Answer Key Goal # 5 COMPETENCY GOAL 5: Becoming an Industrial Society (1877-1900) - The learner will describe innovations in technology and business practices and assess their impact on economic, political, and social life in America. Objectives 5.01 Evaluate the influence of immigration and rapid industrialization on urban life. 5.02 Explain how business and industrial leaders accumulated wealth and wielded political and economic power. 5.03 Assess the impact of labor unions on industry and the lives of workers. 5.04 Describe the changing role of government in economic and political affairs. Immigrants flock to America. Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from northern and western Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden). During the half-century from 1871 until 1921, most immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe ( Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, and present day Hungary and Yugoslavia), as well as Asia (China and Japan who move to the west coast most of the time). A large number of Jews came from Eastern Europe to escape religious persecution Like earlier immigrants, these immigrants came to America seeking freedom and better lives for their families. Immigrants made valuable contributions to the dramatic industrial growth of America during this period. Chinese workers helped to build the Transcontinental Railroad, which help influenced the West Coast the most . Immigrants worked in textile and steel mills in the Northeast, the clothing industry in New York City, and Slavs, Italians, and Poles worked in the coalmines of the East. They often worked for very low pay and in dangerous working conditions to help build the nation’s industrial strength. During this period, immigrants from Europe entered America through Ellis Island in New York harbor. Their first view of America was often the Statue of Liberty, standing nearby, as their ships arrived following the voyage across the Atlantic. Immigrants will move in Dumbbell tenements that are very small and very dark. Tenements are house that share walls with other buildings and two families normally lived on each floor. Immigrants began the process of assimilation into what was termed the American “melting pot.” While often settling in ethnic neighborhoods in the growing cities, they and their children worked hard to learn English, adopts American customs, and become American citizens. The public schools served and essential role in the process of assimilating immigrants into American society. Jacob Riis was a Danish-born journalist who wrote about the urban poor and how the immigrants would live in ethnic neighborhood. Despite the valuable contributions immigrants made to building America during this period, immigrants often faced hardship and hostility. There was fear and resentment that immigrants would take jobs for lower pay than American workers, and there was prejudice based on religious and cultural differences. Mounting resentment led Congress to limit immigration, through the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and Immigration Restriction Act of 1921. These laws are Nativism, which is discrimination against immigrants. JANE ADDAMS founded the Hull House in Chicago. It was a settlement house to help immigrants adjust to life in the city and to help the poor. Growth of Cities As the nation’s industrial growth continued, cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York grew rapidly as manufacturing and transportation centers. Factories in the large cities provided jobs, but workers’ families often lived harsh conditions crowded into tenements and slums. Tenements were apartment buildings with small narrow apartments. Often they had no windows and ventilation was poor. There were no fire escapes and no fire extinguishers. Sometimes the walls were covered in newspaper or fabric. Many row houses and smaller tenements were built with wood and other flammable materials. Needless to say it was quite dangerous. The rapid growth of cities caused housing shortages and the need for new public services, such as crime, fire, sewage, water systems and public transportation. New York City began construction of the world’s first subway system around the turn of the 20th century, and many cities built trolley or streetcar lines. The American people embraced the trolley with extraordinary rapidity and enthusiasm. In 1890, when the federal government first canvassed the nation's rail systems, it enumerated 5,700 miles of track, 500 miles for cable cars, and 1,260 for the trolley. By 1893, only six years after Frank Julian Sprague successful Richmond experiment, more than 250 electric railways had been incorporated in the United States, and more than 60 percent of the nation's 12,000 miles of track had been electrified. By the end of 1903 America's 30,000 miles of street railway were 98 percent electrified. It was one of the most rapidly accepted innovations in the history of technology. What fueled the modern industrial economy? Technological change spurred growth of industry primarily in northern cities. Inventions/Innovations Corporation (limited liability) 1. Horizontal integration- is when business activity involved the merger of two similar companies. 2. Vertical Integration- is where you own the resources, transportation and the Manufacturing. Bessemer steel process a cheaper and faster production of Quality Steel __Edwin Drake_ was the first person to drill for Oil in the US. He will do it in Titusville Pennsylvania. Light bulb (Thomas Edison) and electricity as a source of power and light also he invented the microphone, and motion picture camera The Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell George Westinghouse- he will invent the air brakes for railroad cars. Alexander Miles did not invent the first elevator, however, his design was very important. Alexander Miles improved the method of the opening and closing of elevator doors; and he improved the closing of the openinfg to the elevator shaft when an elevator was not on that floor. TYPEWRITERS (Christopher Sholes), which help, create opportunities for women in clerical jobs. Elias Howe invented the sewing machine for the textile industry. Industrial Leaders Nickname: _ Robber Barons These leaders will use Social Darwinism, which justify poverty, the success of Big Business, and the power of Millionaire Businessmen to accumulate their great wealth. Andrew Carnegie made his fortune in the steel industry (Carnegie steel). He will write a book call the THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH that talk about giving back to the community . J.P. Morgan (finance) brought out Carnegie Steel and formed U.S. Steel. US. Steel was a holding company, which is a cooperation formed to buy the stock of other companies and thus creates a monopoly. In 1894, foreign investors became nervous that the Populists would prevail and inflate the money supply, which would cause their dollar-denominated bonds to lose value. European investors started selling bonds for gold and physically shipping the gold to London. At the end of 1894, the U.S. gold reserve plunged from $100 million to $45 million. In early 1895, gold losses reached $2 million per day, and the U.S. government faced a crisis not unlike the one that forced several Asian countries to devalue their currencies two years ago. Morgan and several other bankers met with President Cleveland in February 1895, the day gold reserves dropped to only $9 million, with claims of $12 million against the gold. A U.S. government default was only a day away. Morgan's group figured out a way to sell $62 million in new gold-backed bonds without Congressional approval...and saved the government...U.S. gold reserves rebounded back over $100 million by June. Despite this triumph, Morgan and Rothschild, the two syndicate managers, were vilified in the press and by Congress... John D. Rockefeller he was a oil tycoon that found Standard Oil. He will use Horizontal integration to achieve Standard Oil. Cornelius Vanderbilt-will be one the leaders of the consolidation of railroad lines. His family is generous with their wealth Reasons for economic transformation Government policies of laissez-faire capitalism which is no restrictions on business and special considerations (e.g., land grants to railroad builders) The Republican party will support this philosophy The increasing labor supply (from immigration and migration from farms) America’s possession of a wealth of natural resources and navigable rivers Journalist Muckrakers are journalists who exposed corruption in Government, business and Society. 1. Upton Sinclair wrote the book the Jungle. It was responsible for getting the pure drug and Food Act and the Meat Inspection Act passed by the Federal government. 2. Ira Tarbell wrote about the corruption at Standard Oil in major newspaper article. 3. William Randolph Hearst was the owner of the NY Mourning Journal that printed exaggerated stories to sell papers 4. Joseph Pulitzer was a Hungarian immigrant who became the Publisher of the NY World Impact of labor unions Organizations Knights of Labor made membership available to every worker who wanted it. American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers) this combine several unions into one. Their were skilled trade unions. American Railway Union was found by Eugene V. Debs who belief in socialism. It works for better conditions for railway workers. Mother Jones will help organized mines to fight for better working conditions Strikes The Great strike of 1877- It involved workers for the railroad company protesting a cut in wages. It is the first organize strike in our country history. There are over 80,000 workers from 11 different states. President Hayes will have to use the army to reopen the railroads and stop the violence. Haymarket Affair - a violent affair in Chicago a clash between strikers and police. Police will enter a strike rally calling for 8-hour days. Someone will throw a bomb and police will open fire. 11 people in all die and the police will arrest 8 German immigrants who believe in anarchy. They will be convicted and executed. This led to a decline in union membership. Every one blames union leadership for the problems. Pullman Strike- was over working conditions and controls in the company town. In 1893 a depression struck the United States causing the Pullman Company to slash wages. The wages made it difficult for workers to pay their rent or the high prices at the company store. Mr. Pullman will fire three workers who complained a strike began. Determined to break the strike the company arranged for U.S mail cars to be attached. President Cleveland will send in troops to help deliver the mail. A court will order an injunction to stop the strike and both the strike and the American railway union collapsed. Gains Limited work hours down to 10 hours or less Regulated work conditions Terms Strike-this is were workers don’t go to workers to protest wages, working conditions and benefits. Negotiation- a discussion intended to produce an agreement usual between labor and management Closed Shops- a system in which companies could hire only unoin members. A yellow-dog contract- is a requirement by a firm that the worker agree not to engage in collective labor action. Mediation -negotiation to resolve differences conducted by some impartial party Lockout-a method use by employers to prevent unions from forming Scabs- A slang term for a strike-breaker Blacklist- a list of people who tried to organize a union or strike and were considered troublemakers by employers Injunction - a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity Antitrust Laws Sherman Anti-Trust Act—Prevents any business structure that “restrains trade”, (monopolies) first law use to break-ups trusts Clayton Anti-Trust Act; ---Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unions from Sherman Act Presidents and their roles President Ulysses S. Grant was leading the Untied States during one of the most corrupt time in our nation. The time was the Gilded Age were things look good on the surface but below there was corruption, Mark Twain coined this term. During Grant’s Administration the Credit Mobilier Scandal happen. The Union Pacific Railroad Company created a construction company and gives it contracts, at twice the actual cost. Whisky Ring Scandal; this will happen because members of Grants Administration will file false tax returns on income earn by the sell of Whisky. President Hayes started to reform the government by instituting the civil service system. This help to slow down the corrupt practice of Patronage. That is were politicians appointed nonqualified people to government job. President Garfield will be shot and killed by a person who he rejects for a government job. This will lead to passage of the Pendleton Act, which created a Merit System for those people wanting Federal Government jobs. Grover Cleveland is a democrat who will serve two nonconsecutive terms as president. Republican Benjamin Harrison will run twice against Grover Cleveland and win once. Cleveland will receive support from the Mugwumps who were Republican reformers. He also will help end the Pullman strike. William McKinley will become president on monetary system base on Gold. He will face William Jennings Bryan in the Election of 1896. Bryan is both the Populists and Democrats Candidate for President. The Democrats want a monetary system base on both gold and silver known as Bimetallism. One problem facing the Unites States was the political machines that were an informal political group designed to gain and keep power. An example of the political machines was Tammany Hall in New York City. Boss Tweed was one of the more famous examples of a political machine boss. The Tweed Courthouse is the legacy of Tammany Hall boss William M. Tweed, who used the construction of the building to embezzle large sums from the budget. Boss Tweed was tried in 1873 in an unfinished courtroom in this building and was convicted and jailed. After the Tweed Ring was broken up, work stopped on the building from 1872 to 1876. Construction progressed slowly after the Tweed years, and it was not until 1881 that the building was finally completed. Thomas Nast was a political cartoonist who brought to everyone attention that corruption of political machines in his cartoons. He especially targets Boss Tweed. One way to keep political machine from influencing the voters was the secret ballot. Which is a voting method in which a voter's choices are confidential. The key aim is to ensure the voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or bribery. It is also known as the Australian ballot, because it originated in Australia during the 1850s. Terms Referendum- is where you vote on the initiative Initiative- is a bill that is launch by the citizens Recall- a procedure for removing public officials from office Graft –getting of money through dishonest or questionable means. Mugwumps- political reformers of the Republican party who vote for Grover Cleveland instead of James Blaine of Maine in the election of 1884.
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