Ethnography, Phenomenology and Ethnomethodology by U5M4Wq


									Ethnography and Phenomenology
     . . . and a little Ethnomethodology
       Dangerous Minds Mission
Phenomenological Approaches to

        “Research is a caring act”
              van Manen, 1999, p. 5
   Phenomenology is the study of the
    meaning of an experience. It seeks to
    gain an understanding of everyday
    experiences (van Manen, 1990)
Phenomenological research asks the question:
“What is it like to have a certain experience?”

   What is it like to be a mother in prison?
   What is the experience of a beginning teacher?
   What is the experience of being diagnosed with
    breast cancer?
   What is the experience of homelessness?
   What is it like to grow up in poverty?
   Epistemologically phenomenology rejects
    the natural sciences as an appropriate
    foundation for human science inquiry

   The approach is based on personal
    perspective and interpretation
Strengths of Phenomenology
   Rich, first person accounts in conversation and
   Data is gathered in multiple ways
   Cuts through the clutter of taken-for-granted
   Researcher is personally involved, interested
   Holistic, caring methodology
   Writing of stories creates rich text to recreate “lived
Challenges of Phenomenology
   Ethical issues due to the close relationship of
    participants and researcher
   Enormous amount of data, messy to organize and
   Responsibility to accurately reflect “the truth”
   Researcher must be mature, good listener, excellent
   Can be difficult to gain trust of participants.
   Can be uncomfortable if research exposes or challenges
    the status quo
   Can be robust in reporting individual cases, but must be
    tentative when suggesting their extent to a general
Criteria to Ensure Quality Research
    Does not use the terms validity or reliability, rather it
     focuses on rigor, authenticity and believeablity
    Create texts that are authentic, credible, true to the
     voices of the participants
    Use “direct quotes” from the participants to enhance
     authenticity and anecdotes
    Have participants comment on what is heard in
     interviews and read early drafts
    Write, write, write and rewrite. One needs to craft a
     document that reflects the “lived experience” of what
     was observed

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