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Crossing the Fields by U5M4Wq

VIEWS: 52 PAGES: 33

									Origin and Dispersal of
   Modern Humans

  Homo sapiens sapiens
      Homo sapiens sapiens
Members of early Homo sapiens sapiens are
our direct kin.
They were much like us skeletally, genetically,
and (most likely) behaviorally.
They were the first hominids that we can
confidently refer to as “fully human.”
Modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa around
150 k.y.a. and then dispersed to the rest of the
Old World and Australia and then later into the
Americas.
  These first modern humans are clearly the
  descendents of the previously discussed pre-
  modern humans.
The primary questions that need to be
addressed are:
  When did modern humans first appear?
  Where did the transition take place?
  What was the pace of the evolutionary change?
  How did the dispersal of modern humans to
  other areas of the world take place?
Early Modern Homo sapiens Discoveries
     from Africa and the Near East
             Dates (y.a.)   Human Remains
   Site


  Qafzeh                     20 individuals
               110,000
  (Israel)                    (minimum)



   Skhu-l                    10 individuals
               115,000
  (Israel)                    (minimum)
Early Modern Homo sapiens Discoveries
     From Africa and the Near East
                   Dates (y.a.)     Human Remains
      Site


   Omo-Kibish                          Cranium and
                  120,000–80,000?
    (Ethiopia)                      postcranial remains


  Klasies River
                                    Several individuals;
  Mouth (South       120,000?
                                       fragmentary
     Africa)
Time Line of Homo sapiens sapiens Discoveries
    Early Modern Homo sapiens
Discoveries - Europe, Asia, Australia

                   Dates (y.a.)   Human Remains
      Site
 Abrigo do Lagar
                                  4-year -old child’s
      Velho          24,500
                                      skeleton
   (Portugal)
   Cro-Magnon
                     30,000         8 individuals
     (France)
    Early Modern Homo sapiens
Discoveries - Europe, Asia, Australia
                  Dates
                              Human Remains
      Site        (y.a.)
     Ordos
                 50,000
   (Mongolia,                     1 individual
     China)
                            More than 40 individuals
  Kow Swamp      14,000-
                               (adults, juveniles,
   (Australia)    9,000
                                    infants)
  Lake Mungo
                 ?60,000-     3 individuals, one a
   (Australia)
                  30,000           cremation
Cro Magnon
     Species:    Homo sapiens

      Age:       ~30,000 years

     Date of
                  March 1868
    Discovery:
                  Les Eyzies,
    Location:     Dordongne,
                    France
    Discovered
                  Louis Lartet
        by:
Skuhl 5
    Species:          Homo sapiens


         Age:         ~ 90,000 years

        Date of
                       May 2, 1932
       Discovery:

                      Mount Carmel,
       Location:
                         Israel

                      T. McCown and
     Discovered by:
                       H. Moivus, Jr.
    Technology and Art in the Upper
             Paleolithic
In Europe, the Upper Paleolithic began about
40 k.y.a. and this cultural period is divided into
5 different industries:
  Chatelperronian
  Aurignacian
  Gravettian
  Solutrean
  Magdalenian
      Cultural Periods of the
    European Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
                      Cultural Periods
  (beginnings)

     17,000         Magdalenian Solutrean
     21,000              Gravettian
     27,000             Aurignacian
     40,000           Chatelperronian


     Middle
    Paleolithic          Mousterian
Starting about 30 k.y.a., there was a warming
trend that produced tundra and steppe
throughout much of Eurasia, creating a
“hunter’s paradise” of plentiful large game.
  The Upper Paleolithic people became very
  successful, and this period saw the highest human
  population densities up to that time in Europe and
  perhaps Africa.
Cultural innovations in Eurasia such as
warmer, better-fitting sewn clothing allowed
Upper Paleolithic peoples to occupy eastern
Europe and northern Asia for the first time.
  The warming trend ended about 20 k.y.a. as
  the last, most intense period of glaciation
  began.
Upper Paleolithic Tools
Upper Paleolithic Tools
The Upper Paleolithic is distinguished by the
appearance of new tool types as well as the
increased use of materials such as bone, antler,
and ivory.
  The spear thrower, or atlatl, as well as barbed
  harpoons appear during the Magdalenian.
  The punch blade technique provided abundant
  standardized blades that were fashioned into a
  variety of tools such as burins and borers.
   • C. Loring Brace suggests that the reduction of tooth size
     and the decreased protrusion of the face reflect an
     increase in the use of technology for food production.
Upper Paleolithic Tools
 The Punchblade Technique

A large core is selected.
The top portion is
  removed by use of a
  hammerstone.
 The Punchblade Technique

The objective is to create
  a flat surface called a
  striking platform.
 The Punchblade Technique
The core is struck by use
  of a hammer and
  punch (made of bone
  or antler) to remove
  the long narrow flakes
  (called blades).
   The Punchblade
     Technique
The blades can also be
  removed by pressure
  flaking.
The Punchblade Technique
The result is the production of highly consistent
sharp blades.
They can be used, as is, as knives; or can be
modified to make a variety of other tools.
  Upper
Paleolithic
Stone Tool
Efficiency
      Lascaux: Great Hall of the Bulls
The wall decorations in the Great Hall of the Bulls are the most impressive of all Palaeolithic art.
They extend on both sides of the vaulted walls of a sloping floored rotunda.
The vast fresco, covering some twenty meters, is composed of three groups of animals: horses,
bulls and stags. In fact these themes recur repeatedly in the different areas of this underground
sanctuary.




This composition is introduced by a
strange figure, the Unicorn.
                                  The Unicorn seems to be chasing a
                                  herd of horses linked with a large,
                                  partially drawn bull towards the back
                                  of the Hall...




In the opposite direction, a
similar illustration made up of
three more large aurochs
balances this composition...
                                           The meeting point of these two
                                           groupings is a group of small
                                           stags painted in ochre...




The outline of a bear is hidden at
the very center of this composition.
Because of its location in a section
of the bull's belly, it is intentionally
difficult to make out ; only the head,
outline of the back and the right
posterior paw are visible...
The so called “Chinese horses” of Lascaux Cave.
Bahn 1995
Auroch, Lascaux, France (Fagan, 2004)
Polychrome bison, Altamira, Spain (12,000B.C.)
Bahn, 1995

								
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