?

Technological change spurred growth of industry primarily in northern
cities.
Inventions/Innovations
 Corporation (limited liability)
    1. Horizontal integration- is when business activity involved the
        merger of two similar companies.
    2. Vertical Integration- is where you own the resources,
        transportation and the Manufacturing.

 Bessemer steel process a cheaper and faster production of Quality
   Steel
 __Edwin Drake_ was the first person to drill for Oil in the US. He
   will do it in Titusville Pennsylvania.
 Light bulb (Thomas Edison) and electricity as a source of power and
   light also he invented the microphone, and motion picture camera
 The Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell
 George Westinghouse- he will invent the air brakes for railroad cars.
 Alexander Miles did not invent the first elevator, however, his design
   was very important. Alexander Miles improved the method of the
   opening and closing of elevator doors; and he improved the closing of
   the openinfg to the elevator shaft when an elevator was not on that
   floor.
 TYPEWRITERS (Christopher Sholes), which help, create
   opportunities for women in clerical jobs.
 Elias Howe invented the sewing machine for the textile industry.
Industrial Leaders Nickname: _ Robber Barons
These leaders will use Social Darwinism, which justify poverty, the
success of Big Business, and the power of Millionaire Businessmen to
accumulate their great wealth.
 Andrew Carnegie made his fortune in the steel industry (Carnegie
   steel). He will write a book call the THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH
   that talk about giving back to the community .
 J.P. Morgan (finance) brought out Carnegie Steel and formed U.S.
  Steel. US. Steel was a holding company, which is a cooperation
  formed to buy the stock of other companies and thus creates a
  monopoly. In 1894, foreign investors became nervous that the
  Populists would prevail and inflate the money supply, which would
  cause their dollar-denominated bonds to lose value. European
  investors started selling bonds for gold and physically shipping the
  gold to London. At the end of 1894, the U.S. gold reserve plunged
  from $100 million to $45 million. In early 1895, gold losses reached
  $2 million per day, and the U.S. government faced a crisis not unlike
  the one that forced several Asian countries to devalue their
  currencies two years ago. Morgan and several other bankers met
  with President Cleveland in February 1895, the day gold reserves
  dropped to only $9 million, with claims of $12 million against the
  gold. A U.S. government default was only a day away. Morgan's
  group figured out a way to sell $62 million in new gold-backed bonds
  without Congressional approval...and saved the government...U.S.
  gold reserves rebounded back over $100 million by June. Despite this
  triumph, Morgan and Rothschild, the two syndicate managers, were
  vilified in the press and by Congress...
 John D. Rockefeller he was a oil tycoon that found Standard Oil. He
  will use Horizontal integration to achieve Standard Oil.
 Cornelius Vanderbilt-will be one the leaders of the consolidation of
  railroad lines. His family is generous with their wealth

Reasons for economic transformation
 Government policies of laissez-faire capitalism which is no
  restrictions on business and special considerations (e.g., land grants
  to railroad builders) The Republican party will support this
  philosophy
 The increasing labor supply (from immigration and migration from
  farms)
 America’s possession of a wealth of natural resources and navigable
   rivers

Journalist
 Muckrakers are journalists who exposed corruption in Government,
   business and Society.
   1. Upton Sinclair wrote the book the Jungle. It was responsible for
      getting the pure drug and Food Act and the Meat Inspection Act
      passed by the Federal government.
   2. Ira Tarbell wrote about the corruption at Standard Oil in major
      newspaper article.
   3. William Randolph Hearst was the owner of the NY Mourning
      Journal that printed exaggerated stories to sell papers
   4. Joseph Pulitzer was a Hungarian immigrant who became the
      Publisher of the NY World

Impact of labor unions
 Organizations
  Knights of Labor made membership available to every worker who
  wanted it.
  American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers) this combine
  several unions into one. Their were skilled trade unions.
  American Railway Union was found by Eugene V. Debs who belief in
  socialism. It works for better conditions for railway workers.
  Mother Jones will help organized mines to fight for better working
  conditions
 Strikes
  The Great strike of 1877- It involved workers for the railroad
  company protesting a cut in wages. It is the first organize strike in
  our country history. There are over 80,000 workers from 11 different
  states. President Hayes will have to use the army to reopen the
  railroads and stop the violence.
  Haymarket Affair - a violent affair in Chicago a clash between
  strikers and police. Police will enter a strike rally calling for 8-hour
  days. Someone will throw a bomb and police will open fire. 11 people
  in all die and the police will arrest 8 German immigrants who believe
  in anarchy. They will be convicted and executed. This led to a
  decline in union membership. Every one blames union leadership for
  the problems.
  Pullman Strike- was over working conditions and controls in the
  company town. In 1893 a depression struck the United States causing
  the Pullman Company to slash wages. The wages made it difficult for
  workers to pay their rent or the high prices at the company store.
  Mr. Pullman will fire three workers who complained a strike began.
  Determined to break the strike the company arranged for U.S mail
  cars to be attached. President Cleveland will send in troops to help
    deliver the mail. A court will order an injunction to stop the strike
    and both the strike and the American railway union collapsed.

 Gains
   Limited work hours down to 10 hours or less
   Regulated work conditions
 Terms
   Strike-this is were workers don’t go to workers to protest wages,
   working conditions and benefits.
   Negotiation- a discussion intended to produce an agreement usual
   between labor and management
   Closed Shops- a system in which companies could hire only unoin
   members.
    A yellow-dog contract- is a requirement by a firm that the worker
   agree not to engage in collective labor action.
   Mediation -negotiation to resolve differences conducted by some
   impartial party
   Lockout-a method use by employers to prevent unions from forming
   Scabs- A slang term for a strike-breaker
     Blacklist- a list of people who tried to organize a union or strike and
were considered troublemakers by employers
    Injunction - a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party
from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
Antitrust Laws
 Sherman Anti-Trust Act—Prevents any business structure that
  “restrains trade”, (monopolies) first law use to break-ups trusts
 Clayton Anti-Trust Act; ---Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act;
  outlaws price-fixing; exempts unions from Sherman Act

    Presidents and their roles
   President Ulysses S. Grant was leading the Untied States during one
    of the most corrupt time in our nation. The time was the Gilded Age
    were things look good on the surface but below there was corruption,
    Mark Twain coined this term. During Grant’s Administration the
    Credit Mobilier Scandal happen. The Union Pacific Railroad
    Company created a construction company and gives it contracts, at
    twice the actual cost. Whisky Ring Scandal; this will happen because
    members of Grants Administration will file false tax returns on
    income earn by the sell of Whisky.
 President Hayes started to reform the government by instituting the
   civil service system. This help to slow down the corrupt practice of
   Patronage. That is were politicians appointed nonqualified people to
   government job.
 President Garfield will be shot and killed by a person who he rejects
   for a government job. This will lead to passage of the Pendleton Act,
   which created a Merit System for those people wanting Federal
   Government jobs.
 Grover Cleveland is a democrat who will serve two nonconsecutive
   terms as president. Republican Benjamin Harrison will run twice
   against Grover Cleveland and win once. Cleveland will receive
   support from the Mugwumps who were Republican reformers. He
   also will help end the Pullman strike.
 William McKinley will become president on monetary system base
   on Gold. He will face William Jennings Bryan in the Election of 1896.
   Bryan is both the Populists and Democrats Candidate for President.
   The Democrats want a monetary system base on both gold and silver
   known as Bimetallism.
One problem facing the Unites States was the political machines that
were an informal political group designed to gain and keep power. An
example of the political machines was Tammany Hall in New York City.
Boss Tweed was one of the more famous examples of a political machine
boss. The Tweed Courthouse is the legacy of Tammany Hall boss
William M. Tweed, who used the construction of the building to
embezzle large sums from the budget. Boss Tweed was tried in 1873 in
an unfinished courtroom in this building and was convicted and jailed.
After the Tweed Ring was broken up, work stopped on the building
from 1872 to 1876. Construction progressed slowly after the Tweed
years, and it was not until 1881 that the building was finally completed.
Thomas Nast was a political cartoonist who brought to everyone
attention that corruption of political machines in his cartoons. He
especially targets Boss Tweed. One way to keep political machine from
influencing the voters was the secret ballot. Which is a voting method in
which a voter's choices are confidential. The key aim is to ensure the
voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the
voter by intimidation or bribery. It is also known as the Australian
ballot, because it originated in Australia during the 1850s.
Terms
   Referendum- is where you vote on the initiative
   Initiative- is a bill that is launch by the citizens
   Recall- a procedure for removing public officials from office
   Graft –getting of money through dishonest or questionable means.
   Mugwumps- political reformers of the Republican party who vote
    for Grover Cleveland instead of James Blaine of Maine in the
    election of 1884.

								
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