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					Danielle Cook
 A haven or sanctuary for animals; an area of land or of land
  and water set aside and maintained, usually by the
  government or private organization, for the preservation
  and protection of one or more species of wildlife.

 Wildlife Refuges are found in many different habitats
  including: wetlands, prairies, marshes, ponds, forestlands,
  or lakes.

 Wildlife Refuges are now managed by the U.S. Fish and
  Wildlife Service.
   1903- Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed that Pelican Island along Florida’s coastline was to be the first
    -Many other Refuges followed shortly after:
        Breton, Louisiana(1904), Passage Key, Florida (1905), Shell Keys, Louisiana(1907), &Key West, Florida (1908).

   1913- Migratory bird Act-protected migratory bird species.

   1934- The Duck Stamp Act
    -Provided a continuing source of revenue to continue the preservation of bird habitat.

   1934- President Franklin Roosevelt appointed a team:
     Jay Norwood “Ding” Darling, Thomas Beck, and Aldo Leopold to study advised him on waterfowl needs.
         - This group alerted the Nation, as no other group had done before, to the crisis facing the waterfowl
         resource as a result of drought, over-harvest and habitat destruction.

   1956-Fish and Wildlife Act
    -broadened the authority to develop new Refuges.

   1997- National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act- stated that it should be a national system
    of lands and waters, devoted to conserving wildlife and maintaining the biological integrity of
 There are more than 520 different areas in all the
 United States and Pacific island territories, covering
 over 93 million acres (37.7 million hectares) of land.

 In Washington and Oregon there are 44 reserves.
Wildlife Refuges provide habitat for:
 700 bird species
 220 mammal species
 250 reptile and amphibian species
 more than 200 kinds of fish
 protects 25 percent of all federal threatened and
  endangered species.
As well as Revenue:
  Recreational use on Refuge land has created $1.7
  billion in total economic activity in 2006.
 Ridgefield NWR – Southwest WA

 Nisqually NWR- base of the Puget Sound

 Baskett Slough NWR- Northwest Oregon
 Ridgefield- This 5,217 acre refuge contains a lush mixture of
  seasonal, semi-permanent, and permanent wetlands, grasslands,
  riparian corridors, and forests of Douglas-fir and Oregon white oak.

 Nisqually-3,000 acres of salt and freshwater marshes, grasslands,
  riparian, and mixed forest habitats

 Baskett Slough- 2,492 acre farmed fields, rolling oak-covered hills,
  grass fields, and shallow wetlands are home to many wildlife species.
 Ridgefield- ducks, geese, and swans       as well as wintering bald eagles, visiting
  peregrine falcons and Aleutian Canada geese.

 Nisqually- Waterfowl ,salmon and steelhead, songbirds, woodpeckers, hawks and
  small mammals, great blue heron, as well as bald eagles, osprey, and other birds of prey.
  - 275 migratory bird species that use the refuge for migration, wintering, or breeding.

 Baskett Slough- originally created for migrating Canada geese, but now
  includes: Bald Eagles that winter here, 30 species of mammals, 8 species of
  amphibians, and 10 species of reptiles occur here. The largest remaining population
  of Fender's blue butterfly is found on the refuge.
   Refuge Net,
   U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, America’s National Wildlife Refuge System,
   History of the National Wildlife Refuge System,
   Canada geese at Baskett Slough pic,
   Ridgefield NWR pic,
   Fender’s Blue Butterfly pic,
   All bird pictures on slide 12, Nisqually

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